Back
 MSA  Vol.9 No.4 , April 2018
Elastomer Composites with Enhanced Ice Grip Based on Renewable Resources
Abstract: Slips and falls on icy surfaces can cause serious injuries of people. The primary risk factor for slipping incidents is undoubtedly the decreased friction coefficient between the shoe sole and the ice or snow surface. Nowadays environmental protection has been gaining significance and becoming highly important for the various innovation strategies. In rubber industry the concept of environmental protection is more often associated with the maximum use of elastomers and ingredients from renewable sources in the manufacture of rubber products. The aim of this work is to investigate the possibilities of using elastomers and ingredients from renewable sources—epoxidized natural rubber, silica obtained by rice husks incineration and microcrystalline cellulose—as fillers and rapeseed oil as a process additive in compositions, intended for the manufacture of soles for winter footwear having an increased coefficient of friction to icy surfaces. The tribological tests based on the coefficient of friction evaluated the adhesion of the composites to the icy surfaces at different temperatures. The complex evaluation of developed composites revealed those containing microcrystalline cellulose and biogenic amorphous silica at a 1:1 ratio as the most suitable for making footwear soles because of the best combination of physicо-mechanical properties and coefficient of friction.
Cite this paper: Dishovski, N. , Mitkova, F. , Kandeva, M. , Angelov, Y. , Uzunov, I. , Ivanov, M. and Klissurski, D. (2018) Elastomer Composites with Enhanced Ice Grip Based on Renewable Resources. Materials Sciences and Applications, 9, 412-429. doi: 10.4236/msa.2018.94028.
References

[1]   Lurid, J. (1984) Accidental Falls at Work, in the Home and during Leisure Activities. Journal of Occupational Accidents, 6, 181-193.

[2]   Honkanen, R. (1982) The Role of Slippery Weather in Accidental Falls. Journal of Occupational Accidents, 4, 257-262.
https://doi.org/10.1016/0376-6349(82)90033-5

[3]   Derler, S., Kausch, F. and Huber, R. (2008) Analysis of Factors Influencing the Friction Coefficients of sHoe Sole Materials. Safety Science, 46, 822-832.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssci.2007.01.010

[4]   Groonqvist, R. and Hirvonen, M. (1995) Slipperiness of Footwear and Mechanisms of Walking Friction on Icy Surfaces. International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 16, 191-200.
https://doi.org/10.1016/0169-8141(94)00095-K

[5]   Gao, C., Abeysekera, J., Hirvonen, M. and Aschan, C. (2003) The Effect of Footwear Sole Abrasion on the Coefficient of Friction on Melting and Hard Ice. International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 31, 323-330.
https://doi.org/10.1016/S0169-8141(02)00234-2

[6]   Takahashi, T., Hayashi, N. and Hayashi, S. (1996) Structure and Properties of Shapememory Polyurethane Block Copolymers. Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 60, 1061-1069.
https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1097-4628(19960516)60:7<1061::AID-APP18>3.0.CO;2-3

[7]   McLachlan, G. (2004) Discriminant Analysis and Statistical Pattern Recognition. Wiley Interscience.

[8]   US Patent 4 427 831/1984.

[9]   Michelin’s Eurasian Patent 201290524.

[10]   World Patent WO 2012/146611A1 by Michelin.

[11]   World Patent WO 2011/073188 А1 by Michelin.

[12]   World Patent WO 2014/067828 by Michelin.

[13]   Baan, R. (2007) Carcinogenic Hazards from Inhaled Carbon Black, Titanium Dioxide, and Talc Not Containing Asbestos or Asbestiform Fibers: Recent Evaluations by an IARC Monographs, Working Group. Inhalation Toxicology, 19, 213-228.
https://doi.org/10.1080/08958370701497903

[14]   Sorahan, T. and Harrington, J. (2007) A “Lugged” Analysis of Lung Cancer Risks in UK Carbon Black Production Workers, 1951-2004. American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 50, 555-564.
https://doi.org/10.1002/ajim.20481

[15]   Barlow, P., Clouter-Baker, A., Donaldson, K., MacCallum, J. and Stone, V. (2005) Carbon Black Nanoparticles Induce Type II Epithelial Cells to Release Chemotaxins for Alveolar Macrophages. Particle and Fibre Toxicology, 2, 11-25.
https://doi.org/10.1186/1743-8977-2-11

[16]   Xu, S.H., Gu, J., Luo, Y.F. and Jia, D.M. (2012) Effects of Partial Replacement of Silica with Surface Modified Nanocrystalline Cellulose on Properties of Natural Rubber Nanocomposites. eXPRESS Polymer Letters, 6, 14-25.
https://doi.org/10.3144/expresspolymlett.2012.3

[17]   Mansor, M. (2016) Properties Evaluation of Micro-Crystalline Cellulose and Starch as Biofiller in Rubber Compounding. Advanced Materials Research, 1133, 593-597.

[18]   Arayapranee, W., Na-Ranong, N. and Rempel, G. (2005) Application of Rice Husk Ash as Fillers in the Natural Rubber Industry. Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 98, 34-41.
https://doi.org/10.1002/app.21004

[19]   Pongdong, W., Nakason, C., Kummerlowe, C. and Vennemann, N. (2015) Influence of Filler from a Renewable Resource and Silane Coupling Agent on the Properties of Epoxidized Natural Rubber Vulcanizates. Journal of Chemistry, 2015, Article ID: 796459.
https://doi.org/10.1155/2015/796459

[20]   Arayapranee, W. and Rempel, G. (2008) A Comparative Study of the Cure Characteristics, Processability, Mechanical Properties, Ageing, and Morphology of Rice Husk Ash, Silica and Carbon Black Filled 75:25 NR/EPDM Blends. Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 109, 932-941.
https://doi.org/10.1002/app.28111

[21]   Arayapranee, W. and Rempel, G. (2008) A Comparison of the Properties of Rice Husk Ash, Silica, and Calcium Carbonate Filled 75:25 NR/EPDM Blends. Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 110, 1165-1174.
https://doi.org/10.1002/app.28725

[22]   Baker, C., Gelling, I. and Samsuri, A. (1986) Epoxidised Natural Rubber. Journal of Natural Rubber Research, 1, 135-144.

[23]   Gelling, I. (1991) Epoxidised Natural Rubber. Journal of Natural Rubber Research, 6, 184-205.

[24]   Baker, C., Gelling, I. and Palmer, J. (1985) Epoxidised Natural Rubber in Passenger Car Tire Treads. Proceedings of International Rubber Conference 1985 Kuala Lumpur, 336-352.

[25]   Sarkawi, S. and Mt Saad, C. (2011) Reinforcement of Epoxidised Natural Rubber by Precipitated Silica Nanofiller: Studies on Cure Characteristics and Rubber-Filler Interaction. Journal of Industrial Technology, 20, 103-121.

[26]   Dishovsky, N., Malinova, P. and Uzunov, I. (2017) Biogenic Amorphous Silica as Filler for Elastomers. Journal of Renewable Materials.
https://doi.org/10.7569/JRM.2017.634171

[27]   Lanning, F.C. (1963) Plant Constituents, Silicon in Rice. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 11, 435-437.
https://doi.org/10.1021/jf60129a024

[28]   Hanna, S., Farag, L. and Mansour, N. (1984) Pyrolysis and Combustion of Treated and Untreated Rice Hulls. Thermochimica Acta, 81, 77-86.
https://doi.org/10.1016/0040-6031(84)85112-6

[29]   Yuvaraj, P., Raghava Rao, J., Nishad Fathima, N., Natchimuthu, N. and Mohan, R. (2017) Complete Replacement of Carbon Black Filler in Rubber Sole with CaO Embedded Activated Carbon Derived from Tannery Solid Waste. Journal of Cleaner Production, 170, 446-450.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2017.09.188

[30]   Bulgarian State Standard N 5658-72.

[31]   Medalia, A. (1978) Effect of Carbon Black on Dynamic Properties of Rubber Vulcanizates. Rubber Chemistry and Technology, 51, 437-523.
https://doi.org/10.5254/1.3535748

[32]   Poh, B., Ismail, H. and Tan, K. (2002) Effect of Filler Loading on Tensile and Tear Properties of SMR L/ENR 25 and SMR L/SBR Blends Cured via a Semi-Efficient Vulcanization System. Polymer Testing, 21, 801-806.
https://doi.org/10.1016/S0142-9418(02)00014-4

[33]   Sarkawi, S., Aziz, A., Rahim, R., Ghani, R. and Kamaruddin, A. (2016) Properties of Epoxidized Natural Rubber Tread Compound: The Hybrid Reinforcing Effect of Silica and Silane System. Polymers & Polymer Composites, 24, 775-781.

[34]   Matador, S. (2007) Test Methods of Rubber Materials and Products. VERT, 111-113.

[35]   Martens, J., Terrill, E., Lewis, J., Pazur, R. and Hoffman, R. (2013) Effect of Deformation Mode in Prediction of Tire Performance by Dynamic Mechanical Analysis. Rubber World Magazine, 248, 29-35.

[36]   Nordsiek, K. (1985) The Integral Rubber Concept—An Approach to an Ideal Tire Tread Rubber. Kautschuk, Gummi, Kunststoffe, 38,178-185.

[37]   Moncalero, M., Signetti, S., Mazzanti, B., Bruzzi, P., Pugno, N.M. and Colonna, M. (2017) Effect of Material Elastic Properties and Surface Roughness on Grip Performances of Ski Boot Soles under Wet and Icy Conditions. International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 61, 62-70.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ergon.2017.04.004

[38]   Eichhorn, S. (2001) The Young Modulus of Microcrytalline Cellulose. Cellulose, 8, 197-207.
https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1013181804540

[39]   Chung, H., Kong, S. and Kim, D. (2012) Study on the Compressive Modulus of Nylon-11/Silica Nanocomposites. Journal of Nanomaterials, 2012, Article ID: 615489.
https://doi.org/10.1155/2012/615489

 
 
Top