JBM  Vol.6 No.6 , June 2018
Biopesticides and Their Role in Sustainable Agricultural Production
Abstract: Biopesticides are derivatives of plants, microorganisms and insects. Substances from plants and animals have been used to manage diseases in crops, animals and humans. Reliance on nature to heal nature is a practise for many people around the world. Use of natural products was overtaken by synthetic chemicals due to their efficacy, reliability and quick knock down effect. However, synthetic pesticides have become a health hazards for humans and environment due to their toxicity and pollution. Biopesticides are potential alternatives to synthetic pesticides. Sources of biopesticides are readily available, easily biodegradable, exhibit various modes of action, are less expensive and have low toxicity to humans and non-target organisms. Neem, pyrethrum, cotton and tobacco are known sources of botanical pesticides and have already been commercialized. Other sources of botanical pesticides include garlic, euphorbia, citrus, pepper among others. Species of Trichoderma, Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Beauveria have been commercialized as microbial pesticides. Biopesticides are however faced with challenges of formulation, registration, commercialization, acceptance and adoption. This paper describes several aspects of biopesticide development, including but not limited to, their sources, production, formulation, commercialization, efficacy and role in sustainable agriculture.
Cite this paper: Lengai, G. and Muthomi, J. (2018) Biopesticides and Their Role in Sustainable Agricultural Production. Journal of Biosciences and Medicines, 6, 7-41. doi: 10.4236/jbm.2018.66002.

[1]   Gasic, S. and Tanovic, B. (2013) Biopesticide Formulations, Possibility of Application and Future Trends. Journal Pesticides and Phytomedicine (Belgrade), 2, 97-102.

[2]   Semeniuc, C.A., Pop, C.R. and Rotar, A.M. (2017) Antibacterial Activity and Interactions of Plant Essential Oil Combinations gainst Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Bacteria. Journal of Food and Drug Analysis, 25, 403-408.

[3]   Nefzi, A., Abdallah, B.A.R., Jabnoun-Khiareddine, H., Saidiana-Medimagh, S., Haouala, R. and Danmi-Remadi, M. (2016) Antifungal Activity of Aqueous and Organic Extracts from Withania somnifera L. against Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. radicislycopersici. Journal of Microbial and Biochemical Technology, 8, 144-150.

[4]   Mizubuti, G.S.E., Junior, V.L. and Forbes, G.A. (2007) Management of Late Blight with Alternative Products. Pest Technology, 2, 106-116.

[5]   Ali, A.M., Mohamed, D.S., Shaurub, E.H. and Elsayed, A.M. (2017) Antifeedant Activity and Some Biochemical Effects of Garlic and Lemon Essential Oils on Spodoptera littoralis (Boisduval) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies, 3, 1476-1482.

[6]   Vidyasagar, G.M. and Tabassum, N. (2013) Antifungal Investigations on Plant Essential Oils: A Review. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2, 19-28.

[7]   Kachhawa, D. (2017) Microorganisms as a Biopesticides. Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies, 3, 468-473.

[8]   Vinale, F., Krishnapillai, S., Ghisalbertic, L.E., Marraa, R., Wooa, L.S. and Loritoa, M. (2008) Trichoderma-Plant-Pathogen Interactions. Soil Biology & Biochemistry, 40, 1-10.

[9]   Souza, R., Ambrosini, A. and Passaglia, L.M.P. (2015) Plant Growth-Promoting Bacteria as Inoculants in Agricultural Soils. Genetics and Molecular Biology, 4, 401-419.

[10]   Abbamondi, G.R., Giuseppina, T., Nele, W., Sofie, T., Wouter, S., Panagiotis, G., Carmine, I., Wesley, M.R., Barbara, N. and Jaco, V. (2016) Plant Growth-Promoting Effects of Rhizospheric and Endophytic Bacteria Associated with Different Tomato Cultivars and New Tomato Hybrids. Chemical and Biological Technologies in Agriculture, 1, 1-10.

[11]   Compant, S., Clément, C. and Sessitsch, A. (2009) Plant Growth-Promoting Bacteria in the Rhizo- and Endosphere of Plants: Their Role, Colonization, Mechanisms Involved and Prospects for Utilization. Soil Biology & Biochemistry, 42, 669-678.

[12]   Esitken, A., Yildiz, H.E., Ercisli, S., Donmez, M.F., Turan, M. and Gunes, A. (2009) Effects of Plant Growth Promoting Bacteria (PGPB) on Yield, Growth and Nutrient Contents of Organically Grown Strawberry. Scientia Horticulturae, 124, 62-66.

[13]   Knutson, A. and Ruberson, J. (2015) Field Guide to Predators, Parasites and Pathogens Attacking Insect and Mite Pests of Cotton. In: Smith, E.M., Ed., Texas Cooperative Extension, TX Publication, 136.

[14]   Wu, K., Lin, K., Miao, J. and Zhang, Y. (2005) Field Abundances of Insect Predators and Insect Pests on δ-Endotoxin-Producing Transgenic Cotton in Northern China. Second International Symposium on Biological Control of Arthropods, Davos, 362-368.

[15]   Ghorbani, R., Wilcockson, S. and Leifert, C. (2005) Alternative Treatments for Late Blight Control in Organic Potato: Antagonistic Micro-Organisms and Compost Extracts for Activity against Phytophthora infestans. Potato Research, 48, 181-189.

[16]   Damalas, C.A. and Koutroubas, S.D. (2015) Farmers’ Exposure to Pesticides: Toxicity Types and Ways of Prevention. Toxics, 1, 1-10.

[17]   Kekuda, P.T.R., Akarsh, S., Nawaz, S.A.N., Ranjitha, M.C., Darshini, S.M. and Vidya, P. (2016) In Vitro Antifungal Activity of Some Plants against Bipolaris sarokiniana (Sacc.) Shoem. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences, 6, 331-337.

[18]   Parliman, D.J. (2001) Soil Analyses for 1,3-Dichloropropene (1,3-DCP), Sodium N-Methyldithiocarbamate (Metam-Sodium), and Their Degradation Products near Fort Hall, Idaho, September 1999 through March 2000. Water-Resources Investigations Report 01-4052.

[19]   PAN (2011).

[20]   Morrissey, W.A. (2006) Methyl Bromide and Stratospheric Ozone Depletion. CRS Report for Congress, 1-6.

[21]   Kumari, A., Kumar, K. N. R. and Rao, C. H. N., (2014) Adverse Effects of Chemical Fertilizers and Pesticides on Human Health and Environment. Proceedings National Seminar on Impact of Toxic Metals, Minerals and Solvents leading to Environmental Pollution. Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 3, 150-151.

[22]   Maksymiv, I. (2015) Pesticides: Benefits and Hazards. Journal of Vasyl Stefanyk Precarpathian National University, 1, 70-76.

[23]   Harada, T., Takeda, M., Kojima, S. and Tomiyama, N. (2016) Toxicity and Carcinogenicity of Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT). Toxicological Research, 32, 21.

[24]   Birech, R., Bernhard, F. and Joseph, M. (2006) Towards Reducing Synthetic Pesticides Imports in Favour of Locally Available Botanicals in Kenya. Proceedings International Agricultural Research for Development, Bonn, 8-12.

[25]   Halimatunsadiah, A.B., Norida, M., Omar, D. and Kamarulzaman, N.H. (2016) Application of Pesticide in Pest Management: The Case of Lowland Vegetable Growers. International Food Research Journal, 1, 85-94.

[26]   Prasad, A. and Syed, N. (2010) Evaluating Prospects of Fungal Biopesticide Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) against Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner): An Eco-Safe Strategy for Pesticidal Pollution. Asian Journal of Experimental Biological Sciences, 3, 596-601.

[27]   Ndakidemi, B., Mtei, K. and Ndakidemi, P.A. (2016) Impacts of Synthetic and Botanical Pesticides on Beneficial Insects. Agricultural Sciences, 7, 364-372.

[28]   Jantasorn, A., Moungsrimuangdee, B. and Dethoup, T. (2016) In Vitro Antifungal Activity Evaluation of Five Plant Extracts against Five Plant Pathogenic Fungi Causing Rice and Economic Crop Diseases. Journal of Biopesticides, 1, 1-7.

[29]   Ghorab, M.A. and Khalil, M.S. (2015) Toxicological Effects of Organophosphates Pesticides. International Journal of Environmental Monitoring and Analysis, 4, 218-220.

[30]   Dey, K.R., Choudhury, P. and Dutta, B.K. (2015) Impact of Pesticide Use on the Health of Farmers: A study in Barak Valley, Assam (India). Journal of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, 10, 269-277.

[31]   Alavanja, M.C.R., Ross, M.K. and Bonner, M.R. (2013) Increased Cancer Burden among Pesticide Applicators and others Due to Pesticide Exposure. A Cancer Journal for Clinicians, 63, 120-142.

[32]   Xavier, G., Chandran, M., Naseema, B.S., Mathew, T.B., George, T., Vijayasree, V., Pratheeshkumar, N. and Kumar, S.V. (2016) Persistence of Fenpyroximate in Chilli Pepper (Capsicum annum L.) and Soil and Effect of Processing on Reduction of Residues. Pesticide Research Journal, 2, 145-151.

[33]   Pandey, S., Gill, R.S. and Mandal, K. (2016) Persistence and Efficacy of Spinosad, Indoxacarb and Deltamethrin against Major Insect Pests of Stored Wheat. Pesticide Research Journal, 28, 178-184.

[34]   Business Daily (2014) Regulator Suspends Use of Pesticides on Vegetables. 13 October 2014.

[35]   Business Daily (2013) Chemical Ban Hits Vegetable Exports to the EU Market. 14 February 2013.

[36]   European Commission (2012) Amending Annex I to Regulation (EC) No 669/2009 Implementing Regulation (EC) No 882/2004 of the European Parliament and of the Council as Regards the Increased Level of Official Controls on Imports of Certain Feed and Food of Non-animal Origin. Official Journal of the European Union. L. 350/44. 20/12/2012.

[37]   Business Daily (2014) Illegal Horticulture Exports Risk Kenya’s EU Market. 26 May 2014.

[38]   Daily Nation (2014) Bio-Pesticides in Focus as Safety Concerns Reshape Export Trade. 7 June 2014.

[39]   Daily Nation (2016) Boost for Horticulture as New System Set to Improve Quality. 9 September 2016.

[40]   Chougule, P.M. and Andoji, Y.S. (2016) Antifungal Activity of Some Common Medicinal Plant Extracts against Soil Borne Phytopathogenic Fungi Fusarium oxysporum Causing Wilt of Tomato. International Journal of Development Research, 3, 7030-7033.

[41]   Zarubova, L., Lenka, K., Pavel, N., Miloslav, Z., Ondrej, D. and Skuhrovec, J. (2014) Botanical Pesticides and Their Human Health Safety on the Example of Citrus sinensis Essential Oil and Oulema melanopus under Laboratory Conditions. Mendel Net, 330-336.

[42]   Muthomi, J.W., Lengai, G.M.W., Wagacha, J.M. and Narla, R.D. (2017) In Vitro Activity of Plant Extracts against Some Important Plant Pathogenic Fungi of Tomato. Australian Journal of Crop Science, 6, 683-689.

[43]   Bastas, K.K. (2015) Determination of Antibacterial Efficacies of Plant Extracts on Tomato Bacterial Speck Disease. Journal of Turkish Phytopathology, 1-3, 1-10.

[44]   Salim, H.A., Salman, I.S., Ishtar, I.M. and Hatam, H.H. (2016) Evaluation of Some Plant Extracts for their Nematicidal Properties against Root-Knot Nematode, Meloidogyne sp. Journal of Genetic and Environmental Resources Conservation, 3, 241-244.

[45]   Dar, A.S., Nisar, A.D., Mudasir, A.B. and Mudasir, H.B. (2014) Prospects, Utilization and Challenges of Botanical Pesticides in Sustainable Agriculture. International Journal of Molecular Biology & Biochemistry, 1, 1-14.

[46]   Odhiambo, A.J., Siboe, G.M., Lukhoba, C.W. and Dossaji, F.S. (2009) Antifungal Activity of Crude Extracts of Selected Medicinal Plants Used in Combination in Lake Victoria Basin, Kenya. Plant Product Research Journal, 13, 35-43.

[47]   Javaid, A. and Rehman, A.H. (2011) Antifungal Activity of Leaf Extracts of Some Medicinal Trees against Macrophomina phaseolina. Journal of Medical Plants Research, 13, 2858-2872.

[48]   Bandor, H., Hijazi, A., Rammal, H., Hachem, A., Saad, Z. and Badran, B. (2013) Techniques for the Extraction of Bioactive Compounds from Labanese Urtica diotica. American Journal of Phytomedicine and Clinical Therapeutics, 6, 507-513.

[49]   Mahlo, S.M., Chauk, H.R., McGaw, L.J. and Eloff, J.N. (2013) Antioxidant and Antifungal Activity of Selected Plant Species Used in Traditional Medicine. Journal of medical Plants Research, 33, 2444-2450.

[50]   Wetungu, M.W., Matasyoh, J.C. and Kinyanjui, T. (2014) Antimicrobial Activity of Solvent Extracts from the Leaves of Tarchonanthus camphoratus (Asteraceae). Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, 1, 123-127.

[51]   Sunder, J., Singh, D.R., Jeyakumar, S., Kundu, A. and Kumar, A. (2011) Antibacterial Activity in Solvent Extract of Different Parts of Morinda citrifolia plant. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research, 8, 1404-1407.

[52]   Ahmad, A., Alkarkhi, A.F.M., Hena, S. and Lim, H.K. (2009) Extraction, Separation and Identification of Chemical Ingredients of Elephantopus scaber L. Using Factorial Design of Experiment. International Journal of Chemistry, 1, 36-49.

[53]   Baidoo, P.K., Baidoe-Ansah, D. and Agbonu, I. (2012) Effects of Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) Products on Aphis craccivora and its Predator Harmonia axyridis on Cowpea. American Journal of Experimental Agriculture, 2, 198-206.

[54]   Vinodhini, J. and Malaikozhundan, B. (2011) Efficacy of Neem and Pungam Based Botanical Pesticides on Sucking Pests of Cotton. Indian Journal of Agricultural Research, 4, 341-345.

[55]   Déla, M.A., Koffivi, K.G., Komina, A., Arnaud, A., Phillipe, G. and Adole, I.G. (2014) Evaluation of Neem Leaves-Based Preparation as Insecticidal Agents against the Green Peach Aphid, Myzus persicae (Sternorrhyncha: Aphididae). African Journal of Agricultural Research, 17, 1344-1352.

[56]   Aziz, M.A., Ahmad, M., Nasir, M.F. and Naeem, M. (2013) Efficacy of Different Neem (Azadirachta indica) Products in Comparison with Imidacloprid against English Grain Aphid (Sitobionavenae) on Wheat. International Journal of Agriculture & Biology, 2, 279-284.

[57]   Biswas, G.C. (2013) Comparative Effectiveness of Neem Extracts and Synthetic Organic Insecticide against Mustard Aphid. Bangladesh Journal of Agricultural Research, 2, 181-187.

[58]   Mondali, N.K., Mojumdar, A., Chatterje, S.K., Banerjee, A., Datta, J.K. and Gupta, S. (2009) Antifungal Activities and Chemical Characterization of Neem Leaf Extracts on the Growth of some Selected Fungal Species in Vitro Culture Medium. Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management, 1, 49-53.

[59]   Wang, J., Li, J., Cao, J. and Jiang, W. (2010) Antifungal Activities of Neem (Azadirachta indica) Seed Kernel Extracts on Postharvest Diseases in Fruits. African Journal of Microbiology Research, 11, 1100-1104.

[60]   Al-Hazmi, R.H.M. (2013) Effect of Neem (Azadirachta indica) Leaves and Seeds Extract on the Growth of Six of the Plant Disease Causing Fungi. Global Advanced Research Journal of Microbiology, 5, 89-98.

[61]   Raut, R.R., Sawant, A.R. and Jamge, B.B. (2014) Antimicrobial Activity of Azadirachta indica (Neem) against Pathogenic Microorganisms. Journal of Academia and Industrial Research, 7, 327-329.

[62]   Javed, N., Anwar, S.A., Fyaz, S., Khan, M.M. and Ashfaq, M. (2008) Effects of Neem Formulations Applied as Soil Drenching on the Development of Root-Knot Nematode Meloidogyne javanica on Roots of Tomato. Pakistan Journal of Botany, 2, 905-910.

[63]   Kumar, S. and Khanna, A.S. (2006) Effect of Neem-Based Products on the Root-Knot Nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, and Growth of Tomato. Nematologia Mediterranea, 34, 141-146.

[64]   Castillo-Sánchez, L.E., Jiménez-Osornio, J.J., Delgado-Herrera, M.A., Candelaria-Martínez, B. and Sandoval-Gío, J.J. (2015) Effects of the Hexanic Extract of Neem Azadirachta indica against Adult Whitefly Bemisia tabaci. Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies, 5, 95-99.

[65]   Stanley, J., Preetha, G., Chandrasekaran, S., Gunasekaran, K. and Kuttalam, S. (2014) Efficacy of Neem Oil on Cardamom Thrips, Sciothrips cardamomi Ramk, and Organoleptic Studies. Psyche, 2014, Article ID: 930584.

[66]   Suleiman, E.A. and Abdallah, W.B. (2014) In Vitro Activity of Garlic (Allium sativum) on Some Pathogenic Fungi. European Journal of Medicinal Plants, 10, 1240-1250.

[67]   Aala, F., Yusuf, U.K., Nulit, R. and Rezaie, S. (2014) Inhibitory Effect of Allicin and Garlic Extracts on Growth of Cultured Hyphae. Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences, 17, 150-154.

[68]   Perelló, A., Noll, U. and Slusarenko, A.J. (2013) In Vitro Efficacy of Garlic Extract to Control Fungal Pathogens of Wheat. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, 24, 1809-1817.

[69]   Tawfik, M.M., Sami, R.A. and Eman, T.A. (2000) Effect of Garlic Bulb Extract on the Growth and Enzymatic Activities of Rhizosphere and Rhizoplane Fungi. Mycopathologia, 152, 143-146.

[70]   Alam, S., Han, K.D., Lee, J.M., Hur, H., Shim, J., Chang, K., Lee, T. and Lee, M.W. (2004) In Vitro Effects of Plant Extracts and Phytohormones on Mycelial Growth of Anthracnose Fungi. Mycobiology, 3, 134-138.

[71]   Durairaj, S., Srinivasan, S. and Lakshmanaperumalsamy, P. (2009) In Vitro Antibacterial Activity and Stability of Garlic Extract at Different pH and Temperature. Electronic Journal of Biology, 1, 5-10.

[72]   Khalegi, M., Eshlaghi, B.S. and Ghotaslou, R. (2016) Antibacterial Effects of Azerbaijan Garlic (Allium sativum). Short Communication. Journal of Zoonotic Diseases, 1, 30-34.

[73]   Strika, I., Basic, A. and Halilovic, N. (2016) Antimicrobial Effects of Garlic (Allium sativum L.). Bulletin of the Chemists and Technologists of Bosnia and Herzegovina, 47, 17-20.

[74]   Yang, F., Zhu, F. and Lei, C. (2012) Insecticidal Activities of Garlic Substances against Adults of Grain Moth, Sitotroga cerealella (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). Insect Science, 19, 205-212.

[75]   Plata-Rueda, A., Martínez, L.C., Santos, M.H., Fernandes, F.L., Wilcken, C.F., Soares, M.A., Serrao, J.E. and Zanuncio, J.C. (2017) Insecticidal Activity of Garlic Essential Oil and Their Constituents against the Mealworm Beetle, Tenebrio molitor Linnaeus (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). Scientific Reports, 7, 46406.

[76]   Tiroesele, B., Thomas, K. and Seketeme, S. (2015) Control of Cowpea Weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae), Using Natural Plant Products. Insects, 6, 77-84.

[77]   Baidoo, P.K. and Mochiah, M.B. (2016) Comparing the Effectiveness of Garlic (Allium sativum L.) and Hot Pepper (Capsicum frutescens L.) in the Management of the Major Pests of Cabbage Brassica oleracea (L.). Sustainable Agriculture Research, 2, 83-91.

[78]   Voukeng, I.K., Beng, V.P. and Kuete, V. (2017) Multidrug Resistant Bacteria Are Sensitive to Euphorbia prostrata and Six Others Cameroonian Medicinal Plants Extracts. BMC Research Notes, 10, 321.

[79]   Mohammadi, S., Shandiz, S.A.S., Bigdeli, R., Mahboubi, A., Hedayati, M. and Asgary, V. (2016) Evaluation of Anti-Bacterial Properties of Euphorbia CondylocarpaMethanol Extract. Archives of Microbiology and Immunology, 1, 12-20.

[80]   Abubakar, E.M. (2009) Antibacterial Activity of Crude Extracts of Euphorbia hirta against Some Bacteria Associated with Enteric Infections. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, 7, 498-505.

[81]   Gayathri, A. and Ramesh, K.V. (2013) Antifungal Activity of Euphorbia hirta L. Inflorescence Extract against Aspergillus flavus—A Mode of Action Study. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences, 4, 31-37.

[82]   Ali, S., Sagheer, M., Hassan, M., Abbas, M., Hafeez, F., Farooq, M., Hussain, D., Saleem, M. and Ghaffar, A.B. (2014) Insecticidal Activity of Turmeric (Curcuma longa) and Garlic (Allium sativum) Extracts against Red Flour Beetle, Tribolium castaneum: A Safe Alternative to Insecticides in Stored Commodities. Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies, 3, 201-205.

[83]   Siddiqi, A.R., Rafi, A., Naz, F., Masih, R., Ahmad, I. and Jilani, G. (2011) Effects of Curcuma longa Extracts on Mortality and Fecundity of Bactrocera zonata (Diptera: Tephritidae). Ciênciae Agrotecnologia, 6, 1110-1114.

[84]   Tavares, W.S., Akhtar, Y., Goncalves, G.L.P., Zanuncio, J.C. and Isman, M.B. (2016) Turmeric Powder and Its Derivatives from Curcuma longa Rhizomes: Insecticidal Effects on Cabbage Looper and the Role of Synergists. Scientific Reports, 6, 34093.

[85]   Mohammed, N.A. and Habi, N.Y. (2015) Evaluation of Antimicrobial Activity of Curcumin against Two Oral Bacteria. Automation, Control and Intelligent Systems, 2, 18-21.

[86]   Murthy, N.K., Soumya, K. and Srinivas, K.C. (2015) Antibacterial Activity of Curcuma longa (Turmeric) Plant Extracts against Bacterial Wilt of Tomato Caused by Ralstoniasolanacearum. International Journal of Science and Research, 1, 2136-2141.

[87]   Rawat, S. and Rawat, A. (2015) Antimicrobial Activity of Indian Spices against Pathogenic Bacteria. Advances in Applied Science Research, 3, 185-190.

[88]   Altunatmaz, S.S., Aksu, F.Y., Issa, G., Kahraman, B.B., Altiner, D.D. and Buyukunal, S.K. (2016) Antimicrobial Effects of Curcumin against L. monocytogenes, S. aureus, S. Typhimurium and E. coli O157:H7 Pathogens in Minced Meat. Veterinarni Medicina, 5, 256-262.

[89]   Naz, S., Jabeen, S., Ilyas, S., Manzoor, F., Aslam, F. and Ali, A. (2010) Antibacterial Activity of Curcuma longa Varieties against Different Strains of Bacteria. Pakistan Journal of Botany, 1, 455-462.

[90]   Riaz, T., Khan, S.N. and Javaid, A. (2008) Antifungal Activity of Plant Extracts against Fusariumoxysporum—The Cause of Corm-Rot Disease of Gladiolus. Mycopath, 1&2, 13-15.

[91]   Granja, E.M., Benitez, S.R. and Sanjuanello, D. (2014) Effect of Antagonists and Plant Extracts in the Control of Protea Wilt (F. oxysporum). American Journal of Plant Sciences, 5, 3203-3212.

[92]   Bissa, S. and Bohra, A. (2011) Antibacterial Potential of Pot Marigold. Journal of Microbiology and Antimicrobials, 3, 51-54.

[93]   Jankowska, B., Poniedzialek, M. and Jedrszczyk, E. (2009) Effect of Intercropping White Cabbage with French Marigold (Tagetes patula Nana L.) and Pot Marigold (Calendula officinalis L.) on the Colonization of Plants by Pest Insects. Folia Horticulturae, 95-103.

[94]   Ploeg, A.T. (2002) Effects of Selected Marigold Varieties on Root-Knot Nematodes and Tomato and Melon Yields. The American Phytopathological Society, 5, 505-508.

[95]   Nikkhah, M., Hashemi, M., Mohammad, B., Habibi, N. and Farhoosh, R. (2017) Synergistic Effects of Some Essential Oils against Fungal Spoilage on Pear Fruit. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 257, 285-294.

[96]   Shirurkar, D.D. and Wahegaonkar, N.K. (2012) Antifungal Activity of Selected Plant Derived Oils and Some Fungicides Against Seed Borne Fungi of Maize. European Journal of Experimental Biology, 5, 1693-1696.

[97]   Zhang, Y., Liu, X., Wang, Y., Jiang, P. and Quek, Y.S. (2015) Antibacterial Activity and Mechanism of Cinnamon Essential Oil against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Food Control, 59, 282-289.

[98]   Lu, F., Ding, Y.C., Ye, X.Q. and Ding, Y.T. (2011) Antibacterial Effect of Cinnamon Oil Combined with Thyme or Clove Oil. Agricultural Sciences in China, 9, 1482-1487.

[99]   Kong, Y., Lee, S., Moon, Y., Lee, S. and Ahn, Y. (2007) Nematicidal Activity of Cassia and Cinnamon Oil Compounds and Related Compounds toward Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (Nematoda: Parasitaphelenchidae). Journal of Nematology, 39, 31-36.

[100]   Witkowska, D., Sowińska, J., Zebrowska, J.P. and Mituniewicz, E. (2016) The Antifungal Properties of Peppermint and Thyme Essential Oils Misted in Broiler Houses. Brazilian Journal of Poultry Science, 4, 629-638.

[101]   Moghtader, M. (2012) Antifungal Effects of the Essential Oil from Thymus vulgaris L. and Comparison with Synthetic Thymol on Aspergillus niger. Journal of Yeast and Fungal Research, 6, 83-88.

[102]   Karaca, G., Bilginturan, M. and Olgunsoy, P. (2017) Effects of Some Plant Essential Oils against Fungi on Wheat Seeds. Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, 3, S385-S388.

[103]   Lucas, G.C., Alves, E., Pereira, R.B., José Perina, F. and Magela de Souza, R. (2012) Antibacterial Activity of Essential Oils on Xanthomonas vesicatoria and Control of Bacterial Spot in Tomato. Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira, 3, 351-359.

[104]   Mann, R.S., Tiwari, S., Smoot, J.M., Rouseff, R.L. and Stelinski, L.L. (2012) Repellency and Toxicity of Plant-Based Essential Oils and Their Constituents against Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae). Journal of Applied Entomology, 136, 87-96.

[105]   Abtew, A., Subramanian, S., Cheseto, X., Kreiter, S., Garzia, G.T. and Martin, T. (2015) Repellency of Plant Extracts against the Legume Flower Thrips Megalurothrips sjostedti (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Insects, 6, 608-625.

[106]   Cetintas, R. and Yarba, M.M. (2010) Nematicidal Activity of Five Plant Essential Oils on the Southern Root-knot Nematode, Meloidogyne incognita Race 2. Journal of Animal and veterinary Advances, 2, 222-225.

[107]   Rodríguez-Kábana, R. and Simmons, L. (2005) Fungicidal, Herbicidal, and Nematicidal Activities of Essential Oils in Slow-Release Formulations. Abstracts XXVII Annual Meeting of ONTA, Vina del Mar, Chile.

[108]   Habou, Z.A., Haougui, A., Mergeai, G., Haubruge, E., Toudou, A. and Verheggen, F.J. (2011) Insecticidal Effect of Jatropha curcasOil on the Aphid Aphis fabae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and on the Main Insect Pests Associated with Cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata) in Niger. Tropicultura, 4, 225-229.

[109]   Silva, G.N., Faroni, L.R.A., Sousa, A.H. and Freitas, R.S. (2012) Bioactivity of Jatropha curcas L. to Insect Pests of Stored Products. Journal of Stored Products Research, 48, 111-113.

[110]   Srivastava, S., Kumar, R. and Sinha, A. (2012) Antifungal Activity of Jatropha carcus Oil against Some Seed-Borne Fungi. Plant Pathology Journal, 4, 120-123.

[111]   Rampadarath, S., Puchooa, D. and Jeewon, R. (2016) Jatropha curcas L: Phytochemical, Antimicrobial and Larvicidal Properties. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, 10, 858-865.

[112]   Asif, M., Parihar, K., Rehman, B., Ganai, M.A., Usman, A. and Siddiqui, M.A. (2013) Bio-Efficacy of Some Leaf Extracts on the Inhibition of Egg Hatching and Mortality of Meloidogyne incognita. Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection, 8, 1015-1021.

[113]   Neeraj, G.S., Kumar, A., Ram, S. and Kumar, V. (2017) Evaluation of Nematicidal Activity of Ethanolic Extracts of Medicinal Plants to Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid and White) Chitwood Under Lab Conditions. International Journal of Pure and Applied Bioscience, 5, 827-831.

[114]   Al-Rahmah, A.N., Mostafa, A.A., Abdel-Megeed, A., Yakout, S.M. and Hussein, S.A. (2013) Fungicidal Activities of Certain Methanolic Plant Extracts against Tomato Phytopathogenic Fungi. African Journal of Microbiology Research, 6, 517-524.

[115]   Silva, F.C., Chalfoun, S.M., Siqueira, V.M., Botelho, D.M.S., Lima, N. and Batista, L.R. (2011) Evaluation of Antifungal Activity of Essential Oils against Potentially Mycotoxigenic Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. Brazilian Journal of Pharmacognosy, 5, 1002-1010.

[116]   Ekwenye, U.N. and Elegalam, N.N. (2005) Antibacterial Activity of Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and Garlic (Allium sativum L.) Extracts on Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi. International Journal of Molecular Medicine and Advance Science, 1, 411-416.

[117]   Abid, R. and Butt, S. (2015) Repellent Activity of Cardamom, Ginger and Nutmeg against Certain Insect Pests. International Journal of Zoology and Research, 6, 1-6.

[118]   Rizvi, S.A.H., Hussain, S., Rehman, U.S., Jaffar, S. and Rehman, M.F.U. (2016) Efficacy of Ecofriendly Botanical Extracts of Ginger (Zingiber officinale), Garlic (Allium sativum) and Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) for the Control of Cabbage Looper (Trichoplusiabinotalis) under Agro Ecological Conditions of Peshawar. Pakistan. Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies, 1, 88-90.

[119]   Ayeloja, A.A. and George, F.O.A. (2016) Insecticidal Effects of Natural Preservatives on Insect Pests of Smoked African Mud Catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822). Journal of Food Processing & Technology, 12, 1-5.

[120]   Koul, O. (2011) Microbial Biopesticides: Opportunities and Challenges. CAB Reviews: Perspectives in Agriculture, Veterinary Science, Nutrition and Natural Resources, 6, 056.

[121]   Singh, H.B. (2014) Management of Plant Pathogens with Microorganisms. Proceedings of the Indian National Science Academy, 2, 443-454.

[122]   Suprapta, D.N. (2012) Potential of Microbial Antagonists as Biocontrol Agents against Plant Fungal Pathogens. International Society for Southeast Asian Agricultural Sciences Journal, 2, 1-8.

[123]   Song, C.H., Islam, R.M.D., Jeong, Y.T. and Lee, Y.S. (2012) Isolation and Identification of Antifungal Compounds from Bacillus subtilis c9 Inhibiting the Growth of Plant Pathogenic Fungi. Mycobiology, 1, 59-66.

[124]   Beric, T., Koji, M., Stankovi, S., Topisirovi, L., Degrassi, G., Myers, M., Venturi, V. and Fira, D. (2012) Antimicrobial Activity of Bacillus sp. Natural Isolates and their Potential use in the Biocontrol of Phytopathogenic Bacteria. Food Technology and Biotechnology, 1, 25-31.

[125]   Adan, M.J., Baque, M.A., Rahman, M.M., Islam, M. and Jahan, A. (2015) Formulation of Trichoderma Based Biopesticide for Controlling Damping off Pathogen of Eggplant Seedling. Universal Journal of Agricultural Research, 3, 106-113.

[126]   Park, J. P., Gyung, J. C., Kyoung, S. J., He, K. L., Heung, T. K., Kwang, Y. C. and Kim, J. C. (2005) Antifungal Activity against Plant Pathogenic Fungi of Chaetoviridins Isolated from Chaetomium globosum. FEMS Microbiology Letters, 252, 309-313.

[127]   El-Katatny, M.H., El-Katatny, M.S., Fadl-Allah, M.E. and Emam, A.S. (2011) Antagonistic Effect of Two Isolates of Trichoderma harzianum against Postharvest Pathogens of Tomato (Lycopersiconesculentum). Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection, 7, 637-654.

[128]   Al-Naemi, F.A., Ahmed, T.A., Nishad, R. and Radwan, O. (2016) Antagonistic Effects of Trichoderma harzianumIsolates against Ceratocystis radicicola: Pioneering a Biocontrol Strategy against Black Scorch Disease in Date Palm Trees. Journal of Phytopathology, 7-8, 464-475.

[129]   Al-Saeedi, S.S. and Al-Ani, B.M. (2014) Study of Antagonistic Capability of Trichoderma harzianum Isolates against some Pathogenic Soil Borne Fungi. Agriculture and Biology Journal of North America, 1, 15-23.

[130]   Ghanbarzadeh, B., Safaie, N. and Goltapeh, E.M. (2014) Antagonistic Activity and Hyphal Interactions of Trichoderma spp. against Fusarium proliferatum and F. oxysporum in Vitro. Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection, 16, 1979-1987.

[131]   Talla, G.S., Raju, A.S.R., Karri, S. and Kumar, S.Y. (2015) Production and Antagonistic Effect of Trichoderma spp on Pathogenic Microorganisms (Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium oxysporum, Macrophomina phaseolina and Rhizoctonia solani). African Journal of Biotechnology, 8, 668-675.

[132]   Kücük, C. (2017) In Vitro Antagonistic Activity against Fusarium Species of Local Trichoderma spp. Isolates. Journal of Biodiversity and Environmental Sciences, 32, 67-74.

[133]   Fatima, K., Noureddine, K., Henni, J.E. and Mabrouk, K. (2015) Antagonistic Effect of Trichodermaharzianum against Phytophthora infestans in the North-West of Algeria. International Journal of Agronomy and Agricultural Research, 4, 44-53.

[134]   Jiang, H., Zhang, L., Zhang, J., Ojaghian, M.R. and Hyde, K.D. (2016) Antagonistic Interaction between Trichoderma asperellum and Phytophthora capsici in Vitro. Journal of Zhejiang University-Science B (Biomedicine & Biotechnology), 4, 271-281.

[135]   Singh, S. and Mathur, N. (2010) In Vitro Studies of Antagonistic Fungi against the Root-knot Nematode, Meloidogyne incognita. Biocontrol Science and Technology, 3, 275-282.

[136]   Javeed, M.T., Al-Hazmi, A.S. and Molan, Y.Y. (2016) Antagonistic Effects of Some Indigenous Isolates of Trichoderma spp. against Meloidogyne javanica. Pakistan Journal of Nematology, 2, 183-191.

[137]   Fan, J., Xie, Y., Xue, J. and Liu, R. (2013) The Effect of Beauveria brongniartii and Its Secondary Metabolites on the Detoxification Enzymes of the Pine Caterpillar, Dendrolimus tabulaeformis. Journal of Insect Science, 44, 1-13.

[138]   Mohan, M.C., Reddy, N.P., Devi, U.K., Kongara, R. and Sharma, H.C. (2007) Growth and Insect Assays of Beauveria bassiana with Neem to Test their Compatibility and Synergism. Biocontrol Science and Technology, 10, 1059-1069.

[139]   Mohammadbeigi, A. and Port, G. (2015) Effect of Infection by Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae on the Feeding of Uvarovistia zebra. Journal of Insect Science, 1, 88.

[140]   Wu, S., Gao, Y., Zhang, Y., Wang, E. and Xu, X. (2014) An Entomopathogenic Strain of Beauveria bassiana against Frankliniella occidentalis with no Detrimental Effect on the Predatory Mite Neoseiulus barkeri: Evidence from Laboratory Bioassay and Scanning Electron Microscopic Observation. PLoS ONE, 1, 1-7.

[141]   Kaur, S., Kaur, P.H., Kaur, K. and Kaur, A. (2011) Effect of Different Concentrations of Beauveria bassiana on Development and Reproductive Potential of Spodoptera litura (Fabricius). Journal of Biopesticides, 2, 161-168.

[142]   Wu, S., Youngman, R.R., Kok, L.T. and Laub, C.A. (2016) Sublethal Effect of Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium brunneum (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) on Cyclocephala lurida (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae). Journal of Entomological Science, 1, 43-53.

[143]   Martin, P., Michal, L., Michal, N. and Juraj, S. (2016) Testing of Entomopathogenic Fungi in Biological Control against Pine Weevil. Biological and Chemical Research, 3, 1-11.

[144]   Storm, C., Scoates, F., Nunn, A., Potin, O. and Dillon, A. (2016) Improving Efficacy of Beauveria bassianaagainst Stored Grain Beetles with a Synergistic Co-formulant. Insects, 42, 1-14.

[145]   Tadele, S. and Emana, G. (2017) Entomopathogenic Effect of Beauveria bassiana (bals.) and Metarrhizium anisopliae (metschn.) on Tuta absoluta (meyrick) Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) Larvae under Laboratory and Glasshouse Conditions in Ethiopia. Journal of Plant Pathology and Microbiolgy, 8, 411.

[146]   Erler, F. and Ates, A.O. (2015) Potential of Two Entomopathogenic Fungi, Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), as Biological Control Agents against the June Beetle. Journal of Insect Science, 1, 1-6.

[147]   Siddiqui, Z. A. and Akhtar, M. S. (2008) Synergistic Effects of Antagonistic Fungi and a Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacterium, an Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungus, or Composted Cow Manure on Populations of Meloidogyne incognita and Growth of Tomato. Biocontrol Science and Technology, 3, 279-290.

[148]   Bhat, M.Y., Wani, A. and Fazal, M. (2012) Effect of Paecilomyces lilacinus and Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria on Meloidogyne incognitaInoculated Black Gram, Vigna mungo Plants. Journal of Biopesticides, 1, 36-43.

[149]   Adebola, M.O. and Amadi, J.E. (2010) Antagonistic Activities of Paecilomyces and Rhizopus Species against the Cocoa Black Pod Pathogen (Phytophthora palmivora). African Scientist, 4, 235-239.

[150]   Ganate, M.A. and Khan, T.A. (2010) Biological Potential of Paecilomyces lilacinus on Pathogenesis of Meloidodyne javanica Infecting Tomato Plant. European Journal of Applied Sciences, 2, 80-84.

[151]   Oclarit, E.L. and Cumagun, C.J.R. (2009) Evaluation of Efficacy of Paecilomyces lilacinus as Biological Control Agent of Meloidogyne incognita Attacking Tomato. Journal of Plant Protection Research, 49, 337-340.

[152]   Torres, M.J.C., Brandan, P., Petrosellic, G., Erra-Balsellsc, R. and Audisioa, M.C. (2016) Antagonistic Effects of Bacillus subtilis subsp. subtilis and B. amyloliquefaciens against Macrophomina phaseolina: SEM Study of Fungal Changes and UV-MALDI-TOF MS Analysis of Their Bioactive Compounds. Microbiological Research, 182, 31-39.

[153]   Zalila-Kolsi, I., Mahmoud, A.B., Ali, H., Sellami, S., Nasfi, Z., Tounsi, S. and Jamoussi, K. (2016) Antagonist Effects of Bacillus spp. Strains against Fusarium graminearum for Protection of Durum Wheat (Triticum turgidum L. subsp. durum). Microbiological Research, 192, 148-158.

[154]   Han, J., Shim, H., Shin, J. and Kim, K.S. (2015) Antagonistic Activities of Bacillus spp. Strains Isolated from Tidal Flat Sediment Towards Anthracnose Pathogens Colletotrichum acutatum and C. gloeosporioides in South Korea. The Plant Pathology Journal, 2, 165-175.

[155]   Haidar, R., Roudeta, J., Bonnarda, O., Dufoura, M.C., Corio-Costeta, M.F., Ferta, M., Gautiera, T., Deschampsa, A. and Fermaudaa, M. (2016) Screening and Modes of Action of Antagonistic Bacteria to Control the Fungal Pathogen Phaeomoniella chlamydospora Involved in Grapevine Trunk Diseases. Microbiological Research, 192, 172-184.

[156]   Khan, U.H., Ahmad, R., Ahmed, W., Khan, S. M. and Khan, M.A. (2001) Evaluation of the Combined Effects of Paecilomyces lilacinus and Trichoderma harzianum against Root-knot Disease of Tomato. OnLine Journal of Biological Sciences, 3, 139-142.

[157]   Belete, E., Ayalew, A. and Ahmed, S. (2015) Antagonistic Effect of Native Bacillus Isolates against Black Root Rot of Faba Bean. African Crop Science Journal, 3, 249-259.

[158]   Zhao, Y., Selvaraj, J.N., Xing, F., Zhou, L. and Wang, Y. (2014) Antagonistic Action of Bacillus subtilis Strain SG6 on Fusarium graminearum. PLoS ONE, 3, 1-11.

[159]   Akhtar, A., Abbasi, H. and Sharf, R. (2012) Antagonistic Effects of Pseudomonas fluorescens and Bacillus subtilis on Meloidogyne incognita Infecting Vigna mungo L. International Journal of Plant, Animal and Environmental Sciences, 1, 55-63.

[160]   Wei, L., Shao, Y., Wan, J., Feng, H. and Zhu, H. (2014) Isolation and Characterization of a Rhizobacterial Antagonist of Root-Knot Nematodes. PLoS ONE, 1, 1-7.

[161]   Lemes, A.R.N., Davolos, C.C., Legori, P.C.B.C., Fernandes, O.A. and Ferre′, J. (2014) Synergism and Antagonism between Bacillus thuringiensis Vip3A and Cry1 Proteins in Heliothis virescens, Diatraea saccharalis and Spodoptera frugiperda. PLoS ONE, 10, 1-10.

[162]   Ajilogba, C.F., Babalola, O.O. and Ahmad, F. (2013) Antagonistic Effects of Bacillus Species in Biocontrol of Tomato Fusarium Wilt. Studies on Ethno-Medicine, 3, 205-216.

[163]   Issazadeh, K., Rad, S.K., Zarrabi, S. and Rahimibashar, M.R. (2012) Antagonism of Bacillus Species against Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris and Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum. African Journal of Microbiology Research, 6, 1615-1620.

[164]   Sharififard, M., Mossadegh, M.S., Vazirianzadeh, B. and Zarei-Mahmoudabadi, A. (2001) Interactions Between Entomopathogenic Fungus, Metarhizium anisopliae and Sublethal Doses of Spinosad for Control of House Fly, Musca domestica. Iranian Journal of Arthropod-Borne Diseases, 1, 28-36.

[165]   Sowjanya, S.K., Padmaja, V. and Murthy, Y.L. (2008) Insecticidal Activity of Destruxin, a Mycotoxin from Metarhizium anisopliae (Hypocreales), against Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Larval Stages. Pest Management Science, 2, 119-125.

[166]   Lozano-Tovar, M.D., Garrido-Jurado, I., Lafont, F. and Quesada-Moraga, E. (2015) Insecticidal Activity of a Destruxin-containing Extract of Metarhizium brunneumagainst Ceratitis capitate (Diptera: Tephritidae). Journal of Economic Entomology, 2, 462-472.

[167]   Nabaei, N., Mehrvar, A., Saber and Bagheri, M. (2012) Efficacy of Entomopathogenic Fungi in Combination with Diatomaceous Earth against Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). Acta Entomologia Sinica, 55, 1282-1288.

[168]   Bugeme, D.M., Knapp, M., Ekesi, S., Chabi-Olaye, A., Boga, H.I. and Maniania, N.K. (2015) Efficacy of Metarhizium anisopliae in Controlling the Two-Spotted Spider Mite Tetranychus urticae on Common Bean in Screenhouse and Field Experiments. Insect Science, 22, 121-128.

[169]   Mehinto, J.T., Atachi, P., Kpindou, O.K.D., Dannon, E.A. and Tamò, M. (2014) Mortality of Maruca vitrata (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) Larval Stages Induced by Different Doses of the Entomopathogenic Fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana. International Journal of Advanced Research, 4, 273-285.

[170]   Contreras, J., Mendoza, J.E., Martínez-Aguirre, M.R., García-Vidal, L., Izquierdo, J. and Bielza, P. (2013) Efficacy of Entomopathogenic Fungus Metarhizium anisopliae against Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). Journal of Economic Entomology, 1, 121-124.

[171]   Priyaja, P., Jayesh, P., Correya, N.S., Sreelakshmi, B., Sudheer, N.S., Philip, R. and Singh, I.S.B. (2014) Antagonistic Effect of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolates from Various Ecological Niches on Vibrio Species Pathogenic to Crustaceans. Journal of Coastal Life Medicine, 1, 76-84.

[172]   Prasad, R., Chandra, H., Sinha, B. K. and Srivastava, J. (2015) Antagonistic Effect of Pseudomonas fluorescens Isolated from Soil of Doon Valley (Dehradun-India) on Certain Phyto-Pathogenic Fungi. Octa Journal of Biosciences, 2, 92-95.

[173]   Sivanantham, T., Rasaiyah, V., Satkunanathan, N. and Thavaranjit, A.C. (2013) In Vitro Screening of Antagonistic Effect of Soil Borne Bacteria on Some Selected Phytopathogenic Fungi. Archives of Applied Science Research, 1, 1-4.

[174]   Maurya, M.K., Singh, R. and Tomer, A. (2014) In Vitro Evaluation of Antagonistic Activity of Pseudomonas fluorescensagainst Fungal Pathogen. Journal of Biopesticides, 1, 43-46.

[175]   Khokhar, I., Haider, S.M., Ali, A., Mukhtar, I. and Mushtaq, S. (2011) Evaluation of Antagonistic Activity of Soil Bacteria against Plant Pathogenic Fungi. Pakistan Journal of Phytopathology, 2, 166-169.

[176]   Bouhous, M. and Larous, L. (2012) Efficiency of the Entomopathogenic Fungus Verticillium lecanii in the Biological Control of Trialeurodes vaporariorum, (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae), a Greenhouse Culture Pest. African Journal of Microbiology Research, 10, 2435-2442.

[177]   Xu, D., Ali, S., Huang, Z., Zhou, F.C., Afzal, M. and Bashir, M.H. (2009) Influence of the Entomopathogenic Fungus, Verticillium lecanii on the Whitefly Predator, Axinoscymnuscardilobus (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) under Laboratory Conditions. Pakistan Journal of Zoology, 4, 289-295.

[178]   Elzinga, J.A., Biere, A. and Harvey, J.A. (2002) The Rearing of the Gregarious Koinobiont Endoparasitoid Microplitis tristis (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) on Its Natural Host Hadena bicruris (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Proceedings Section Experimental and Applied Entomology of the Netherlands Entomological Society, 13, 109-115.

[179]   Morales-Ramos, J.A. and Rojas, M.G. (2014) A Modular Cage System Design for Continuous Medium to Large Scale in Vivo Rearing of Predatory Mites (Acari: Phytoseiidae).

[180]   Silva, F.R., Moraes, G.J., Gondim, M.G.C., Knapp, M., Rouam, S.L., Paes, J.L.A. and Oliveira, G.M. (2010) Efficiency of Phytoseiulus longipes Evans as a Control Agent of Tetranychus evansi Baker & Pritchard (Acari: Phytoseiidae: Tetranychidae) on Screenhouse Tomatoes. Neotropical Entomology, 6, 991-995.

[181]   Lee, W., Ho, C. and Lo, K. (1990) Mass Production of Phytoseiids: Evaluation of Eight Host Plants for the Mass-Rearing of Tetranychus urticae and T. kanzawai Kishda (Acarina: Tetranychidae). Agricultural Sciences in China, 2, 121-132.

[182]   Khanamani, M., Fathipour, B.Y., Talebi, A.A. and Mehrabadi, M. (2017) Evaluation of Different Artificial Diets for Rearing the Predatory Mite Neoseiulus californicus (Acari: Phytoseiidae): Diet-Dependent Life Table Studies. Acarologia, 2, 407-419.

[183]   Steinberg, S. (2013) Novel Technologies in Mass Rearing of Beneficial Arthropods. Proceedings of the Annual Biocontrol Industry Meeting, Bael, 1-28.

[184]   Fernando, L.C.P., Aratchige, N.S., Kumari, S.L.M.L., Appuhamy, P.A.L.D. and Hapuarachchi, D.C.L. (2006) Developmet of a Method for Mass Rearing of Neoseiulus baraka, a Mite Predatory on the Coconut Mite, Aceria guerreronis. The Journal of the Coconut Research Institute of Sri Lanka, 16, 22-36.

[185]   Grenier, S. (2012) Artificial Rearing of Entomophagous Insects, with Emphasis on Nutrition and Parasitoids-General Outlines from Personal Experience. Karaelmas Science and Engineering Journal, 2, 1-12.

[186]   Grenier, S. (2009) In Vitro Rearing of Entomophagous Insects—Past and Future Trends: A Minireview. Bulletin of Insectology, 1, 1-6.

[187]   Xu, X. and Enkegaard, A. (2010). Prey Preference of the Predatory Mite, Amblyseius swirskii between First Instar Western Flower Thrips Frankliniella occidentalis and Nymphs of the Two-Spotted Spider Mite Tetranychus urticae. Journal of Insect Science, 149, 1-11.

[188]   Fiedler, Z. (2012) Interaction between Beneficial Organisms in Control of Spider Mite Tetranychus urticae (koch.) Journal of Plant Protection Research, 2, 226-229.

[189]   Hoque, F.M., Islam, M.W. and Khalequzzaman, M. (2010) Functional Eesponse of Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot to Tetranychus urticae Koch: Effects of Prey Life Stages and Temperature. University Journal of Zoology, Rajshahi University, 29, 1-8.

[190]   Rhodes, M.E. and Liburd, O.E. (2006) Evaluation of Predatory Mites and Acramite for Control of Two-spotted Spider Mites in Strawberries in North Central Florida. Journal of Economic Entomology, 4, 1291-1298.

[191]   Elmoghazy, M.M.E., El-Saiedy, E.M.A. and Romeih, A.H.M. (2012) Integrated Control of the Two-spotted Spider Mite Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) on Faba Bean Vicia faba (L.) in an Open Field at Behaira Governorate, Egypt. International Journal of Environmental Science and Engineering, 2, 93-100.

[192]   Takano-Lee, M. and Hoddle, M. (2002) Predatory Behaviors of Neoseiulus californicus and Galendromus helveolus (Acari: Phytoseiidae) Attacking Oligonychus perseae (Acari: Tetranychidae). Experimental and Applied Acarology, 26, 13-26.

[193]   Arthurs, S., McKenzie, C.L., Chen, J., Dogramaci, M., Brennan, M., Houben, K. and Osborne, L. (2009) Evaluation of Neoseiulus cucumeris and Amblyseius swirskii (Acari: Phytoseiidae) as Biological Control Agents of Chilli Thrips, Scirtothrips dorsalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on Pepper. Biological Control, 49, 91-96.

[194]   Vá Squez, G.M., Orr, D.B. and Baker, J.R. (2006) Efficacy Assessment of Aphidius colemani (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) for Suppression of Aphis gossypii (Homoptera: Aphididae) in Greenhouse-grown Chrysanthemum. Journal of Economic Entomology, 4, 1104-1111.

[195]   Maharjan, B., Kwon, M., Kim, J. and Jung, C. (2017) Mass Production of Diglyphus isaea (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a Biological Control Agent of a Korean Population of Potato Leaf Miner Liriomyza huidobrensis (Blanchard) (Diptera: Agromyzidae). Entomological Research, 2, 94-100.

[196]   Dai, P., Ruan, C., Zang, L., Wan, F. and Liu, L. (2014) Effects of Rearing Host Species on the Host-feeding Capacity and Parasitism of the Whitefly Parasitoid Encarsia formosa. Journal of Insect Science, 118, 1-10.

[197]   Moreno-Ripoll, R., Gabarra, R., Symondson, W.O.C., King, R.A. and Agustí, N. (2012) Trophic Relationships between Predators, Whiteflies and Their Parasitoids in Tomato Greenhouses: A Molecular Approach. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 102, 415-423.

[198]   Dubey, M., Thind, T.S., Dubey, R.K. and Jindal, S.K. (2016) Efficacy of Plant Extracts against Tomato Late Blight under Net House Conditions. Indian Journal of Ecology, 1, 375-377.

[199]   Goufo, P., Mofor, T.C., Fontem, D.A. and Ngnokam, D. (2008) High Efficacy of Extracts of Cameroon Plants against Tomato Late Blight Disease. Agronomy for Sustainable Development, 4, 567-573.

[200]   Ademe, A., Ayalew, A. and Woldetsadik, K. (2013). Evaluation of Antifungal Activity of Plant Extracts against Papaya Anthracnose (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides). Plant Pathology & Microbiology, 10, 1-4.

[201]   Jahangiriana, H., Haron, M.D.J., Mohd, H.S.I.A., Roshanak, R., Leili, A.D.Y.A.E., Majid, R.C. and Nazanin, V. (2013) Well Diffusion Method for Valuation of Antibacterial Activity of Copper Phenyl Fatty Hydroxamate Synthesized from Canola and Palm Kernel Oils. Digest Journal of Nanomaterials and Biostructures, 3, 1263-1270.

[202]   Nashwa, S.M.A. and Abo-Elyousr, A.M.K. (2012) Evaluation of Various Plant Extracts against the Early Blight Disease of Tomato Plants under Green House and Field Conditions. Plant Protection Science, 2, 74-79.

[203]   Hassanein, M.N., Abou, Z.M.A., Youssef, A.K. and Mahmoud, A.D. (2010) Control of Tomato Early Blight and Wilt using Aqueous Extract of Neem Leaves. Phytopathologia Mediterranea, 49, 143-151.

[204]   Sahu, D.K., Khare, C.P. and Patel, R. (2014) Eco-Friendly Management of Early Blight of Tomato Using Botanical Plant Extracts. Journal of Industrial Pollution Control, 2, 215-218.

[205]   Karimi, K., Amini, J., Harighi, B. and Bahramnejad, B. (2012) Evaluation of Biocontrol Potential of Pseudomonas and Bacillus spp against Fusarium Wilt of Chickpea. Australian Journal of Crop Science, 6, 695-703.

[206]   Naing, W.K., Anees, M., Nyugen, H.X., Lee, S.Y., Jeon, W.S., Kim, Y.S., Kim, H.M. and Kim, Y.K. (2013) Biocontrol of Late Blight Diseases (Phytophthora Capsici) of Pepper and the Plant Growth Promotion by Paenibacillus chimensis KWNJ8. Journal of Phytopathology, 2, 164-165.

[207]   Hossain, M. A., ALsabari, K. M., Weli, A.M. and Al-Riyami, Q. (2013) Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Analysis and Total Phenolic Contents of Various Crude Extracts from the Fruits of Datura metel L. Journal of Taibah University for Science, 7, 209-215.

[208]   Araújo, K.M., Lima, A., Silva, J.N., Rodrigues, L.L., Amorim, A.G.N., Quelemes, P.V., Santos, R.C., Rocha, J.C., Andrades, E.O., Leite, J.R.S.A., Mancini-Filho, J. and Trindade, R.A. (2014) Identification of Phenolic Compounds and Evaluation of Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Properties of Euphorbia tirucalli L. Antioxidants, 3, 159-175.

[209]   Khater, H.F. (2012) Prospects of Botanical Biopesticides in Insect Pest Management. Pharmacologia, 12, 641-656.

[210]   Cawoy, H., Wagner, B., Fickers, P. and Ongena, M. (2011). Bacillus-Based Biological Control of Plant Diseases, Pesticides in the Modern World—Pesticides Use and Management. Dr. Margarita Stoytcheva (Ed.), ISBN: 978-953-307-459-7, InTech, Available from:

[211]   Iberê, F.S., Oliveira, R.G., Soares, I.M., Alvim, T.C., Ascêncio, S.D. and Martins, D.T.O. (2014) Evaluation of Acute Toxicity, Antibacterial Activity, and Mode of Action of the Hydro Ethanolic Extract of Piper umbellatum L. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 151, 137-143.

[212]   El-Wakeil, N.E. (2013) Botanical Pesticides and their Mode of Action. Gesunde Pflanzen, 65, 125-149.

[213]   Rodino, S., Butu, A., Butu, M. and Cornea, C.P. (2012) In Vitro Efficacy of some Plant Extracts against Damping off Disease of Tomatoes. Journal of International Scientific Publications: Agriculture and Food, 2, 240-244.

[214]   Moreira, M.D., Picanco, M.C., Barbosa, L.C.A., Guedes, R.N.C., Campos, M.R., Silva, G.A. and Martins, J.C. (2007) Plant Compounds Insecticide Activity against Coleoptera Pests of Stored Products. Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira, 7, 909-915.

[215]   Akrami, M., Golzary, H. and Ahmadzadeh, M. (2011) Evaluation of Different Combinations of Trichoderma Species for Controlling Fusarium Rot of Lentil. African Journal of Biotechnology, 14, 2653-2658.

[216]   Blaszczyk, L., Siwulski, M., Sobieralski, K., Lisiecka, J. and Jedryczka, M. (2014) Trichoderma spp.—Application and Prospects for Use in Organic Farming and Industry. Journal of Plant Protection Research, 4, 309-317.

[217]   Kokalis-Burelle, N. (2015) Pasteuria penetrans for Control of Meloidogyne incognita on Tomato and Cucumber, and M. arenaria on Snap Dragon. The Journal of Nematology, 3, 207-213.

[218]   Mendoza, J.L.H., Pérez, M.I.S., Prieto, J.M.G., Velásquez, J.D.Q., Olivares, J.G.G. and Langarica, H.R.G. (2015) Antibiosis of Trichoderma spp Strains Native to Northeastern Mexico against the Pathogenic Fungus Macrophomina phaseolina. Brazilian Journal of Microbiology, 4, 1093-1101.

[219]   Pal, K.K. and McSpadder, G.B. (2006) Biological Control of Plant Pathogens. The Plant Health Instructor, 10, 1-25.

[220]   Xiao, Y., Wei, X., Ebright, R. and Wall, D. (2011) Antibiotic Production by Myxobacteria Plays a Role in Predation. Journal of Bacteriology, 18, 4626-4633.

[221]   Refki, E., Sadok, B.M., Ali, B.B., Faouzi, A., Jean, V.F. and Rudy, C.M. (2016) Effectiveness of Pheromone Traps against Tuta absoluta. Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies, 6, 841-844.

[222]   Chermiti, B. and Abbes, K. (2012) Comparison of Pheromone Lures Used in Mass Trapping to Control the Tomato Leafminer Tuta absoluta (Meyrick, 1917) in Industrial Tomato Crops in Kairouan (Tunisia). EPPO Bulletin, 2, 241-248.

[223]   Rao, K.S., Vishnupriya, R. and Ramaraju, K. (2017) Efficacy and Safety Studies on Predatory Mite, Neoseiulus longispinosus (Evans) against Two-Spotted Spider Mite, Tetranychusurticae Koch under Laboratory and Greenhouse Conditions. Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies, 4, 835-839.

[224]   Khan, A.I., Hussain, S., Akbar, R., Saeed, M., Farid, A., Ali, I., Alam, M. and Shah, B. (2015) Efficacy of a Biopesticide and Synthetic Pesticides against Tobacco Aphid, Myzus persicae Sulz. (Homoptera, Aphididae), on Tobacco in Peshawar. Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies, 4, 371-373.

[225]   Ahmad, S., Khan, I.A., Hussain, Z., Shah, S.I.A. and Ahmad, M. (2007) Comparison of a Biopesticide with Some Synthetic Pesticides against Aphids in Rapeseed Crop. Sahrad Journal of Agriculture, 4, 1117-1120.

[226]   Shah, J.A., Inayatullah, M., Sohail, K., Shah, S.F., Shah, S., Iqbal, T. and Usman, M. (2013) Efficacy of Botanical Extracts and a Chemical Pesticide against Tomato Fruit Worm, Helicoverpa armigera. Sarhad Journal of Agriculture, 1, 93-96.

[227]   Kenis, M., Hurley, B.P., Hajek, A.E. and Cock, M.J.W. (2017) Classical Biological Control of Insect Pests of Trees: Facts and Figures. Biological Invasions, 19, 3401-3417.

[228]   Galko, J., Nikolov, C., Kunca, A., Vakula, J., Gubka, A., Zúbrik, M., Rell, S. and Konopka, B. (2016) Effectiveness of Pheromone Traps for the European Spruce Bark Beetle: AComparative Study of Four Commercial Products and Two New Models. Lesnícky Casopis-Forestry Journal, 62, 207-215.

[229]   Hussain, F., Abid, M., Shaukat, S., Farzana, S. and Akbar, M. (2015) Anti-Fungal Activity of Some Medicinal Plants on Different Pathogenic Fungi. Pakistan Journal of Botany, 5, 2009-2013.

[230]   Sidhu, S.H., Kumar, V. and Madhu, M.R. (2017) Eco-Friendly Management of Root-Knot Nematode, Meloidogyne javanica in Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) Crop. International Journal of Pure and Applied Bioscience, 1, 569-574.

[231]   Aw, K.M.S. and Hue, S.M. (2017) Mode of Infection of Metarhizium spp. Fungus and Their Potential as Biological Control Agents. Journal of Fungi, 30, 1-20.

[232]   Ngegba, P.M., Kanneh, S.M., Bayon, M.S., Ndoko, E.J. and Musa, P.D. (2018) Fungicidal Effect of Three Plants Extracts in Control of Four Phytopathogenic Fungi of Tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum L.) Fruit Rot. International Journal of Environment, Agriculture and Biotechnology, 1, 112-117.

[233]   Patrice, A.K., Séka, K., Francis, Y.K., Théophile, A.S., Fatoumata, F. and Diallo, H.A. (2017) Effects of Three Aqueous Plant Extracts in the Control of Fungi Associated with Post-harvest of Yam (Dioscorea alata). International Journal of Agronomy and Agricultural Research, 3, 77-87.

[234]   Devi, K.B., Pavankumar, P. and Bhadraiah, B. (2017) Antifungal Activity of Plant Extracts against Post-Harvest Fungal Pathogens. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences, 6, 669-679.

[235]   Minz, S., Samuel, C.O. and Tripathi, C.S. (2012) The Effect of Plant Extracts on the Growth of Wilt Causing Fungi Fusarium oxysporum. Journal of Pharmacy and Biological Sciences, 1, 13-16.

[236]   Sumitra, A., Kanojia, A.K., Kumar, A., Mogha, N. and Sahu, V. (2014) Biopesticide Formulation to Control Tomato Lepidopteran Pest Menace. Current Science, 7, 1051-1057.

[237]   Muzemu, S., Mvumi, B.M., Nyirenda, S.P.M., Sileshi, G.W., Sola, P., Chikukura, L., Kamanula, J.F., Belmain, S.R. and Stevenson, P.C. (2011) Pesticidal Effects of Indigenous Plant Extracts against Rape Aphids and Tomato Red Spider Mites. African Crop Science Conference Proceedings, 10, 171-173.

[238]   Nia, B., Frah, N. and Azoui, I. (2015) Insecticidal Activity of Three Plants Extracts against Myzuspersicae (Sulzer, 1776) and Their Phytochemical Screening. Acta Agriculturae Slovenica, 2, 261-267.

[239]   Parte, S.G., Kharat, A.S., Mohekar, A.D., Chavan, J.A., Jagtap, A.A., Mohite, A.K. and Patil, R.N. (2015) Efficacy of Plant Extracts for Management of Cimex lectularius (Bed Bug). International Journal of Pure and Applied Bioscience, 3, 506-508.

[240]   Oyedokun, A.V., Anikwe, J.C., Okelana, F.A., Mokwunye, I.U. and Azeez, O.M. (2011) Pesticidal Efficacy of Three Tropical Herbal Plants’ Leaf Extracts against Macrotermes bellicosus, an Emerging Pest of Cocoa, Theobroma cacao L. Journal of Biopesticides, 2, 131-137.

[241]   Barbosa, F.S., Leite, G.L.D., Martins, E.R., D’avila, V.A. and Cerqueira, V.M. (2013) Medicinal Plant Extracts on the Control of Diabrotica speciosa (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Brazilian Journal of Medicinal Plants, 1, 142-149.

[242]   Islam, M.R., Jeong, Y.T., Lee, Y.S. and Song, C.H. (2012) Isolation and Identification of Antifungal Compounds from Bacillus subtilis C9 Inhibiting the Growth of Plant Pathogenic Fungi. Mycobiology, 1, 59-66.

[243]   Anitha, A. and Rabeeth, M. (2009) Control of Fusarium Wilt by Bioformulation of Streptomyces griseus in the Green House Condition. African Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 1-2, 9-14.

[244]   Selim, H.M.M., Gomaa, N.M. and Essa, A.M.M. (2016) Antagonistic Effect of Endophytic Bacteria against Some Phytopathogens. Egyptian Journal of Botany, 1, 74-81.

[245]   Islam, M.R., Mondal, C., Hossain, I. and Meah, B.M. (2014) Compost Tea as Soil Drench: An Alternative Approach to Control Bacterial Wilt in Brinjal. Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection, 12, 1475-1488.

[246]   Islam, M.R., Mondal, C., Hossain, I. and Meah, B.M. (2013) Organic Management: An Alternative to Control Late Blight of Potato and Tomato Caused by Phytophthora infestans. International Journal of Theoretical & Applied Sciences, 2, 32-42.

[247]   Pane, C., Palese, A.M., Celano, G. and Zaccardelli, M. (2014) Effects of Compost Tea Treatments on Productivity of Lettuce and Kohlrabi Systems under Organic Cropping Management. Italian Journal of Agronomy, 3, 1-4.

[248]   Sarles, L., Verhaeghe, A., Francis, F. and Verheggen, F.J. (2015) Semiochemicals of Rhagoletis Fruit Flies: Potential for Integrated Pest Management. Crop Protection, 78, 114-118.

[249]   Powell, W. and Pickett, J.A. (2003) Manipulation of Parasitoids for Aphid Pest Management: Progress and Prospects. Pest Management Science, 59, 149-155.

[250]   Leng, P., Zhang, Z., Pan, G. and Zhao, M. (2011) Applications and Development Trends in Biopesticides. African Journal of Biotechnology, 86, 19864-19873.

[251]   Okunlola, A.I. and Akinrinnola, O. (2014) Effectiveness of Botanical Formulations in Vegetable Production and Bio-Diversity Preservation in Ondo State, Nigeria. Journal of Horticulture and Forestry, 1, 6-13.

[252]   Shiberu, T. and Getu, E. (2016). Assessment of Selected Botanical Extracts against Liriomyza Species (Diptera: Agromyzidae) on Tomato under Glasshouse Condition. International Journal of Fauna and Biological Studies, 1, 87-90.

[253]   Nawaz, M., Mabubu, J.I. and Hua, H. (2016) Current Status and Advancement of Biopesticides: Microbial and Botanical Pesticides. Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies, 2, 241-246.

[254]   Srijita, D. (2015) Biopesticides: An Eco-friendly Approach for Pest Control. World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 6, 250-265.

[255]   Sesan, T.E., Enache, E., Iacomi, M., Oprea, M., Oancea, F. and Iacomi, C. (2015) Antifungal Activity of some Plant Extract against Botrytis cinerea Pers. in the Blackcurrant Crop (Ribes nigrum L). Acta Scientiarum Polonorum Technologia Alimentaria, 1, 29-43.

[256]   Kawalekar, J.S. (2013) Role of Biofertilizers and Biopesticides for Sustainable Agriculture. Journal of Bio Innovation, 2, 73-78.

[257]   Stoneman, B. (2010) Challenges to Commercialization of Biopesticides. Proceedings Microbial Biocontrol of Arthropods, Weeds and Plant Pathogens: Risks, Benefits and Challenges. National Conservation Training Center, Shepherdstown, WV.

[258]   Javaid, M.K., Ashiq, M. and Tahir, M. (2016) Potential of Biological Agents in Decontamination of Agricultural Soil.

[259]   Sales, M.D.C., Costa, H.B., Fernandes, P.M.B., Ventura, J.A. and Meira, D.D. (2016) Antifungal Activity of Plant Extracts with Potential to Control Plant Pathogens in Pineapple. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, 1, 26-31.

[260]   Gerson, U. (2014) Pest Control by Mites (acari): Present and Future. Acarologia, 4, 371-394.

[261]   Lanzoni, A., Martelli, R. and Pezzi, F. (2017) Mechanical Release of Phytoseiulus persimilis and Amblyseius swirskii on Protected Crops. Bulletin of Insectology, 2, 245-250.

[262]   Gupta, S. and Dikshit, A.K. (2010) Biopesticides: An Ecofriendly Approach for Pest Control. Journal of Biopesticides, 1, 186-188.

[263]   Kumar, S. and Singh, A. (2015) Biopesticides: Present Status and the Future Prospects. Journal of Fertilizers & Pesticides, 2, 1-2.