AJIBM  Vol.8 No.5 , May 2018
Re-Shoring and Resilience in Italy during and after the Crisis
Abstract: Since 1990s, companies have started to shift their productions to the low-cost countries and this strategy is commonly known as offshoring. However, over the past years, the evidence shows that offshoring strategies may not continue to be beneficial for the organization’s companies activities. Consequently during the recent years, companies have begun to pay more attention to unquantifiable factors, such as the supply chain issue and strategy factors rather than simply relying on and the lowest price that in turn can mean the highest risk and high total cost. Having considered the discrepancy between the initially estimates cost of offshoring and those of actually occurred, companies are coming back through re-shoring strategies. In this paper, an overview of the main literature has been conducted to provide a better understanding of the term re-shoring. In the first section, various definitions and explanation of the concept of re-shoring will be presented. After that, the main motivations behind the re-shoring are discussed. The second part relies on the concept of resilience. We analyze resilience as a resource and response to the recent economic and financial crisis. In particular, this paper analyzes the role of economic resilience of the territories belonging to companies that have adopted offshoring strategies in the past and whether this has contributed to repatriation phenomena. In this regard, with the aid of recent data, we intend to understand the behavior of companies that have carried out re-shoring actions and their links with the economic resilience of the Italian regions. We also present whether there is a relationship at regional level between companies that have made re-shoring choices and the degree of economic resilience of a regional area. Finally, the critical considerations will be presented.
Cite this paper: Giuseppina, T. and Michele, S. (2018) Re-Shoring and Resilience in Italy during and after the Crisis. American Journal of Industrial and Business Management, 8, 1172-1196. doi: 10.4236/ajibm.2018.85081.

[1]   Fratocchi, L., Ancarani, A., Nassimbeni, G., Valente, M.E. and Zanoni, A. (2012) Le strategie di backshoring e nearshoring nelle imprese manifatturiere italiane: caratterizzazione del fenomeno e comparazione internazionale. Rapporto dell’Istituto nazionale per il Commercio estero (ICE), L’Italia nell’economia internazionale.

[2]   Fratocchi, L., Di Mauro, C., Barbieri, P., Nassimbeni, G. and Zanoni, A. (2014) When Manufacturing Moves Back: Concepts and Questions. Journal of Purchasing and Supply Management, 20, 54-59.

[3]   Fratocchi, L., Ancarani, A., Barbieri, P., Di Mauro, C., Nassimbeni, G., Sartor, M., Vignoli, M. and Zanoni, A. (2015) Il back-re-shoring manifatturiero nei processi di internazionalizzazione: Inquadramento teorico ed evidenze empiriche. Italian Journal of Management, 33, 125-147.

[4]   Di Mauro, C., Fratocchi, L., Orzes, G. and Srtor, M. (2017) Offshoring and Backshoring: A Multiple Case Study Analysis. Journal of Purchasing and Supply Management, 24, 108-134.

[5]   Ellram L.M. ,et al. (2013)Offshoring, Re-shoring and the Manufacturing Location Decision Journal of Supply Chain Management 49, 3-5.

[6]   Kinkel, S., Lay, G. and Maloca, S. (2007) Development, Motives and Employment Effects of Manufacturing Off-Shoring of German SMEs. International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, 4, 256-276.

[7]   Kinkel, S. and Maloca, S. (2009) Drivers and Antecedents of Manufacturing Off-Shoring and Backshoring—A German Perspective. Journal of Purchasing and Supply Management, 15, 154-165.

[8]   Kinkel, S. (2012) Trends in Production Relocation and Backshoring Activities: Changing Patterns in the Course of the Global Economic Crisis. International Journal of Operations & Production Management, 32, 696-720.

[9]   Kinkel, S. and Zanker, C. (2013) New Patterns of German Production Relocation and Back Shoring Activities after the Global Economic Crisis? European Operations Management Association (EurOMA).

[10]   Kinkel, S. (2014) Future and Impact of Backshoring. Some Conclusions from 15 Years of Research on German Practices. Journal of Purchasing & Supply Management, 20, 63-65.

[11]   ESPON (2012) Economic Crisis: Resilience of Regions. Inception Report, Espon-Cardiff University.

[12]   Benito, G.R.G. and Welch, L.S. (1997) De-Internationalization. MIR: Management International Review, 37, 7-25.

[13]   Benito, G.R.G., Petersen, B. and Welch, L.S. (2011) Mode Combinations and International Operations. Theoretical Issues and an Empirical Investigation. Management International Review, 51, 803-820.

[14]   Musso, F., Francioni, B. and Pagano, A. (2012) The Role of Country of Origin in Supporting Export Consortia.

[15]   Gray, J.V., Skowronsky, K., Esenduran, G. and Rungtudanatham, M.J. (2013) The Re-shoring Phenomenon: What Supply Chain Academics Ought to Know and Should Do. Journal of Supply Chain Management, 49, 27-33.

[16]   Holz, R. (2009) An Investigation into Offshoring and Backshoring in the German Automotive Industry. PhD Thesis, University of Wales, Swansea.

[17]   Mouhoud, E.M. (2007) Mondialisation et Délocalisation des Entreprises. éditions La Découverte, Parigi.

[18]   (2016) Uni-CLUB MoRe Back-Re-shoring Research Group. Eurofound.

[19]   ICE (2015) Parola d’ordine Re-shoring, rilocalizzare ora è un must. n. 8/15, Newsletter Diplomazia Economia Italiana.

[20]   KPMG Advisory S.p.A. (2015) The Italian Way. L’industria italiana tra re-shoring e nuovi modelli di sviluppo (a cura di). Ministero dello Sviluppo Economico.

[21]   Coe, N., Dicken, P. and Hess, M. (2008) Global Production Networks: Realizing the Potential. Journal of Economic Geography, 8, 271-295.

[22]   Gereffi, G. and Fernandez-Stark, K. (2011) Global Value Chain Analysis: A Primer. Center on Globalization, Governance & Competitiveness (CGGC), Duke University, Durham, NC.

[23]   Williamson, J. (2012) Growing Supply Chain Disruption Encourages Re-Shoring. Manufacturing Digital, 13 August 2012.

[24]   Martin R. ,et al. (2011)Regional Economic Resilience, Hysteresis and Recessionary Shocks Journal of Economic Geography 12, 1-32.

[25]   Sammie, J. and Martin, R. (2010) The Economic Resilience of Regions: Towards an Evolutionary Approach. Cambridge Journal of Regions, Economy and Society, 3, 27-43.

[26]   Holling, C.S. and Gunderson, L.H. (2002) Resilience and Adaptive Cycles. In: Gunderson, C.S. and Holling, C.S., Eds., Panarchy: Understanding Transformation in Human and Natural Systems, Island Press, Washington DC, 25-62.

[27]   Holling, C.S. (1996) Engineering Resilience versus Ecological Resilience. In: Schulze, P., Ed., Engineering within Ecological Constraints, National Academy Press, Washington DC.

[28]   Holling, C.S. (1973) Resilience and Stability of Ecological System. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 4, 1-23.

[29]   Pimm, S.L. (1984) The Complexity and Stability of Economic System. Nature, 307, 321-326.

[30]   Walker, B., Gunderson, L., Kinzig, A., Folke, C., Carpenter, S. and Schultz, L. (2006) A Handful of Heuristic and Some Propositions for Understanding Resilience in Socio-Ecological Systems. Ecological and Society, 11, 13.

[31]   Gunderson, L. and Pritchard, L. (2002) Resilience and the Behaviour of Large Scale System. Island Press, Washington DC.

[32]   Perrings, C. (2006) Resilience and Sustainable Development. Environment and Development Economics, 11, 417-427.

[33]   Hill, E.W., Wial, H. and Wolman, H. (2008) Exploring Regional Economic Resilience. Working Paper, Institute of Urban and Regional Development, University of California.

[34]   Christopherson, S., Michie, J.E and Tyler, P. (2010) Regional Resilience: Theoretical and Empirical Perspectives. Cambridge Journal of Regions, Economy and Society, 3, 3-10.

[35]   Clark, J., Huang, H.-I. and Walsh, J. (2010) A Typology of “Innovation Districts”: What It Means for Regional Resilience. Cambridge Journal of Regions Economy and Society, 3, 121-137.

[36]   Archibugi, D. and Lundvall, B.A. (2001) The Globalist Learning Economy. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

[37]   Pendall, R., Foster, K.A. and Cowell, M. (2008) Resilience and Regions: Building Understanding of the Metaphor. Mimeo Institute of Urban and Regional Development, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY.

[38]   Capineri, C., Celata, F., De Vincenzo, D., Dini, F., Randelli, F. and Romei, P. (2014) Oltre la Globalizzazione Resilienza/Resilience. Memorie Geografiche, No. 12.

[39]   Graziano, P. (2012) Rischio, vulnerabilità e Resilienza territoriale. Quaderni del Dipartimento di Scienze Economiche e Sociali, No. 87.

[40]   Briguglio, L. (2003). The Vulnerability Index and Small Island Developing States: A Review of Conceptual and Methodological Issues. Paper prepared for the AIMS Regional Preparatory Meeting on the Ten Year Review of the Barbados Programme of Action, Praia, Cape Verde, 1-5 September 2003.

[41]   Lagravinese, R. (2015) Regional Resilience and Rising Gaps North-South: The Case of Italy. Cambridge Journal of Regions, Economy and Society Advance, 8, 331-342.

[42]   SVIMEZ (2015) Rapporto SVIMEZ sull’Economia del Mezzogiorno. Il Mulino.