MSA  Vol.9 No.4 , April 2018
Very High Cycle Fatigue Behaviors and Surface Crack Growth Mechanism of Hydrogen-Embrittled AISI 304 Stainless Steels
Abstract: The influence of hydrogen embrittlement on the fatigue behaviors of AISI 304 stainless steel is investigated. The fatigue endurance limits of the untreated and hydrogen-embrittled materials were almost the same at 400 MPa, and hydrogen embrittlement had little influence even though the sample contained about 8.1 times more hydrogen. Thus, the sensitivity of hydrogen gas in this material is very low. A surface crack initiation, growth, coalescence, and micro ridge model is proposed in this study. Slip line formation ⇒ microcrack formation ⇒ increases in the crack width, and blunting of the crack tip as it grows ⇒ formation of many slip lines because of deformation in the shear direction ⇒ growth of the crack in the shear direction, forming micro ridges, coalescence with adjacent cracks ⇒ continuous initiation, growth, coalescence, and ridge formation of surface cracks and specimen breakage.
Cite this paper: Nahm, S. , Shim, H. , Baek, U. and Suh, C. (2018) Very High Cycle Fatigue Behaviors and Surface Crack Growth Mechanism of Hydrogen-Embrittled AISI 304 Stainless Steels. Materials Sciences and Applications, 9, 393-411. doi: 10.4236/msa.2018.94027.

[1]   Shin, H.S., Kim, K.H., Back, U.B. and Nahm, S.H. (2011) Development of Evaluation Technique for Hydrogen Embrittlement Behavior of Metallic Materials Using In-Situ SP Testing under Pressurized Hydrogen Gas Conditions. Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A, 35, 1377-1382.

[2]   Suh, C.M., Nahm, S.H., Kim, J.H. and Pyun, Y.S. (2016) A Study on the VHCF Fatigue Behaviors of Hydrogen Attacked Inconel 718 Alloy. Transactions of the Korean Society of Me-chanical Engineers A, 40, 637-646.

[3]   Nahm, S.H., Baek, U.B., Suh, C.M. and Pyun, Y.S. (2017) Study on VHCF Fatigue Behaviors and UNSM Effects of Hydrogen Attached STS 316L. Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A, 41, 1011-1020.

[4]   Bechtle, S., Kumar, M., Somerday, B.P., Launey, M.E. and Ritchie, R.O. (2009) Grain-Boundary Engineering Markedly Reduces Susceptibility to Intergranular Hydrogen Embrittlement in Metallic Materials. Acta Materialia, 57, 4148-4157.

[5]   Cotterill, P.J. and King, J.E. (1991) Hydrogen Embrittlement Contributions to Fatigue Crack Growth in a Structural Steel. International Journal of Fatigue, 13, 447-452.

[6]   Bruchhausen, M., Fischer, B., Ruiz, A., Gonzalez, S., Hahner, P. and Soller, S. (2015) Impact of Hydrogen on the High Cycle Fatigue Behavior of Inconel 718; a Symmetric Push-Pull Mode at Room Temperature. International Journal of Fatigue, 70, 137-145.

[7]   Kouters, M.H.M., Slot, H.M., van Zwieten, W. and van der Veer, J. (2014) The Influence of Hydrogen on the Fatigue Life of Metallic Leaf Spring Components in a Vacuum Environment. International Journal of Fatigue, 59, 309-314.

[8]   Karsch, T., Clausen, B. and Zoch, H.W. (2014) Influence of Hydrogen and Deoxidation Technique on the Fatigue Behaviour of Steel SAE 52100 in the VHCF Regime. 6th International Conference on VHCF, Chengdu, 15-18 October 2014.

[9]   Suh, C.M., Lee, M.H. and Pyoun, Y.S. (2010) Fatigue Characteristics of SKD-61 by Ultrasonic Nanocrystal Surface Modification Technology under Static Load Variation. International Journal of Modern Physics B, 24, 2645-2650.

[10]   Suh, C.M., Song, G.H., Suh, M.S. and Pyoun, Y.S. (2007) Fatigue and Mechanical Characteristics of Nanostructured Tool Steel by Ultrasonic Cold Forging Technology. Materials Science & Engineering A, 443, 101-106.

[11]   Roland, T., Retraint, D., Lu, K. and Lu, J. (2006) Fatigue Life Improvement through Surface Nanostructuring of Stainless Steel by Means of Surface Mechanical Attrition Treatment. Scripta Materialia, 54, 1949-1954.

[12]   Dai, K. and Shaw, L. (2008) Analysis of Fatigue Resistance Improvements via Surface Severe Plastic Deformation. International Journal of Fatigue, 30, 1398-1402.

[13]   Tian, J.W., Villegas, J.C., Yuan, W., Fielden, D., Shaw, L., Liaw, P.K. and Klarstrom, D.L. (2007) A Study of the Effect of Nanostructured Surface Layers on the Fatigue Behaviors of a C-2000 Superalloy. Materials Science & Engineering A, 164-168.

[14]   Wang, T., Wang, D.P., Liu, G., Gong, B.M. and Song, N.X. (2008) Investigations on the Nanocrystallization of 40 Cr Using Ultrasonic Surface Rolling Processing. Applied Surface Science, 255, 1824-1828.

[15]   Gill, A., Telang, A., Mannava, S.R., Qian, D., Pyun, Y.S., Soyama, H. and Vasudevan, V.K. (2013) Comparison of Mechanisms of Advanced Mechanical Surface treatments in Nickel-Based Superalloy. Materials Science & Engineering A, 576, 346-355.

[16]   Pyun, Y.S., Kim, J.H., Suh, C.M., Cho, I.S., Oh, J.Y., Wang, Q. and Khan, M.K. (2014) The Rotary Bending Fatigue and Ultrasonic Fatigue Performance of Ti-6Al-4V ELI and STA Alloys after Ultrasonic Nanocrystal Surface Modification Treatment. 6th International Conference on VHCF, Chengdu, 5-18 October 2014.

[17]   Sakai, T., Murase, T., Yoshiyama, S., Torimaru, T. and Takeda, M. (2004) Rotating Bending Fatigue Property of Structural Steels Having Different Strength Levels in Gigacycle Regime. Proceedings of 3rd International Conference on Very High Cycle Fatigue, Kusatsu, Japan, 16-19 September 2004, 641-648.

[18]   Kitagawa, H., Takahashi, S., Suh, C.M. and Miyashita, S. (1979) Quantitative Analysis of Fatigue Process: Microcracks and Slip Lines under Cyclic Strains. ASTM STP, 678, 420-449.

[19]   Suh, C.M., Yuuki, R. and Kitagawa, H. (1985) Fatigue Microcracks in a Low Carbon Steel. Fatigue & Fracture of Engineering Materials & Structures, 8, 193-203.

[20]   Suh, C.M. and Kitagawa, H. (1987) Crack Growth Behaviour of Fatigue Microcracks in Low Carbon Steels. Fatigue & Fracture of Engineering Materials & Structures, 9, 409-424.

[21]   Kitagawa, H., Nakasone, Y. and Shimodaira, M. (1985) A Fracture Mechanics Study of the Corrosion Fatigue of a Structural Steel with a Surface Defect. Transactions of the JSME Series A, 51, 1026-1033.

[22]   Nahm, S.H. and Suh, C.M. (1997) Observation on the Growth Behavior of Small Surface Cracks Using Remote Measurement System. ASTM STP, 1318, 71-84.

[23]   Jung, H.G. (2011) Hydrogen Embrittlement Phenomenon of Steel Materials. Journal of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers, 51, 42-44.

[24]   Suh, C.M., Suh, M.S. and Hwang, N.S. (2012) Growth Behaviours of Small Surface Fatigue Crack in AISI 304 Steel. Fatigue & Fracture of Engineering Materials & Structures, 35, 22-29.