GEP  Vol.6 No.6 , June 2018
Evaluation of Multiple Herbicides for Control of Sponge Plant (Limnobium laevigatum)
Abstract: Sponge plant is an emerging threat that has spread throughout California including the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, which is an important water resource for agriculture as well as critical habitat for a variety of threatened and endangered species. More data are needed on effective control methods for this spreading invader, as current management practices are not preventing proliferation. The overall objectives of this research were to evaluate imazamox, penoxsulam, topramezone, florpyrauxifen-benzyl, and carfentrazone-ethyl for control of sponge plant using three testing scales, as well as compare image analysis software to traditional biomass response for measuring herbicide performance. Overall, 280 g imazamox ha−1 (with one-percent methylated seed oil surfactant) was found as a potent solution for all different growth stages of sponge plant, and 70 g penoxsulam ha−1 as an alternative for control of sponge plant in the seedling and rosette growth stage. The image analysis software yielded similar measurement of herbicide effects as traditional biomass measure. Mesocosm testing indicated imazamox treatment sites should be inspected at four week intervals to identify plants missed by prior applications. This research provides water resource managers critical information for identification of an aquatic invasive species, and selecting an effective rapid management program.
Cite this paper: Willis, B. , Heilman, M. , Bishop, W. and Shuler, S. (2018) Evaluation of Multiple Herbicides for Control of Sponge Plant (Limnobium laevigatum). Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection, 6, 56-64. doi: 10.4236/gep.2018.66004.

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