Back
 MSA  Vol.9 No.7 , June 2018
Graphene Oxide/Multilayer-Graphene Synthesized from Electrochemically Exfoliated Graphite and Its Influence on Mechanical Behavior of Polyurethane Composites
Abstract: Graphene Oxide/Multilayer-Graphene (GO-MG) flakes were obtained using an electrochemically exfoliated graphite (GR) electrode from secondary steel-making industry performed in a two-electrode system using tungsten as the counter electrode and GR as the working electrode. The exfoliated GO-MG flakes were processed and incorporated in an elastomeric polyurethane (PU) matrix. The mechanical properties of the PU/GO-MG composites were evaluated and compared with equivalent composites made of PU/GR powder. From experimental data analysis it was concluded that GO-MG flakes were approximately composed of 67 wt% GO and 33 wt% MG. The number of layers in the graphene flakes was estimated to be between 2 and 5 sheets. PU showed a breaking stress of 570 kPa, while the PU/20wt% GR attained a maximum stress of 750 kPa as compared to PU/10wt% GO-MF composite exhibiting a breaking stress of 1060 kPa.
Cite this paper: Flores-Vélez, L. and Domínguez, O. (2018) Graphene Oxide/Multilayer-Graphene Synthesized from Electrochemically Exfoliated Graphite and Its Influence on Mechanical Behavior of Polyurethane Composites. Materials Sciences and Applications, 9, 565-575. doi: 10.4236/msa.2018.97041.
References

[1]   Pierson, H.O. (1993) Handbook of Carbon, Graphite, Diamond and Fullerenes. Noyes Publications, Saddle River.

[2]   Novoselov, K.S., Geim, A.K., Morozov, J.V., Jiang, D., Zhang, Y., Dubonos, S.V., Grigorieva, I.V. and Firsov, A.A. (2004) Electric Field Effect in Atomically Thin Carbon Films. Science, 306, 666-669.
https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1102896

[3]   Low, C.T.J., Walsh, F.C., Chakrabarti, M.H., Hashim, M.A. and Hussain, M.A. (2013) Electrochemical Approaches to the Production of Graphene Flakes and their Potential Applications. Carbon, 54, 1-21.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbon.2012.11.030

[4]   Zhong, Y.L., Tian, Z. and Simon, G.P. (2015) Scalable Production of Graphene via Wet Chemistry: Progress and Challenges. Materials Today, 18, 73-78.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mattod.2014.08.019

[5]   Bonaccorso, F., Lombardo, A., Hasan, T., Sun, Z., Colombo, L. and Ferrari, A.C. (2012) Production and Processing of Graphene and 2D Crystals. Materials Today, 15, 564-589.
https://doi.org/10.1016/S1369-7021(13)70014-2

[6]   Zhang, Y., Zhang, L. and Zhou, C. (2013) Review of Chemical Vapor Deposition of Graphene and Related Applications. Accounts of Chemical Research, 46, 2329-2339.
https://doi.org/10.1021/ar300203n

[7]   Reina, A., Jia, X., Ho, J., Nezich, D., Son, H., Bulovic, V., Dresselhaus, M. and Kong, J. (2009) Large Area Few-Layer Graphene Films on Arbitrary Substrates by Chemical Vapor Deposition. Nano Letters, 9, 30-35.
https://doi.org/10.1021/nl801827v

[8]   Becerril, H.A., Mao, J., Liu, Z., Stoltenberg, R.M., Bao, Z. and Chen, Y. (2008) Evaluation of Solution-Processed Reduced Graphene Oxide Films as Transparent Conductors. ACS Nano, 2, 463-470.
https://doi.org/10.1021/nn700375n

[9]   De Silva, K.K.H., Huang, H.H., Joshi, R.K. and Yoshimura, M. (2017) Chemical Reduction of Graphene Oxide Using Green Reductants. Carbon, 119, 190-199.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbon.2017.04.025

[10]   Parvez, K., Wu, Z.S., Li, R., Liu, X., Graf, R., Feng, X. and Müllen, K. (2014) Exfoliation of Graphite into Graphene in Aqueous Solutions of Inorganic Salts. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 136, 6083-6091.
https://doi.org/10.1021/ja5017156

[11]   Su, C.Y., Lu, A.Y., Xu, Y., Chen, F.R., Khlobystov, A.N. and Li, L.J. (2011) High-Quality Thin Films from Fast Electrochemical Exfoliation. ACS Nano, 5, 2332-2339.
https://doi.org/10.1021/nn200025p

[12]   Li, L., Li, X., Du, M., et al. (2016) Solid-Phase Coalescence of Electrochemical Exfoliated Graphene Flakes into a Continuous Film on Copper. Chemistry of Materials, 28, 3360-3366.
https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.chemmater.6b00426

[13]   Yadav, S.K. and Cho, J.W. (2013) Functionalized Graphene Nanoplatelets for Enhanced Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Polyurethane Nanocomposites. Applied Surface Science, 266, 360-367.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apsusc.2012.12.028

[14]   Hu, K., Kulkarni, D.D., Choi, I. and Tsukruk, V.V. (2014) Graphene-Polymer Nanocomposites for Structural and Functional Applications. Progress in Polymer Science, 39, 1934-1972.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.progpolymsci.2014.03.001

[15]   Parvez, K., Li, R., Puniredd, S.R., Hernandez, Y., Hinkel, F., Wang, S., Feng, X. and Müllen, K. (2013) Electrochemical Exfoliated Graphene as Solution-Processable, Highly Conductive Electrodes for Organic Electrodes. ACS Nano, 7, 3598-3606.
https://doi.org/10.1021/nn400576v

[16]   Ambrosi, A., Chua, C.K., Khezri, B., Sofer, Z., Webster, R.D. and Pumera, M. (2012) Chemically Reduced Graphene Contains Inherent Metallic Impurities Present in Parent Natural and Synthetic Graphite. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science of the United States of America, 109, 12899-12904.
https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1205388109

[17]   Alam, S.N., Sharma, N. and Kumar, L. (2017) Synthesis of Graphene Oxide (GO) by Modified Hummers Method and Its Thermal Reduction to Obtained Reduced Graphene Oxide (rGO). Graphene, 6, 1-18.
https://doi.org/10.4236/graphene.2017.61001

[18]   Stobinskia, L., Lesiaka, B., Malolepszyc, A., Mazurkiewiczc, M., Mierzwaa, B., Zemekd, J., Jiricekd, P. and Bieloshapka, I. (2014) Graphene Oxide and Reduced Graphene Oxide Studied by the XRD, TEM and Electron Spectroscopy Methods. Journal of Electron Spectroscopy and Related Phenomena, 195, 145-154.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.elspec.2014.07.003

[19]   Cai, M., Thorpe, D., Adamson, D.H. and Schniepp, H.C. (2012) Methods of Graphite Exfoliation. Journal of Materials Chemistry, 22, 24992-25002.
https://doi.org/10.1039/c2jm34517j

[20]   Marcano, D.C., Kosynkin, D.V., Berlin, J.M., Sinitskii, A., Sun, Z., Slesarev, A., Alemany, L.B., Lu, W. and Tour, J.M. (2010) Improved Synthesis of Graphene Oxide. ACS Nano, 4, 4806-4814.
https://doi.org/10.1021/nn1006368

[21]   Thangappan, R., Kalaiselvam, S., Elayaperumal, A. and Jayavel, R. (2014) Synthesis of Graphene Oxide/Vanadium Pentoxide Composite Nanofibers by Electrospinning for Supercapacitors Applications. Solid State Ionics, 268, 321-325.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssi.2014.10.025

[22]   Zhou, Y., Bao, Q., Ling, L.A., Zhong, Y. and Loh, K.P. (2009) Hydrothermal Dehydration for the Green Reduction of Exfoliated Graphene Oxide to Graphene and Demonstration of Tunable Optical Limiting Properties. Chemistry of Materials, 21, 2950-2956.
https://doi.org/10.1021/cm9006603

[23]   Khan, M., et al. (2015) Green Approach for the Effective Reduction of Graphene Oxide Using Salvadora Persica Root Extract. Nanoscale Research Letters, 10, 281-291.
https://doi.org/10.1186/s11671-015-0987-z

[24]   Wang, G., Wang, B., Park, J., Yang, J., Shen, X. and Yao, J. (2009) Synthesis of Enhanced Hydrophilic and Hydrophobic Graphene Oxide Nanosheets by a Solvothermal Method. Carbon, 47, 68-72.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbon.2008.09.002

[25]   Lai, Q., Zhu, S., Luo, X., Zou, M. and Huang, S. (2012) Ultraviolet-Visible Spectroscopy of Graphene Oxides. AIP Advances, 2, Article ID: 032146.

[26]   Yang, D., et al. (2009) Chemical Analysis of Graphene Oxide Films after Heat and Chemical Treatments by X-Ray Photoelectron and Micro-Raman Spectroscopy. Carbon, 47, 145-152.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbon.2008.09.045

[27]   Ferrari, A.C., Meyer, J.C., Scardaci, V., Casiraghi, C., Lazzeri, M., Mauri, F., Piscanec, S., Jiang, D., Novoselov, K.S., Roth, S. and Geim, A.K. (2006) Raman Spectrum of Graphene and Graphene Layers. Physical Review Letters, 97, Article ID: 187401.
https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.97.187401

[28]   Bower, D.I. (2002) An Introduction to Polymer Physics. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

[29]   Cai, D., Yusoh, K. and Song, M. (2009) The Mechanical Properties and Morphology of a Graphite Oxide Nanoplatelet/Polyurethane Composite. Nanotechnology, 20, Article ID: 085712.
https://doi.org/10.1088/0957-4484/20/8/085712

 
 
Top