ABSTRACT The Ultrafiltration and Reverse Osmosis (UF + RO) membrane system is nowadays frequently used in wastewater reclamation. The almost complete removal of the dissolved elements, however, raises concerns about the suitability of the water treated by this system for agricultural irrigation. This study compared the irrigation qualities of UF + RO permeate and conventional tertiary effluent, using the WHO guidelines. Obtained results indicated slight to moderate degrees of restrictions are required for the reuse of the tertiary effluent as agricultural irrigation water, while no restrictions are needed for the UF + RO permeate. But it had also been found that the UF + RO system unnecessarily deprive the reclaimed water from nutrients and organic matters, which would have been recycled beneficially through agricultural irrigation.
Cite this paper
Abusam, A. and Al-Anzi, B. (2011) Comparison between the irrigation qualities of conventional tertiary and UF + RO advanced treated wastewaters. Agricultural Sciences, 2, 526-532. doi: 10.4236/as.2011.24068.
 Layson, A. and Sorgini, L. (2007) Low-pressure membranes help solve water scarcity. Water, 34, 34-36.
 Sheikh, B., Jaques, R.S. and Cort, R.P. (1987) Reuse of municipal wastewater effluent for irrigation of raw-eaten food crops: A five year field study. Desalination, 67, 245-254.
 Chakrabarti, C. (1995) Residual effect of long-term land application of domestic wastewater. Environmental International, 21, 333-339.
 Toze, S. (2006) Reuse of effluent water: Benefits and risks. Agricultural Water Management, 80, 146-159.
 WHO (2006) Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater, excreta and grey water. Wastewater Use in Agriculture, 2, World Health Organization, Lyon.
 Ayers, R.S. and Westcot, D.W. (1985) Water quality for agriculture. FAO Irrigation and Drainage, Paper 29, Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome.
 Oron, G., Gillerman, L., Bick, A., Buriakovsky, N., Manor, Y., Ben-Yatshak, E., Katz, L. and Hagin, J. (2006) A two stage membrane treatment of secondary effluent for unrestricted reuse and sustainable agricultural production. Desalination, 187, 335-345.
 Schaefer, J. (2001) Reliable water supply by reusing wastewater after membrane treatment. Desalination, 138, 91-92. doi:10.1016/S0011-9164(01)00249-1
 Frenkel, V.S. (2008) Membrane in water and wastewater treatment. Proceedings of the World Environmental and Water Resources Congress, 2008, 316-324.
 Oron, G., Gillerman, L., Buriakovsky, N., Bick, A., Gargir, M., Dolan, Y., Manor, Y., Katz, L. and Hagin, J. (2008) Membrane technology for advanced wastewater reclamation for sustainable agriculture production. Desalination, 218, 170-180.
 Abusam, A. and Shahalam, A. (2010) Comparative assess- ment of advanced membrane treatment of municipal wastewater for reuse in Kuwait. Desalination and Water Treatment, 13, 254-258. doi:10.5004/dwt.2010.1096
 Gagne, D. (2004) Sulaibiya water reuse project begins full operations. Water and Wastewater International, 19, 19-21.
 Mancini, G., Barone, C., Roccaro, P. and Vagliasindi, F.G.A. (2007) The beneficial effects of storage on the quality of wastewater for irrigation: A case study in Sicily. Water Science and Technology, 55, 417-424.
 Barbagallo, S., Cirelli, G. L., Consoli, S. and Somma, F. (2003) Wastewater quality improvement through storage: A case study in Sicily. Water Science and Technology, 47, 169-176.
 APHA (1998) Standard methods for examination of water and wastewater. 20th Edition, American Public Health Association, Washington, DC.
 Pescod, M.B. (1985) Wastewater treatment and use in agriculture. Irrigation and Drainage Paper No. 47, FAO, Rome.
 Alobaidy, A.H.M.J., AL-Sameraiy, M.A., Kadhem, A.J. and Abdul-Majeed, A. (2010) Evaluation of treated municipal wastewater quality for irrigation. Journal of Environmental Protection, 1, 216-225.
 Forth, H.D. (1984) Fundamentals of soils science. 7th Edition, John Wiley and Sons, New York.
 Harussie, Y., Rom, D., Galil, N. and Semiat, R. (2001) Evaluation of membrane processes to reduce the salinity of reclaimed wastewater. Desalination, 137, 71-89.
 Begum, S. and Rasul, M.G. (2009) Reuse of stormwater for watering gardens and plants using green gully—A new stormwater quality improvement device (SQID). Water Air Soil Pollution: Focus, 9, 371-380.
 Tiwari, T.N. and Manzoor, A. (1988) Pollution of subarnarekha river near Jamshedpur and the suitability of its water for irrigation. Indian Journal of Environmental Protection, 8, 494-497.
 Shiekh, B., Jaques, R.S. and Cort, R.P. (1987) Reuse of tertiary municipal wastewater effluent for irrigation of raw eaten food crops: A 5 year study. Desalination, 67, 245-254.