AJIBM  Vol.8 No.6 , June 2018
The Impact of Economic Reform on Political Reform: Jordan as a Model
Abstract: The objective of this study is to identify the impact of economic reform on political reform in Jordan. This is achieved in three stages, commencing with developing the methodological framework of the study. This was followed by creating a theoretical scale of the relationship between economic and political reform by the use of moderating variables, which was applied to the Jordanian experience in the third and final stage of the research. The study results revealed that the economic reform (the independent variable) had a moderate impact on political reform (dependent variable) during the study period (1989-2016). The overall value of the six indices of economic reform was moderate, as was the overall value of the six indices pertinent to political reform. Based on these findings, it can be concluded that Jordan’s political regime is partly free, with restricted democracy that has presently not fully matured, as it suffers from governmental and parliamentary instability, weak political participation, widespread corruption and weak governmental efficiency. The results also suggest lack of political will to achieve the desired reform and absence of an economic vision to lead the country to a better future.
Cite this paper: Salameh, M. , Ananzeh, A. and Daradkah, M. (2018) The Impact of Economic Reform on Political Reform: Jordan as a Model. American Journal of Industrial and Business Management, 8, 1556-1586. doi: 10.4236/ajibm.2018.86105.

[1]   Jordanian Ministry of Planning and International Cooperation. (2017) SETP Background—Reforms: 1989-1999.

[2]   Al-Sayid, A. (2000) Political Participation. Political and Strategic Studies Center, Cairo. (In Arabic)

[3]   Bani Salameh, M. (2018) Political Reform in Jordan: Reality and Aspirations. World Affairs Journal, 180, No. 4.

[4]   Ebied, H. (2013) International Conditionality and Political Reform: Egypt. International Politics, 191, 90-95. (In Arabic)

[5]   Lipset, S. (1959) Some Social Requests of Democracy: Economic Development and Political Legitimacy. American Political Science Review, 53, 69-105.

[6]   Colman, J. (1960) The Political Systems of the Developing Areas. Princeton University Press, Princeton, 532-581.

[7]   Pye, L. (1966) Aspects of Political Development: An Analytical Study. Little Brown, Boston.

[8]   Deutsch, K. (1966) Nationalism and Social Communication: An Inquiry into the Foundation of Nationality. MII Press, Cambridge.

[9]   Learner, D. (1958) The Passing of Traditional Society. Free Press, New York.

[10]   Russett, B. (1993) Grasping the Democratic Peace: Principles for a Post-Cold War World. Princeton University Press, Princeton, 100-105.

[11]   Neabauer, D. (1967) Some Social Conditions of Democracy. Political Science Review, 61, 1002-1009.

[12]   Doucouliagos, H. and Ulubasoglu, M.A. (2008) Democracy and Economic Growth: A Meta-Analysis. American Journal of Political Science, 52, 61-83.

[13]   Moton, H. (2004) The Democracy Advantage: How Democracies Promote Prosperity and Peace. Routledge Publishers, New York, NY, 105.

[14]   Sen, A. (2000) 1933—Development as Freedom. Anchor Books, New York.

[15]   Aljezawi, B. (2013) The Impact of Economic and Social Transformation on the Political Development in Jordan (2001-2012). Yarmouk University, Jordan, 49-52. (Unpublished Master Thesis, in Arabic)

[16]   Khasawneh, M. (2003) The Impact of the Programs of International Financial Institutions on State Sovereignty: Comparative Study between Jordan and Egypt. Cairo University, Cairo, 171-180. (Unpublished Master Thesis, in Arabic)

[17]   Diamond, L. (2001) How People View Democracy Findings from Public Opinion Surveys in Four Regions. Paper Presented to the Stanford Seminar on Democratization, 11 January.

[18]   Brouce, R. (2001) The Relationship between Democracy & Development. Almanar, Amman, 12-14. (In Arabic)

[19]   The Economist. (2017) Democracy Index 2014.\.public\topical report.aspx? campaignid=Democracy0115

[20]   Mohammed, T., Salameh, B. and Shdouh, E. (2018) Feminist Elites in Democratic Jordan 1989-2016. In: Alagan, R. and Aladwaka, S., Ed., Environment, Politics, and Society (Research in Political Sociology, 25), Emerald Publishing Limited, West Yorkshire, 181-201.

[21]   Jordanian Department of Statistics. (2015) National Exports Down.

[22]   Bani Salameh, M. (2017) Political Reform in Jordan: Reality and Aspirations. World Affairs Journal, 180, No. 4.

[23]   Al-Massawi, M. (2014) The Concept of Freedom in Contemporary Islamic Thoughts. Tabyen, 2, 59-66. (In Arabic)

[24]   Bani Salameh, M. and Aananzah, A.A. (2015) Constitutional Reforms in Jordan: A Critical Analysis. Digest of Middle East Studies, 24, 139-160.

[25]   Bani Salameh, M. and Darawsheh, S. (2018) Human Rights in the Jordanian Constitution: Between Theoretical Texts and Practical Application. International Journal of Human Rights and Constitutional Studies, 6.

[26]   Daradkeh, M. (2014) The Impact of Arab Spring: Challenges & Setbacks. Jordanian University, 18-20. (Unpublished Master Thesis, in Arabic)

[27]   Bani Salameh, M. and Eledwan, K. (2016) The Identity Crisis in Jordan—Historical Pathways and Contemporary Debates. Nationalities Papers, 44, No. 6.

[28]   Al-Dostur Newspaper, February 23rd 2014.

[29]   Al-Faisal, M. (2001) The Arabs and the Asian Experience. Economic Studies, 4, 122-125. (In Arabic)