JWARP  Vol.10 No.7 , July 2018
THMs Precursor Removal Efficiency from Different Wastewater Treatment Technologies Effluents
Abstract: Treated wastewater is one of the critical practices of sustainable water management. In Palestinian authority region different wastewater technologies are used to produce variety of effluents that are potentially suitable for different purposes. In this study, these different treated wastewater effluents were characterized chemically, biologically, and physically. Results showed that some of these effluents neither comply with Palestinian nor with other global effluent discharge guidelines. Chemical reactivity of five different treated wastewater effluents with chlorine was measured by determining their chlorine demand and total trihalomethane formation potential (TTHMFP). Results showed that different wastewater effluents chemical reactivity with chlorine and TTHMFP is not only dependent on wastewater treatment technology but also is affected by original water source from which was the water emerged. In all cases, measured THMs superseded acceptable drinking water limits. This would indicate responsibility of high percentage of cancer, hepatic and renal diseases among the local people.
Cite this paper: Qurie, M. , Awad, L. and Kanan, A. (2018) THMs Precursor Removal Efficiency from Different Wastewater Treatment Technologies Effluents. Journal of Water Resource and Protection, 10, 637-653. doi: 10.4236/jwarp.2018.107036.

[1]   Glauner, T., et al. (2005) Swimming Pool Water—Fractionation and Genotoxicological Characterization of Organic Constituents. Water Research, 39, 4494-4502.

[2]   Bixio, D., et al. (2008) Water Reclamation and Reuse: Implementation and Management Issues. Desalination, 218, 13-23.

[3]   Bdour, A.N., Hamdi, M.R. and Tarawneh, Z. (2009) Perspectives on Sustainable Wastewater Treatment Technologies and Reuse Options in the Urban Areas of the Mediterranean Region. Desalination, 237, 162-174.

[4]   Singer, P.C. and Chang, S.D. (1989) Correlations between Trihalomethanes and Total Organic Halides Formed during Water Treatment. Journal of American Water Works Association, 1989, 61-65.

[5]   Adams, C., et al. (2005) Trihalomethane and Haloacetic Acid Disinfection By-Products in Full-Scale Drinking Water Systems. Journal of Environmental Engineering, 131, 526-534.

[6]   Kanan, A. and Karanfil, T. (2011) Formation of Disinfection By-Products in Indoor Swimming Pool Water: The Contribution from Filling Water Natural Organic Matter and Swimmer Body Fluids. Water Research, 45, 926-932.

[7]   McDonald, J. (2003) Breakpoint Chlorination Plays Important Role in RO Pretreatment. Ultrapure Water, 20, 36-40.

[8]   Palin, A. (1974) Chemistry of Modern Water Chlorination. Water Services, 78, 7-12.

[9]   WHO (2005) Regional Overview of Wastewater Management and Reuse in the Eastern Mediterranean Region. World Health Organization, Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean Regional, California Environmental Health Association.

[10]   Hsu, Y.-C., et al. (2012) Survey on Production Quality of Electrodialysis Reversal and Reverse Osmosis on Municipal Wastewater Desalination. Water Science and Technology, 66, 2185-2193.

[11]   Chen, B., Kim, Y. and Westerhoff, P. (2011) Occurrence and Treatment of Wastewater-Derived Organic Nitrogen. Water Research, 45, 4641-4650.

[12]   Metcalf, E. and Eddy, E. (2003) Wastewater Engineering: Treatment and Reuse. McGraw Hill Inc., New York.

[13]   Agus, E. and Sedlak, D.L. (2010) Formation and Fate of Chlorination By-Products in Reverse Osmosis Desalination Systems. Water Research, 44, 1616-1626.

[14]   Arana, I., et al. (1999) Chlorination and Ozonation of Waste-Water: Comparative Analysis of Efficacy through the Effect on Escherichia coli Membranes. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 86, 883-883.

[15]   Cotruvo, J., Craun, G.F. and Hearne, N. (1999) Providing Safe Drinking Water in Small Systems: Technology, Operations, and Economics. CRC Press, Boca Raton.

[16]   Sivakamasundari, N., et al. (2014) Optrode Based Polymer for the Estimation of Free Chlorine. Applied Mechanics & Materials, 573, 856-860.

[17]   Organization, W.H. (2006) Guidelines for the Safe Use of Wastewater, Excreta and Greywater. World Health Organization, Vol. 1.

[18]   Sirivedhin, T. and Gray, K.A. (2005) Comparison of the Disinfection By-Product Formation Potentials between a Wastewater Effluent and Surface Waters. Water Research, 39, 1025-1036.

[19]   Marie, A. and Vengosh, A. (2001) Sources of Salinity in Ground Water from Jericho Area, Jordan Valley. Groundwater, 39, 240-248.

[20]   Chowdhury, S., Champagne, P. and McLellan, P.J. (2010) Investigating Effects of Bromide Ions on Trihalomethanes and Developing Model for Predicting Bromodichloromethane in Drinking Water. Water Research, 44, 2349-2359.

[21]   White, G.C. (2010) White’s Handbook of Chlorination and Alternative Disinfectants. Wiley, Hoboken.

[22]   Authority, P.W. (2012) Status Report of Water Resources in the Occupied State of Palestine-2012. Technical Report, Annual Water Resources Status Report.

[23]   Patoczka, J., Tyrrell, P. and Wynne, M. (2011) THMs Control in Wastewater Treatment Plant Effluent. Proceedings of the Water Environment Federation, 3, 189-198.

[24]   Ding, G., et al. (2013) Formation of New Brominated Disinfection Byproducts during Chlorination of Saline Sewage Effluents. Water Research, 47, 2710-2718.

[25]   Victoria, E. (2003) Guidelines for Environmental Management: Use of Reclaimed Water. EPA, Victoria.

[26]   Tsai, S.-S., Chiu, H.-F. and Yang, C.-Y. (2013) Trihalomethanes in Drinking Water and the Risk of Death from Esophageal Cancer: Does Hardness in Drinking Water Matter? Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part A, 76, 120-130.

[27]   Liao, Y.H., et al. (2012) Trihalomethanes in Drinking Water and the Risk of Death from Kidney Cancer: Does Hardness in Drinking Water Matter? Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health Part A: Current Issues, 75, 340-350.

[28]   Ruddick, J., et al. (1983) A Teratological Assessment of Four Trihalomethanes in the Rat. Journal of Environmental Science & Health Part B, 18, 333-349.

[29]   Thompson, D., Warner, S. and Robinson, V. (1974) Teratology Studies on Orally Administered Chloroform in the Rat and Rabbit. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, 29, 348-357.

[30]   Murray, F., et al. (1979) Toxicity of Inhaled Chloroform in Pregnant Mice and Their Offspring. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, 50, 515-522.

[31]   Kanitz, S., et al. (1996) Association between Drinking Water Disinfection and Somatic Parameters at Birth. Environmental Health Perspectives, 104, 516.

[32]   Kramer, M.D., et al. (1992) The Association of Waterborne Chloroform with Intrauterine Growth Retardation. Epidemiology, 3, 407-413.

[33]   Bove, F.J., et al. (1995) Public Drinking Water Contamination and Birth Outcomes. American Journal of Epidemiology, 141, 850-862.

[34]   Gallagher, M.D., et al. (1998) Exposure to Trihalomethanes and Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes. Epidemiology, 9, 484-489.

[35]   Savitz, D.A., Andrews, K.W. and Pastore, L.M. (1995) Drinking Water and Pregnancy Outcome in Central North Carolina: Source, Amount, and Trihalomethane Levels. Environmental Health Perspectives, 103, 592.

[36]   Mink, F., et al. (1983) In Vivo Formation of Halogenated Reaction Products Following Peroral Sodium Hypochlorite. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 30, 394-399.

[37]   Mathews, J., Troxler, P. and Jeffcoat, A. (1990) Metabolism and Distribution of Bromodichloromethane in Rats after Single and Multiple Oral Doses. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part A Current Issues, 30, 15-22.

[38]   Tomasi, A., et al. (1985) Activation of Chloroform and Related Trihalomethanes to Free Radical Intermediates in Isolated Hepatocytes and in the Rat in Vivo as Detected by the ESR-Spin Trapping Technique. Chemico-Biological Interactions, 55, 303-316.

[39]   Gao, P., Thornton-Manning, J.R. and Pegram, R.A. (1996) Protective Effects of Glutathione on Bromodichloromethane in Vivo Toxicity and in Vitro Macromolecular Binding in Fischer 344 Rats. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, 49, 145-159.

[40]   Pompella, A., et al. (2003) The Changing Faces of Glutathione, a Cellular Protagonist. Biochemical Pharmacology, 66, 1499-1503.

[41]   Awad, L., et al. (2016) A New Caged-Glutamine Derivative as a Tool to Control the Assembly of Glutamine-Containing Amyloidogenic Peptides. Chembiochem, 17, 2353-2360.

[42]   Center, P.H.I. (2017) Health Annual Report, Palestine 2016. Ministry of Health, Palestine.