JBM  Vol.6 No.6 , June 2018
Research Progress in Tobacco Fermentation
Abstract: Flue-cured tobacco fermentation is one of the important processes in cigarette manufacturing production. In this thesis, the author interviewed the flue-cured tobacco fermentation mechanism, quality changes of fermentation process, environmental influences on fermentation quality, and fermentation method. By aiming at shortcomings of the current study, the author proposed the near-infrared means to judge the best period of fermentation and provided reference for cigarette enterprises.
Cite this paper: Yang, Y. , Peng, Q. , Ou, M. , Wu, Y. and Fang, J. (2018) Research Progress in Tobacco Fermentation. Journal of Biosciences and Medicines, 6, 105-114. doi: 10.4236/jbm.2018.66008.

[1]   Gong, C.R. (1993) Preliminary Working of Tobacco Raw Materials. China Light Industry Press, Beijing, 183-184.

[2]   Wang, R.X. (2003) Tobacco Chemistry. China Agriculture Press, Beijing, 175.

[3]   Yan, K.L., Wu, Y., Zeng, X.Y., et al. (2011) The Research Progress on Tobacco Fermentation Technology Based on Improving Quality and Reducing Harms. Hubei Agricultural Sciences, 50, 451-453.

[4]   Zhu, D.H., Chen, R., Chen, Z.G., et al. (2001) The Microorganism Changes between Natural Fermentation and Artificial Fermentation Process of Tobacco and the Study on Enzymatic Activity Relationship. Journal of China Tobacco, 7, 26-30.

[5]   Jin, W.B. and Dai, Y. (1994) Tobacco Chemistry. Tsinghua University Press, Beijing.

[6]   Liao, F. (2010) The Study on Excellent Strains of Aroma Enhancement Microorganisms in Tobacco and Fragrance-Induced Technology. Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou.

[7]   Di Giacomo, M., Paolino, M., Silvestro, D., et al. (2007) Microbial Community Structure and Dynamics of Dark Fire-Cured Tobacco Fermentation. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 73, 825-837.

[8]   Wu, X.Y., Liang, S.L. and Han, S.Y., et al. (2014) Diversity of Bacteria in Flue-Cured Tobacco in Different Aging Periods and Development Analysis. Guangdong Agricultural Sciences, 41, 28-33, 38.

[9]   Li, T.L.L., Zhou, Y.W., Tang, C.Q., et al. (2012) The Isolation and Identification and Property Analysis of Nicotine-Decomposing Microorganisms in Tobacco Fermentation Process. Tobacco Technology, 12, 60-67.

[10]   Shan, H.Y., Chen, D.X., Li, J., et al. (2011) Isolation and Identification, Verification and Application of Effectively Decomposing TSNA Strain AS97 on Fermentation Tobacco Surface. Journal of Microorganisms, 51, 1326-1333.

[11]   Wang, J.L., Li, M.Y., Ma, Y.K., et al. (2014) The Study on Degradation of Bacterial Enzymic Preparation on Proteinsin Tobacco. Journal of Agricultural Biotechnology, 22, 486-494.

[12]   Guan, L., Li, T.L., Chen, Z.T., et al. (2013) Separation of Cellulose Degradation Bacteria in Aging Tobacco and Property Study. Chinese Tobacco Science, 34, 103-107.

[13]   Zhao, M.Q. and Li, F.F. (2009) The Application and Prospect of the Technology of Microbe and Enzyme during Tobacco Leaf Fermentation. Chinese Agricultural Science Bulletin, 1, 314-317.

[14]   Zhao, M.Q., Liu, Y., Li, F.F., et al. (2009) The Screening Identification of Dominant Bacteria in Aging Flue-Cured Tobacco and Aroma Enhancement Effect. Journal of Microorganisms, 49, 624-630.

[15]   Zhao, M.Q., Wang, B.X., Qiu, L.Y., et al. (2006) Enzymatic Activity and Relevant Chemical Composition Analysis in Flue-Cured Tobacco in Different Aging Period. Journal of China Agricultural University, 11, 7-10.

[16]   Wu, D.Z., Zhou, Y.H., Li, Z.H., et al. (2010) Changes of Several Compound Contents and Relevant Enzyme in Fermentation Process of Redried Strips. Chinese Tobacco Science, 31, 78-81.

[17]   Qi, L.F., Song, J.Z., Fan, J.Q., et al. (2003) The Best Fermentation Period of Fujian and Yunnan Flue-Cured Tobacco and Suitable Storage Time. Tobacco Technology, 7, 9-12.

[18]   Yan, T.J. (2009) The Quality Changing Tendency of Flue-Cured Tobacco Formula Module in Different Producing-Areas and Fermentation Period Study. Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou, 28-30.

[19]   Qi, L.F., Zhuo, S.C., Song, J.Z., et al. (2010) The Best Fermentation Period of Different Producing-Area Strips and Suitable Storage Time Study. Anhui Agricultural Sciences, 38, 155-157.

[20]   Ren, X. (2014) The Chemical Foundation Study on Color Changes in Tobacco Fermentation Process. Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing.

[21]   Hu, Y.C., Yang, S.Y., Li, Y.Q., et al. (2004) Physicochemical Index Changes of Henan Redried Strips B2F and C3F in Aging Process. Tobacco Technology, 5, 11-15.

[22]   Wang, X.H., Zhao, Y.C., Li, Y.Q., et al. (2004) Physicochemical Index Changes of Yunnan Redried Strips B2F and C3F in Aging Process. Tobacco Technology, 10, 18-20.

[23]   Chen, Y., Yang, J.M., Wang, Y.P., et al. (2016) Influences of Different Warehouse Environments on Relevant Moisture of Strips and Ph Value. Journal of Light Industry, 31, 45-53.

[24]   Yan, K.Y., Gong, Z.L. and Zhang, Y. (2007) The Comparative Analysis of Dried Tobacco pH Value. Tobacco Technology, 6, 49-52.

[25]   Gong, X.W., Duan, Y.Q., Huang, J.W., et al. (2010) The Relevant Study on Main Chemical Compositions and Tobacco Grade and Fermentation Time of Tobacco. Journal of Jiangxi Agricultural University, 32, 31-34, 50.

[26]   Chen, Y., Yang, J.M., Wang, Y.P., et al. (2017) Influences of Different Warehouse Environment on Soluble Sugar and Alkaloid Content. Journal of Southwest Agriculture, 30, 1020-1026.

[27]   Fan, J.Q., Song, J.Z., Chen, W.Z., et al. (2003) Changes of Tobacco Chemical Compositions in Dried Strips in Fermentation Process. Tobacco Technology, 8, 19-22.

[28]   Zhu, D.H., Han, J.F., Zhang, A.P., et al. (1999) The Comparative Study on Influences of Natural Fermentation and Artificial Fermentation on Chemical Composition Changes in Flue-Cured Tobacco. Tobacco Technology, 1, 3-5.

[29]   Li, Y.Q., Hu, Y.C., Song, Y.L., et al. (2004) The Changing Study on Volatile and Semi-Volatile VFA and pH Changing Study on Aging Process of Flue-Cured Tobacco. Spice, Essence and Makeup, 3, 21-24.

[30]   Guo, W.M., Yin, Q.S. and Song, J.Z. (2008) The Research Progress on Tobacco Chromoplast Pigment and Degradation Product. Journal of NC Agriculture, 23, 358-362.

[31]   Zhao, M.Q., Wang, F.F., Zhang, Z.F., et al. (2009) Influences of Different Organic Substances on Chromoplast Pigment and Degradation Products in Flue-Cured Tobacco. Journal of NC Agriculture, 24, 149-152.

[32]   Zhang, Q.M., Zhang, Y. and Lin, J.Q. (2014) Chromoplast Pigment and Chemical Composition Changes in Short-Term Fermentation Process of Flue-Cured Tobacco in Different Varieties. Chinese Tobacco Science, 35, 55-58.

[33]   Srivastava, R.P. and Chaudary, N. (1990) Quantitative Changes in the Polyphenolic Constituents of Dixie Shade Wrapper Tobacco from Harvesting to Ageing. Tobacco Research, 16, 99-102.

[34]   Zhou, H., Shao, H.F., Xu, Z.C., et al. (2009) The Relationship between Redried Strips’ Chemical Compositions and Sensory Quality in Different Fermentation Stages. Journal of Sichuan Agricultural University, 27, 433-439.

[35]   Zhang, C.Y., Peng, Q.R., Yang, M., et al. (2014) Influences of Natural Fermentation on Guizhou Mountainous Region Tobacco Quality. Farming and Cultivation, 2, 27.

[36]   Song, J.Z., Zhang, Z.J., Cheng, Y.L., et al. (2003) Influences of Storage Influences on Fermentation Quality of Flue-Cured Tobacco. Tobacco Technology, 9, 6-8.

[37]   Layten Davis, D. and Nielsen, M.T. (2003) Tobacco-Production, Chemistry and Technology. Chemical Industry Press, Beijing.

[38]   Yan, K.Y. and Zhao, M.Q. (2008) Tobacco Raw Material Science. Science Press, Beijing.

[39]   Chen, W. and Liang, M.K. (2017) Comparison of Different Ventilation Drying System on Applicability of Tobacco Fermentation. Mechanical Manufacturing and Automation, 46, 225-228.

[40]   Zeng, W.L. and Liang, P. (2017) Realization of Tobacco Fermentation Warehouse Temperature and Humidity Control System. Light Industry Technology, 33, 97-98, 100.

[41]   Li, S.M. (2017) The Quality Management Study on Tobacco Fermentation Warehouse Engineering Construction. Mechanical and Electrical Information, 3, 85-87.

[42]   Zhao, F.C. and Li, W.W. (2017) The Application of New-Type Rotary Dehumidifier in Tobacco Fermentation Warehouse. Light Industry Technology, 33, 94-95.

[43]   Liang, M.K., Liu, W. and Xiao, J. (2016) The Applicability of Condensation Heat Recovery Type Pump Temperature Regulation Dehumidification Unit in Tobacco Fermentation. Machine Manufacturing and Automation, 45, 204-207.

[44]   Li, Y.J., Guo, Z.C., Hong, H., et al. (2015) The Application of Independent Temperature and Humidity Control Air-Conditioning System in Tobacco Fermentation Warehouse. Safety, 36, 10-14.

[45]   Zhang, Y., Jin, Z.X. and Zhang, Y.J. (2014) Optimization of Tobacco Fermentation Warehouse Floor System. Technology Notification, 30, 181-183.

[46]   Lin, Y., Xu, Y.G. and Xu, G.H. (2014) The Application of Box Storage Strip RFID System in Fermentation Warehouse Management—Based on Longyan Tobacco Industry Co., Ltd. Logistics Technology, 8, 26-29.

[47]   Wang, G., Zhang, C.M. and Wang, H.Q. (2013) The Optimal Design of Tobacco Fermentation Warehouse Phosphine Absorption System and Air-Conditioning System. Tobacco Technology, 2, 16-19, 23.

[48]   Chen, M.Y. and Ling, Y.Z. (2011) The Tobacco Fermentation Warehouse Distribution Temperature and Humidity Measurement System Design Based on ZigbBee Communication Technology. Journal of Anhui Engineering University, 26, 23-26.

[49]   Ming, W.H., Zhang, H.S., Shi, Z.N., et al. (2015) The New-Type Strips Solar Fermentation Warehouse System. CN204837978U.

[50]   Wang, G., Zhang, C.M. and Wang, H.Q. (2013) The Tobacco Fermentation Phosphine Absorption System and Air-Conditioning System of Optimization Design. Tobacco Technology, 2, 16-23.

[51]   Liang, W., Sun, J.S., Jin, Y.B., et al. (2013) The Approach to Improve Tobacco Fermentation Quality. Tianjin Agriculture Technology, 19, 57-59.

[52]   Li, C.K. (2008) The Microorganism Changes and Application Study on Flue-Cured Tobacco in Natural Fermentation Process. Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing.

[53]   Zhang, T.J., Wang, H.Y., Ren, Y.P., et al. (2010) Influences of Different Packaging on Flue-Cured Tobacco Fermentation Quality. Jiangsu Agriculture Science, 6, 466-468.

[54]   Zhang, J.L., Yang, M.F. and Guan, S.S. (2013) Influences of Adding Enzymic Preparation on Flue-Cured Tobacco in Strips Fermentation Process. Modern Agriculture Technology, 13, 215-217.

[55]   Sun, J.F. (2013) Influences of Different Fermentation Methods and Storage Conditions on Strips Fermentation. Anhui Agriculture Science, 41, 11491-11493.

[56]   Zeng, X.Y., Yang, J.K. and Duan, Y.Q. (2009) Bio-Enzyme of Tobacco and Correlation between Grade and Fermentation Time. Tobacco Technology, 262, 48-51.

[57]   Sun, J.G., Yan, T.J., Shi, H., et al. (2008) The Role of Enzyme in Flue-Cured Fermentation Process and Research Progress on Change Characteristics. Hubei Agriculture Science, 10, 1207-1211.

[58]   Huang, S., Zhou, J.K. and Wang, Z.X. (2016) Influences of Different Nitrogen Concentration Storage on Main Chemical Compositions on Fermentation Strips. Scientific Research, 10, 54-57.

[59]   Zhou, J.K., Wang, Z.X., Sun, H., et al. (2017) Influences of Different Nitrogen Concentration Storage on Sensory Quality of Strips. Industry, 3, 70-72.

[60]   Fan, J.Q., Song, J.Z., Lai, C.L., et al. (2005) The Test of Darkening Tobacco Restrained by Oxygen Reduction in Fermentation Process in Sealing. Tobacco Technology, 221, 26.

[61]   Liu, J. (2016) Influences of Low-Emission Mechanical Regulation Control Method on Strip Cultivation Fermentation. Hubei Agriculture Science, 55, 1739-1743.

[62]   Liu, H.G., Hu, L., Yan, K.L., et al. (2016) Influence Study of Oxygen Content on Fermentation Quality of Redried Strips. Journal of Yunnan Agricultural University (Natural Science), 31, 867-873.

[63]   Xia, B.L. and Yan, C.L. (2007) The Tobacco Fermentation Quality Improved by Bio-Enzyme. Tobacco Technology, 49, 7-13.

[64]   Zhu, D.L., Xie, J.Q., Hu, W.Y., et al. (2013) Fragrance Fungus Separation Metabolism and Application in Tobacco Fermentation. Food Industry, 3, 154-159.

[65]   Huang, L.B., Zeng, J.W., Wu, R.X., et al. (2017) Influences of Atmosphere Regulation Cultivation on Strips Fermentation Quality. Anhui Agriculture Science, 45, 86-89.

[66]   Zhuo, S.C. (2010) Mould Proof Insecticide and Fermentation Effect of Different Oxygen Concentrations for Tobacco Dispensing. Anhui Agriculture Science, 38, 158-160.

[67]   Yang, X.L. (2017) Influences of Strips Exhaust Gas Storage Technology on Tobacco Fermentation Quality (English). Agricultural Science & Technology, 12.

[68]   Yang, X.L., Yang, Y.F., Zhang, J.L., et al. (2017) Influences of Controlled Atmosphere Storage Technology on Strips Fermentation Quality. Henan Agriculture Science, 46, 153-159.

[69]   Yang, B. and Li, L. (2016) Analysis of Suitable Fermentation Time for Tobacco. Modern Agriculture Technology, No. 14, 29-30, 35.

[70]   Xu, H., Qi, B., Sun, T., et al. (2012) Variable Selection in Visible and Near-Infrared Spectra: Application to On-Line Determination of Sugar Content in Pears. Journal of Food Engineering, 109, 142-147.

[71]   ElMasry, G., Sun, D.-W. and Allen, P. (2012) Near-Infrared Hyperspectral Imaging for Predicting Colour, pH and Tenderness of Fresh Beef. Journal of Food Engineering, 110, 127-140.

[72]   Zhou, L.J., Wu, H., Li, J.T., et al. (2012) Determination of Fatty Acids in Broiler Breast Meat by Near-Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy. Meat Science, 90, 658-664.

[73]   Tan, C., Wu, T., Xu, Z., et al. (2013) Determination of Total Sugar in Tobacco by Near-Infrared Spectroscopy and Wavelet Transformation-Based Calibration. Analytical Letters, 46, 171-183.

[74]   Wu, L., Wang, B.X., Yin, Y.F., et al. (2016) Characterization of Tobacco with Near-Infrared Spectroscopy with Competitive Adaptive Reweighted Sampling and Partial Least Squares Discrimination. Analytical Letters, 49, 2290-2300.

[75]   Liu, N., Peng, Q.R., Yang, M., et al. (2014) The Research Study on Tobacco NIR Model Construction Method. Guizhou Agriculture Science, 42, 85-90.

[76]   Zhang, C.H., Hu, Y., Liu, N., et al. (2018) NIR Flue-Cured Tobacco’s Producing Area Judgment Based on PCA and Neural Network. Guizhou Agriculture Science, 46, 109-112.

[77]   Hu, X.Y. (2013) Application of Visible/Near-Infrared Spectra in Modeling of Soil Total Phosphorus. Pedosphere, 23, 417-421.

[78]   Naseer, N., Hong, M.J. and Hong, K.-S. (2014) Online Binary Decision Decoding Using Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy for the Development of Brain-Com- puter Interface. Experimental Brain Research, 232, 555-564.

[79]   Said, M.M., Gibbons, S., Moffat, A.C., et al. (2014) Rapid Detection of Sildenafil Analogue in Eurycomalongifolia Products Using a New Two-Tier Procedure of the Near Infrared (NIR) Spectra Database. Food Chemistry, 158, 296-301.

[80]   Durantin, G., Gagnon, J.F., Tremblay, S., et al. (2014) Using near Infrared Spectroscopy and Heart Rate Variability to Detect Mental Overload. Behavioural Brain Research, 259, 16-23.