Health  Vol.10 No.6 , June 2018
The Physical and Clinical Aspects of Radiation Therapy in Skin Cancer and Subcutaneous Tissue Neoplasm
Abstract: Cancers, malignant melanoma and sarcomas of the skin represent the most common group of malignancies in humans. The main treatment method of almost all skin cancers and subcutaneous tissue tumours is surgery, which consists of complete removal of a neoplastic lesion, with an adequate margin of healthy tissue. Radiotherapy plays an adjuvant role in this process, meaning complementing of the surgical procedure. This study compared four methods of irradiation treatment of cancer located in the skin or in subcutaneous tissues: contact brachytherapy, conventional orthovoltage therapy, electron beam conformal teleradiotherapy and IMRT dynamically shaped photonic beams conformal teleradiotherapy. In order to compare the methods and techniques of surface radiotherapy, following specific objectives were formulated. At the beginning in order to compare the scopes of the absorbed doses at different tissue depths, an analysis of parameters describing particular beams or radiation source has been performed—the curves for the absorbed-dose depth drop-offs. Doses distribution in tissue-like phantoms stimulating homogeneous cuboidal tissue block has been determined. A quality comparison of dose distribution in 2D and 3D treatment planning system for contact brachytherapy application has been made. The dose distribution for electron beam in the system has been determined. Conformal plannings for electron beam treatment, contact brachytherapy applicator treatment and 4 photon beams treatment optimized in IMRT technology have been performed. Dose distribution has been performed for the irradiated female patient within the well chest—the target included the recurrence area in the post-operative scar. The radiation therapy with X-rays has actually been completely eliminated from skin cancer and subcutaneous tissue radiotherapy by the electrons generated in linear accelerators, contact brachytherapy HDR and by high-energy photons used in conformal techniques, ex. IMRT. It is because the residual dose beyond the target is the highest for single X-ray beam. Although in brachytherapy HDR a rapid dose drop-off is observed, 5 cm from its normalization level for the target the residual radiation remains at the level of several percent. So, both X-rays beam radiation and brachytherapy in skin cancer treatment is connected with the administration of the dose with a high gradient in the health tissues. The dose distribution for photon conformal techniques IMRT or for electron radiation looks different. There with the dose normalization at the level of 90% or 85% we deal with the dose layer, the division does not exceed 15% of heterogeneity.
Cite this paper: Janiszewska, M. , Raczkowski, M. , Walczak, J. , Składowski, K. and Maciejczyk, A. (2018) The Physical and Clinical Aspects of Radiation Therapy in Skin Cancer and Subcutaneous Tissue Neoplasm. Health, 10, 730-748. doi: 10.4236/health.2018.106056.

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