Back
 AiM  Vol.8 No.4 , April 2018
Evaluation of Antimicrobial Susceptibility by Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from the Nutrition Service of a Teaching Hospital
Abstract: The bacteria Staphylococcus aureus is found in the nasal passages, mouth and skin of the human population and stands out among foodborne diseases. Some causes of foodborne illness are related with food, handlers, and utensils contamination in a hospital’s nutrition service. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of S. aureus in food handlers, equipment, counter-tops and utensils of the nutrition service of a teaching hospital. Samples of the environment, hands and nasal mucosa of employees of a nutrition service were collected with two sterile swabs, in 2016, March and June. A total of 134 samples were obtained, which were submitted to characterization tests Biochemistry and morphotinorial (gram staining, catalase and coagulase tests in tube), phenotypic evaluation by drug diffusion technique and D-test approach, and the biofilm phenotype characterization by culture on Congo Red Agar. Results showed high rates of S. aureus colonization, mainly in the kitchen, high frequency of antimicrobial resistance, especially erythromycin and the presence of multi-resistant microorganisms. Large number of positive samples was also found for biofilm production, with totality for the samples of handlers. We highlight the relevance of the data in virtue of the serious consequences and risks that can be triggered in the hospital environment.
Cite this paper: da Silva, M. , Nicolete, G. , Lopes, B. , Morita, C. , de Souza, J. , Winkelstroter, L. and Rodrigues, M. (2018) Evaluation of Antimicrobial Susceptibility by Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from the Nutrition Service of a Teaching Hospital. Advances in Microbiology, 8, 270-285. doi: 10.4236/aim.2018.84018.
References

[1]   Bruginski, A. (2008) Implantação do sistema de nutrição hospitalar sob o eixo da integralidade. [dissertação]. Universidade do Vale do Itajaí, Itajaí.
http://siaibib01.univali.br/pdf/Andrea%20Bruginski.pdf

[2]   Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) Healthy and Balanced Nutrition Is Important for Everyone (2015). http://www.fao.org/docrep/005/y4168e/y4168e05.htm

[3]   Abreu, E.S., Viana, I.C., Moreno, R.B. and Torres, E.A.F. (2001) Alimentação mundial—uma reflexão sobre a história. Saúde e Sociedade, 10, 3-14.
https://doi.org/10.1590/S0104-12902001000200002

[4]   Oliveira, M.N., Brasil, A.L.D. and Taddei, J.A.A.D. (2008) Evaluation of the Hygienic-Sanitary Conditions of Kitchens in Public and Philanthropic Daycare Centers. Ciência and Saúde Coletiva, 13, 1051-1060.
https://doi.org/10.1590/S1413-81232008000300028

[5]   Center for Disease Control and Prevention (2015) The Food Production Chain—How Food Gets Contaminated.
https://www.cdc.gov/foodsafety/production-chain.html

[6]   Zandonadi, R.P., Botelho, R.B.A., Sávio, K.E.O., Akutsu, R.C. and Araújo, W.M. C. (2007) Atitudes de risco do consumidor em restaurantes de auto-serviço. Revista de Nutrição, 20, 19-26.
https://doi.org/10.1590/S1415-52732007000100002

[7]   Maia, I.C.P., Monteiro, M.A.M., Fonseca, J.L., Coelho, M.R.L., and Lopes, S.L.C. (2011) Análise da contaminação de utensílios em unidades de alimentação e nutrição hospitalar no município de Belo Horizonte - MG. Alimentos e Nutrição, 22, 265-271.
http://serv-bib.fcfar.unesp.br/seer/index.php/alimentos/article/view/1363/1117

[8]   World Health Organization (WHO) Prevention of Hospital-Acquired Infections. (2002).
http://www.who.int/csr/resources/publications/drugresist/en/whocdscsreph200212.pdf?ua=1

[9]   Ho, J., Boost, M.V. and O’donoghue, M.M. (2015) Tracking Sources of Staphylococcus aureus Hand Contamination in Food Handlers by Spa Typing. American Journal of Infection Control, 43, 759-761.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajic.2015.03.022

[10]   Tigre, D.M. and Borelly, M.A.N. (2011) Pesquisa de estafilococos coagulase-positiva em amostras de “queijo coalho” comercializadas por ambulantes na praia de Itapuã. Revista de Ciências Médicas e Biológicas, 10, 162-166.
https://portalseer.ufba.br/index.php/cmbio/article/viewFile/4593/4170
https://doi.org/10.9771/cmbio.v10i2.4593

[11]   Colli, V.C., Pizzolitto, A.C. and Raddi, M.S.G. (2009) Determinação da resistência de Staphylococcus aureus: Um desafio? Revista de Ciências Farmacêuticas Básica e Aplicada, 30, 115-118. http://serv-bib.fcfar.unesp.br/seer/index.php/Cien_Farm/article/viewFile/882/754

[12]   Mímica, M.J. and Berezin, E.M. (2006) Staphylococcus aureus resistente à vancomicina: Um problema emergente. Arquivos Médicos dos Hospitais e da Faculdade de Ciências Médicas da Santa Casa São Paulo, 51, 52-56.
http://www.fcmsantacasasp.edu.br/images/Arquivos_medicos/2006/51_2/vlm51n2_4.pdf

[13]   Melo, D.A., Coelho, I.S., Motta, C.C., Rojas, A.C.C.M., Dubenczuk, F.C., Coelho, S.M.O. and Souza, M.M.S. (2014) Impairments of mecA Gene Detection in Bovine Staphylococcus spp. Brazilian Journal of Microbiology, 45, 1075-1082.
https://doi.org/10.1590/S1517-83822014000300041

[14]   Seki, M., Takahashi, H., Yamamoto, N., Hamaguchi, S., Ojima, M., Hirose, T. Yoshiya, K., Ogura, H., Shimazu, T. and Tomono, K. (2015) Polymerase Chain Reaction-Based Active Surveillance of MRSA in Emergency Department Patients. Infection and Drug Resistance, 8, 113-118.
https://doi.org/10.2147/IDR.S80123

[15]   Moussallem, B.C., Kury, C.M.H. and Medina-Acosta, E. (2007) Detecção dos genes mecA e femA, marcadores moleculares de resistência a meticilina, em Staphylococcus spp. isolados de pacientes admitidos em uma Unidade Neonatal de Tratamento Intensivo. Revista Científica da Faculdade de Medicina de Campos, 2, 1-9.
http://www.fmc.br/ojs/index.php/RCFMC/article/view/151

[16]   Simojoki, H., Hyvonen, P., Ferrer, C.P., Taponen, S. and Pyorala, S. (2012) Is the Biofilm Formation and Smile Production Ability of Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci Associated with the Persistence and Severity of Intramammary Infection? Veterinary Microbiology, 158, 344-352.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2012.02.031

[17]   Oliveira, M.M.M., Brugnetra, D.F. and Piccoli, R.H. (2010) Biofilmes Microbianos na indústria de alimentos: uma revisão. Revista do Instituto Adolfo Lutz (Impresso), 69, 277-284.

[18]   Bresolin, B.M.Z., Dallstella, J.K. and Silva, E.F. (2005) Pesquisa sobre a bactéria Staphylococcus aureus na mucosa nasal e mãos de manipuladores de alimentos em Curitiba/Paraná/Brasil. Estudos de Biologia, 5, 27. http://www2.pucpr.br/reol/index.php/BS?dd1=15anddd99=view

[19]   Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) (2018) Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing. CLSI Approved Standard M100-S15. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, Wayne.

[20]   Greco, C., Mastronardi, C., Pagotto, F., Mack, D. and Ramirez-Arcos, S. (2008) Assessment of Bioilm-Forming Ability of Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci Isolated from Contaminated Platelet Preparations in Canada. Transfusion, 48, 969-977.

[21]   Arciola, C.R., Campoccia, D., Gamberini, S., Cervellati, M., Donati, E. and Montanaro, L. (2002) Detection of Slime Production by Means of an Optimised Congo Red Agar Plate Test Based on a Colourimetric Scale in Staphylococcus epidermidis Clinical Isolates Genotyped for Ica Locus. Biomaterials, 23, 4233-4239.
https://doi.org/10.1016/S0142-9612(02)00171-0

[22]   Biranjia-Hudoyao, S. and Latouche, M.C. (2016) Factors Affecting Microbial Load and Profile of Potential Pathogens and Food Spoilage Bacteria from Household Kitchen Tables. Journal of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology, 2016, Article ID: 3574149.

[23]   Furlaneto-Maia, L. and Pangoni, G. (2009) Avaliação microbiológica de preparações artesanais de dietas enteral em uma unidade de alimentação e nutrição. UNOPAR Científica Ciências Biológicas e da Saúde, 11, 27-30.
http://www.pgsskroton.com.br/seer/index.php/JHealthSci/article/view/1505/1443

[24]   Ré, L.C., Freiberger, J.A. and Knob, A. (2013) Incidência da bactéria Staphylococcus aureus na mucosa nasal e em mãos de manipuladores de alimentos em uma creche no município de Guarapuava (PR). Ambiência Guarapuava (PR), 9, 381-393.
http://revistas.unicentro.br/index.php/ambiencia/article/viewFile/1682/2068
https://doi.org/10.5777/ambiencia.2013.02.12


[25]   Franco, B.D.G.M. and Landgraf, M. (2005) Microbiologia dos alimentos. Atheneu, São Paulo.

[26]   Akutsu, R.C., Botelho, R.A., Camargo, E.B., Sávio, K.E.O. and Araújo, W.C. (2005) A ficha técnica de preparação como instrumento de qualidade na produção de refeições. Revista de Nutrição, 18, 277-279.
https://doi.org/10.1590/S1415-52732005000200012

[27]   José, J.F.B. (2014) Avaliação qualitativa de cardápios em uma unidade de alimentação e nutrição localizada em Vitória-ES. Demetra Alimentação Nutrição & Saúde, 9, 975-984.

[28]   Ramos, S.A., Souza, F.F.R., Fernandes, G.C.B. and Xavier, S.K.P. (2013) Avaliação qualitativa do cardápio e pesquisa de satisfação em uma unidade de alimentação e nutrição. Revista Alimentação e Nutrição, 24, 29-35.
http://200.145.71.150/seer/index.php/alimentos/article/view/29/2319

[29]   Al-Zoubi, M.S., Al-Tayyar, I.A., Hussein, E., Al-Jabali, A. and Khudairat, S. (2015) Antimicrobial Susceptibility Pattern of Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Clinical Specimens in Northern Area of Jordan. Iranian Journal of Microbiology, 57, 265-272.

[30]   Cruvinel, A.R., Silveira, A.R. and Soares, J.S. (2011) Perfil Antimicrobial Profile of Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Hospitalized Patients in UTI in the Distrito Federal. Cenarium Pharmacêutico, 4, 1-11.
http://www.unieuro.edu.br/sitenovo/revistas/downloads/farmacia/cenarium_04_16.pdf

[31]   Founou, L.L., Founou, R.C. and Essack, S.Y. (2016) Antibiotic Resistance in the Food Chain: A Developing Country-Perspective. Frontiers in Microbiology, 7, 1881.
https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2016.01881

[32]   Ghanbari, F., Ghajavan, H., Havaei, R., Jami, M.S., Khademi, F., Heydari, L. and Shahin, M. (2016) Distribution of Erm Genes among Staphylococcus aureus Isolates with Inducible Resistance to Clindamycin in Isfahan. Advanced Biomedical Research, 22, 62.

[33]   Prabhu, K., Rao, S. and Rao, V. (2011) Inducible Clindamycin Resistance in Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Clinical Samples. Journal of Laboratory Physicians, 3, 25-27.
https://doi.org/10.4103/0974-2727.78558

[34]   Adegoke, A.A., Faleye, A.C., Singh, G. and Stenström, T.A. (2017) Antibiotic Resistant Superbugs: Assessment of the Interrelationship of Occurrence in Clinical Settings and Environmental Niches. Molecules, 22, 1-17.

[35]   Queiroz, G.M., Silva, L.M., Pietro, R.C.L.R. and Salgado, H.R.N. (2012) Multirresistência microbiana e opções terapêuticas disponíveis. Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Clínica Médica, 10, 132-138. http://files.bvs.br/upload/S/1679-1010/2012/v10n2/a2783.pdf

[36]   Santos, N.Q. (2004) A resistência bacteriana no contexto da infecção hospitalar. Texto & Contexto Enfermagem, 13, 64-70.
https://doi.org/10.1590/S0104-07072004000500007

[37]   Gushiken, C.Y., Medeiros, L.B., Correia, B.P., Souza, J.M., Moris, D.V., Pereira, V.C., Giuffrida, R. and Rodrigues, M.V.P. (2016) Nasal Carriage of Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a Medical Student Community. Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências, 88, 1501-1509.
https://doi.org/10.1590/0001-3765201620160123

[38]   Amorim, D.M.R., Person, O.C., Amaral, P.J. and Tanaka, I.I. (2009) Resistência induzível à clindamicina entre isolados clínicos de Staphylococcus aureus. O Mundo da Saúde, 33, 401-405.
https://www.saocamilo-sp.br/pdf/mundo_saude/70/401a405.pdf

[39]   Martinez, R. (2005) Resistência do pneumococo à penicilina e aos macrolídeos: Implicações no tratamento das infecções respiratórias. Jornal Brasileiro de Pneumologia, 31, 4-5.
https://doi.org/10.1590/S1806-37132005000400002

[40]   Anvisa (2008) Teste de sensibilidade aos antimicrobianos.
http://www.anvisa.gov.br/servicosaude/controle/rede_rm/cursos/boas_praticas/modulo5/sta7.htm

[41]   Rezaei, M., Moniri, R., Mousavi, S.G.A. and Shiade, M.J. (2013) Prevalence of Biofilm Formation among Methicillin Resistance Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Nasal Carriers. Jondishapur Journal of Microbiology, 6, e960L.
https://doi.org/10.5812/jjm.9601

[42]   Souza, E.L., Meira, Q.G.S., Barbosa, I.M., Athayde, A.J.A.A., Conceição, M.L. and Siqueira Júnior, J.P. (2014) Biofilm Formation by Staphylococcus aureus from Food Contact Surfaces in a Meat-Based Broth and Sensitivity to Sanitizers. Brazilian Journal of Microbiology, 45, 67-75.
https://doi.org/10.1590/S1517-83822014000100010

[43]   Vazquez-Sanchez, D., Habimana, O. and Holck, O.A. (2013) Impact of Food-Related Environmental Factors on the Adherence and Biofilm Formation of Natural Staphylococcus aureus Isolates. Current Microbiology, 66, 110-121.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s00284-012-0247-8

[44]   Silva, E.C.B.F., Samico, T.M., Cardoso, R.C., Rabelo, M.A., Neto, A.M.B., Melo, F.L., Lopes, A.C.S., Aça, I.S. and Maciel, M.A.B. (2012) Colonização pelo Staphylococcus aureus em profissionais de enfermagem de um hospital escola de Pernambuco. Revista da Escola de Enfermagem da USP, 46, 132-137.
https://doi.org/10.1590/S0080-62342012000100018

[45]   Smith, K., Perez, A., Ramage, G., Lappin, D., Gemmell, C.G. and Lang, S. (2008) Biofilm Formation by Scottish Clinical Isolates of Staphylococcus aureus. Journal of Medical Microbiology, 57, 1018-1023.
https://doi.org/10.1099/jmm.0.2008/000968-0

 
 
Top