Back
 JEP  Vol.9 No.6 , May 2018
A Review of Effective Waste Management from an EU, National, and Local Perspective and Its Influence: The Management of Biowaste and Anaerobic Digestion of Municipal Solid Waste
Show more
Abstract: The waste management industry across the European Union (EU) has undergone radical change following the recognition that a move towards a sustainable society is essential for humankind. To this end, the EU has targeted household recycling targets of 50% by 2020 and 70% by 2030 in a bid to move towards a more sustainable and resource efficient society. Despite such targets and a number of relevant progresses in technology (such as incineration, composting, and anaerobic digestion), there are several challenges facing the municipal solid waste sector. The purpose of this review is to assess the EU, UK and local policies that are affecting the way waste is treated, Greater Manchester (GM) in the United Kingdom (UK), will be used as an example. The review focuses upon anaerobic digestion as a choice technology for waste management and assesses the influences of policies upon the application of anaerobic digestion at the EU and local level, finding that at current rates of recycling, local and national targets will be missed by approximately 7.3% in the year 2030, even in the best case scenario where the maximum amount of biowaste is managed under the current operational capacity. The review concludes that in order to improve the recycling bio-waste capacity on a local, national, and EU level, the introduction of the AD must be increased tremendously.
Cite this paper: Araya, M. (2018) A Review of Effective Waste Management from an EU, National, and Local Perspective and Its Influence: The Management of Biowaste and Anaerobic Digestion of Municipal Solid Waste. Journal of Environmental Protection, 9, 652-670. doi: 10.4236/jep.2018.96041.
References

[1]   European Commission (2016) European Action for Sustainability. Eur-lex.europa.eu., Strasbourg.

[2]   European Commission (2015) Closing the Loop: An EU Action Plan for the Circular Economy. EC, Brussels, 2015. CO, 614.

[3]   European Commission (2015) Closing the Loop: Commission Adopts Ambitious New Circular Economy Package to Boost Competitiveness, Create Jobs and Generate Sustainable Growth. EC. [Online] europa.eu, 12 2. http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_IP-15-6203_en.htm. 15-6203

[4]   Pierre, H. Circular Economy Package: What’s in It.

[5]   ESA (2013) Going for Growth: A Practical Rout to a Circular Economy. esauk.org, London.

[6]   Eur-Lex (2008) On the Management of Bio-Waste in the European Union. s.l.: eur-lex.europa.eu, 52008DC0811.

[7]   Eur-Lex (2018) Municipal Waste Statistics. eur-lex. [Online] ec.europa.eu, 01. http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/statistics-explained/index.php/Municipal_waste_statistics

[8]   Fricke, K., et al. (2007) Operating Problems in Anaerobic Digestion Plants Resulting from Nitrogen in MSW. Waste Management, 27, 30-43.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wasman.2006.03.003

[9]   Demirbas, A. (2011) Waste Management, Waste Resource Facilities and Waste Conversion Processes. Energy Conversion and Management, 52, 1280-1287.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enconman.2010.09.025

[10]   Anon Figure Legend Waste Management Collection, Production, Segregatio, Collection, Transportation, Disposal an Dmonitoring. Googlesearch. [Online] nd.
https://www.google.co.uk/search?rlz=1C1CHBD_en-GBGB788GB788&tbm=isch&sa=1&ei=OO_PWufQMIeUgQa51beADQ&q=figure%2Blegend%2Bwaste%2Bmanagement%2Bcollection%2Cproduction%2C%2Bsegregatio%2C%2Bcollection%2C%2Btransportation%2C%2Bdisposal%2Ban%2Bdmonitoring&oq=fi

[11]   Read, A.D. (1999) Making Waste Work: Making UK National Solid Waste Strategy Work at the Local Scale. Resources, Conservation & Recycling, 26, 259-283.
https://doi.org/10.1016/S0921-3449(99)00015-4

[12]   DEFRA (2011) Guidance on Applying the Waste Hierarchy. Gov.uk, London, 13530.

[13]   White, P.R., Franke, M. and Hindle, P. (1995) Integrated Solid Waste Management a Life Cycle Inventory. Glasgow: Blackie Academic and Professional, 43, 1-3.

[14]   Thabrew, L., Wiek, A. and Ries, R. (2008) Environmental Decision Making in Multi-Stakeholder Contexts: Applicability of Life Cycle Thinking in Development Planning and Implementation. Journal of Cleaner Production, 17, 67-76.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2008.03.008

[15]   Eur-Lux (2008) DIRECTIVE 2008/98/EC of the European Parliamment and of the Council. s.l.: eur-lex.europa.eu, 32008L0098.

[16]   DEFRA (2013) Incineration of Municipal Solid Waste. Gov.uk, London, PB13889.

[17]   Powell, J.C. (1996) The Evaluation of Waste Management Options. Waste Management & Research, 14, 515-526.
https://doi.org/10.1177/0734242X9601400601

[18]   European Commission (2016) Biodegradable Waste. European Commission Environment. http://ec.europa.eu/environment/waste/compost/

[19]   European Commission (2018) Waste. European Commission.

[20]   Komilis, D.P., Ham, R.K. and Stegmann, R. (1999) The Effect of Municipal Solid Waste Pretreatment on Landfill Behavior: A Literature Review. Waste Management & Research, 17, 10-19.

[21]   Eurostat (2017) Europe 2020 Indicators—Climate Change and Energy. http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/statistics-explained/index.php/Europe_2020_indicators_-_climate_change_and_energy

[22]   Edwards, J., Othman, M. and Burn, S.A. (2015) Review of Policy Drivers and Barriers for the Use of Anaerobic Digestion in Europe, the United States and Australia. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 25, 815-828.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2015.07.112

[23]   Gregson, N., et al. (2015) Interrogating the Circular Economy: The Moral Economy of Resource Recovery in the EU. Economy and Society, 44, 218-243.
https://doi.org/10.1080/03085147.2015.1013353

[24]   EEA (2016) Circular Economy in Europe. EEA, Luxembourg.

[25]   Oakdene, H., Peter, L., Edward, S., Olivia, B., Harry, S. and Nia, B.L. (2017) Towards a Circular Economy—Waste Management in EU. STOA, PE 581.913.

[26]   DEFRA (2018) UK Statistics on Waste. Gov.uk, London.

[27]   Lazarevic, D., Buclet, N. and Brandt, N. (2010) The Influence of the Waste Hierarchy in Shaping European Waste Management: The Case. Regional Development Dialogue, 31, 124-148.

[28]   EEA (2013) Municipal Waste Management in the UK. Copenhagen Resource Institute, Copenhagen.

[29]   DEFRA (2015) Digest of Waste and Resource Statistics—2015 Edition. Gov.uk, London, PB14292.

[30]   Environment FCC (2014) FCC Environment Is on the Road to Wigan’s Residual Waste Contract. http://www.fccenvironment.co.uk/fcc-environment-is-on-the-road-to-wigans-residual-waste-contract.html

[31]   GMWA (2012) Greater Manchester Joint Waste Development Plan Document. GMAU, Manchester.

[32]   GMWDA (2016) Resource Greater Manchester. GMWDA, Manchester.

[33]   Raufflet, E. (2008) Re-Mapping Corporate Environmental Management Paradigms. International Studies of Management and Organization, 36, 54-72.
https://doi.org/10.2753/IMO0020-8825360203

[34]   GMWDA (2018) Our Aim Is Zero Waste.
https://www.gmwda.gov.uk/

[35]   Singh, N. (2016) Solid Waste Management—A Look at Some Technologies of Department of Atomic Energy. Environment and Urbanization Asia, 7, 149-152.
https://doi.org/10.1177/0975425316629833

[36]   Tchobanoglous, G., Burton, F.L. and Stensel, H.D. (2010) Wastewater Engineering: Treatment, Disposal, Reuse. Fourth Edition, Metcalf & Eddy, Inc., New York, 1-12.

[37]   Wilderer, P. and Schreff, D. (2000) Decentralized and Centralized Wastewater Management a Challenge for Technology Developers. Water Science & Technology, 41, 1-8.

[38]   Eur-Lex (1999) Council Directive 1999/31/EC.

[39]   European Commission (2018) EU Ambassadors Approve New Rules on Waste Management and Recycling. http://www.consilium.europa.eu/en/press/press-releases/2018/02/23/eu-ambassadors-approve-new-rules-on-waste-management-and-recycling/

[40]   Eur-Lex (2018) Measuring Progress towards Circular Economy in the European Union—Key Indicators for a Monitoring Framework. Eur-lex.europa.eu, Strasbourg, 52018SC0017.

[41]   Eur-Lux (2010) On Future Steps in Bio-Waste Management in the European Union.

[42]   DEFRA (2017) Digest of Waste and Resource Statistics—2017 Edition. Gov.uk, London, PB14454.

[43]   DEFRA (2016) UK Statistics on Waste.

[44]   Chartered Institution of Wastes Management (CIWM) (2018) Composting.
https://www.ciwm.co.uk/ciwm/knowledge/composting.aspx

[45]   GMWDA (2012) Waste Management Strategy.

[46]   New Economy (2016) Greater Manchester Key Facts.

[47]   DEFRA (2010) Annual Report 2010/11.

[48]   Traversi, D., et al. (2015) Microbial-Chemical Indicator for Anaerobic Digester Performance Assessment in Full-Scale Wastewater Treatment Plants for Biogas Production. Bioresource Technology, 186, 179-191.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2015.03.042

[49]   Carrère, H., et al. (2010) Pretreatment Methods to Improve Sludge Anaerobic Degradability: A Review. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 183, 1-15.

[50]   Holm-Nielsen, J.B., Al Seadi, T. and Oleskowicz-Popiel, P. (2009) The Future of Anaerobic Digestion and Biogas Utilization. Bioresource Technology, 100, 5478-5484.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2008.12.046

[51]   Chen, Y., Cheng, J.J. and Creamer, K.S. (2008) Inhibition of Anaerobic Digestion Process: A Review. Bioresource Technology, 99, 4044-4064.

[52]   Peter-John, M. (1976) Methane: Planning a Digester. Schocken Books, New York, 3.

[53]   Reynaud, N. and Buckley, C. (2016) The Anaerobic Baffled Reactor (ABR) Treating Communal Wastewater under Mesophilic Conditions: A Review. Water Science and Technology, 73, 463-478.
https://doi.org/10.2166/wst.2015.539

[54]   European Commission (2009) Directive 2009/28/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council.

[55]   House of Parliament (2011) Anaerobic Digestion.

[56]   DEFRA (2011) Anaerobic Digestion Strategy and Action Plan. Gov.uk, London, PB13541.

[57]   European Commission (2010) Being Wise with Waste: The EU’s Approach to Waste Management.

[58]   Green Investment Bank (2015) The UK Anaerobic Digestion Market. GB, London.

[59]   Eurostat (2015) Each Person in the EU Generated 481 kg of Municipal Waste in 2013.

[60]   Eurostat (2016) EU Population up to Slightly over 510 Million at 1 January 2016.

[61]   DEFRA (2015) 2010 to 2015 Government Policy: Waste and Recycling. Gov.uk, London.

[62]   Office of National Statistics (2018) Population of the United Kingdom.

[63]   Greater Manchester (2018).
https://www.greatermanchester-ca.gov.uk/site/index.php

[64]   DEFRA (2013) Waste and Recycling Statistics.

 
 
Top