GEP  Vol.6 No.5 , May 2018
Vapour and Solution Uptake Properties of Starch and Cellulose Biopolymers
This study was aimed at gaining further insight on the role of hydration in adsorption processes of biopolymer/adsorbate systems using complementary methods (electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding, calorimetry, and solvent/vapour adsorption isotherms). Cellulose and starch-based materials were used as the adsorbents, whereas water (liquid and vapour), ethanol and p-nitrophenol (PNP) in aqueous solution were the adsorbate systems. The biopolymer/water systems had higher uptake capacity overall, where starch materials showed higher uptake capacity than cellulose among the various solvents. The secondary and tertiary structure of the biopolymers was a key factor affecting their uptake capacity, as evidenced by the enhanced adsorption properties of starch over cellulose, along with higher uptake of amylose (AM) versus amylopectin (AP) in starch biopolymers. EMI results also confirmed that AM starch had higher adsorption toward water than ethanol. The textural properties and surface chemistry of the biopolymers were probed using dye adsorption (PNP at pH 8.5) in aqueous solution that showed parallel trends with water vapour adsorption isotherms. Isothermal Titration Calorimetry (ITC) revealed that the heat of adsorption in AP differed from that of AM since the biopolymer tertiary structure governs the accessibility of biopolymer adsorption sites. The role of branching in AP and amorphous domains in AM/AP composites are inferred to play a key role in hydration-driven allosterism known for such biopolymer/water vapour adsorption processes.
Cite this paper: Dehabadi, L. , Shakouri, M. , J. Simonson, C. , Arjmand, M. , Sundararaj, U. and D. Wilson, L. (2018) Vapour and Solution Uptake Properties of Starch and Cellulose Biopolymers. Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection, 6, 101-117. doi: 10.4236/gep.2018.65009.

[1]   Kraak, A. (1992) Industrial Applications of Potato Starch Products. Industrial Crops and Products, 1, 107-112.

[2]   Alcazar-Alay, S.C. and Meireles, M.A.A. (2015) Physicochemical Properties, Modifications and Applications of Starches from Different Botanical Sources. Food Science and Technology, 35, 215-236.

[3]   Laya, C.-H., Kuo, S.-Y., Sen, B., Chen, C.-C., Chang, J.-Sh. and Lin, C.-Y. (2012) Fermentative Biohydrogen Production from Starch-Containing Textile Wastewater. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, 37, 2050-2057.

[4]   Singh, S., Gamlath, S. and Wakeling, L. (2007) Nutritional Aspects of Food Extrusion A Review. International Journal of Food Science and Technology, 42, 916-929.

[5]   Singh, N., Singh, J., Kaur, L., Sodhi, N.S. and Gill, B.S. (2003) Morphological, Thermal and Rheological Properties of Starches from Different Botanical Sources. Food Chemistry, 81, 219-231.

[6]   Yoshimoto, Y., Tashiro, J., Takenouchi, T. and Takeda, Y. (2000) Molecular Structure and Some Physicochemical Properties of High-Amylose Barley Starches. Cereal Chemistry, 77, 279-285.

[7]   Hizukuri, S. (1986) Polymodal Distribution of the Chain Length of Amylopectin and Its Significance. Carbohydrate Research, 141, 295-305.

[8]   Pérez, S. and Bertoft, E. (2010) The Molecular Structures of Starch Components and Their Contribution to the Architecture of Starch Granules: A Comprehensive Review. Starch/Staerke, 62, 389-420.

[9]   Imberty, A. and Perez, S. (1988) A Revisit to the Three-Dimensional Structure of B-Type Starch. Biopolymers, 27, 1205-1221.

[10]   Hoover, R. (2001) Composition, Molecular Structure, and Physicochemical Properties of Tuber and Root Starches: A Review. Carbohydrate Polymers, 45, 253-267.

[11]   Tester, R.F., Debon, S.J.J. and Sommerville, M.D. (2000) Annealing of Maize Starch. Carbohydrate Polymers, 42, 287-299.

[12]   Copeland, L., Blazek, J., Salman, H. and Tang, M.Ch. (2009) Form and Functionality of Starch. Food Hydrocolloids, 23, 1527-1534.

[13]   Xie, F., Yu, L., Su, B. and Chen, L. (2009) Rheological Properties of Starches with Different Amylose/Amylopectin Ratios. Journal of Cereal Science, 49, 371-377.

[14]   Somerville, C., Bauer, S., Brininstool, G., Facette, M., Hamann, T., Milne, J., Osborne, E., Paredez, A., Persson, S., Raab, T., Vorwerk, S. and Youngs, H. (2004) Toward a Systems Approach to Understanding Plant Cell Walls. Science, 306, 2206-2211.

[15]   Prestwich, G.D., Marecak, D.M., Marecek, J.F., Vercruysse, K.P. and Ziebell, M.R. (1998) Controlled Chemical Modification of Hyaluronic Acid: Synthesis, Applications, and Biodegradation of Hydrazide Derivatives. Journal of Controlled Release, 53, 93-103.

[16]   Udoetok, I.A., Wilson, L.D. and Headley, J.V. (2018) “Pillaring Effects” in Cross-Linked Cellulose Biopolymers: A Study of Structure and Properties. International Journal of Polymer Science, under review, and references cited therein.

[17]   Kocherbitov, V., Ulvenlund, S., Kober, M., Jarring, K. and Arnebrant, T. (2008) Hydration of Microcrystalline Cellulose and Milled Cellulose Studied by Sorption Calorimetry. Journal of Physical Chemistry B, 112, 3728-3734.

[18]   Immergut, E.H., Ranby, B.G. and Mark, H.F. (1953) Recent Work on Molecular Weights of Cellulose. Journal of Industrial & Engineering Chemistry, 45, 2483-2490.

[19]   Guo, C., Zhou, L. and Lv, J. (2013) Effects of Expandable Graphite and Modified Ammonium Polyphosphate on the Flame-Retardant and Mechanical Properties of Wood Flour-Polypropylene Composites. Polymers & Polymer Composites, 21, 449-456.

[20]   Kirby, B.J. and Hasselbrink Jr., E.F. (2004) Zeta Potential of Microfluidic Substrates: 1. Theory, Experimental Techniques, and Effects on Separations. Electrophoresis, 25, 187-202.

[21]   Pratt, D.Y., Wilson, L.D. and Kozinski, J.A.J. (2013) Preparation and Sorption Studies of Glutaraldehyde Cross-Linked Chitosan Copolymers. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 395, 205-211.

[22]   Arjmand, M., Mahmoodi, M., Gelves, G.A., Park, S. and Sundararaj, U. (2011) Electrical and Electromagnetic Interference Shielding Properties of Flow-Induced Oriented Carbon Nanotubes in Polycarbonate. Carbon, 49, 3430-3440.

[23]   Note A. ,et al. (2007)Meas. Tech 2005, 1-32.

[24]   Kumar, P., Kim, K.-H., Kwon, E.E. and Szulejko, J.E. (2016) Metal-Organic Frameworks for the Control and Management of Air Quality: Advances and Future Direction. Journal of Materials Chemistry A, 4, 345-361.

[25]   Dehabadi, L. and Wilson, L.D. (2014) Polysaccharide-Based Materials and Their Adsorption Properties in Aqueous Solution. Carbohydrate Polymers, 113, 471-479.

[26]   Mohamed, M.H., Wilson, L.D., Headley, J.V. and Peru, K.M. (2011) Investigation of the Sorption Properties of β-Cyclodextrin-Based Polyurethanes with Phenolic Dyes and Naphthenates. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 356, 217-226.

[27]   Czepirski, L., Komorowska-Czepirska, E. and Szymońska, J. (2002) Fitting of Different Models for Water Vapour Sorption on Potato Starch Granules. Applied Surface Science, 196, 150-153.

[28]   Zografi, G., Kontny, M.J., Yang, A.Y.S. and Brenner, G.S. (1984) Surface Area and Water Vapor Sorption of Microcrystalline Cellulose. International Journal of Pharmaceutics, 18, 99-116.

[29]   Hellman, N.N. and Melvin, E.H. (1950) Surface Area of Starch and Its Role in Water Sorption. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 72, 5186-5188.

[30]   Rowen, J.W. and Blaine, R.L. (1947) Sorption of Nitrogen and Water Vapor on Textile Fibers. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry, 39, 1659-1663.

[31]   Udoetok, I.A., Dimmick, R.M., Wilson, L.D. and Headley, J.V. (2016) Adsorption Properties of Cross-Linked Cellulose-Epichlorohydrin Polymers in Aqueous Solution. Carbohydrate Polymers, 136, 329-340.

[32]   Giese, M., Blusch, L.K., Schlesinger, M., Meseck, G.R., Hamad, W.Y., Arjmand, M., Sundararaj, U. and MacLachlan, M.J. (2016) Magnetic Mesoporous Photonic Cellulose Films. Langmuir, 32, 9329-9334.

[33]   Paul, C.R. (2006) Intoduction to Electromagnetic Compatibility. John Wiley & Sons Inc., New Jersey.

[34]   Arjmand, M. and Sundararaj, U. (2015) Electromagnetic Interference Shielding of Nitrogen-Doped and Undoped Carbon Nanotube/Polyvinylidene Fluoride Nanocomposites: A Comparative Study. Composites Science and Technology, 118, 257-263.

[35]   Van Den Berg, C., Kaper, F.S., Weldring, J.A.G. and Wolters, I. (1975) Water Binding by Potato Starch. International Journal of Food Science & Technology, 10, 589-602.

[36]   Kulik, A.S. and Haverkamp, J. (1997) Molecular Mobility of Polysaccharide Chains in Starch Investigated by Two-Dimensional Solid-State NMR Spectroscopy. Carbohydrate Polymers, 34, 49-54.

[37]   Drazin, J.W. and Castro, R.H.R. (2014) Water Adsorption Microcalorimetry Model: Deciphering Surface Energies of Water Chemical Potentials of Nanocrystalline Oxides. J. Phys. Chem. C, 118, 10131-10142.