JWARP  Vol.10 No.4 , April 2018
An Integrated Optimal Approach for Solar Powered Rural Water Distribution Systems in the Gambia
Abstract: In the Gambia and across sub-Saharan Africa, reliable access to clean water and electrical power is constrained. As most rural water supply systems are built, enhanced understanding of efficiencies and optimisation is required. Here, methods of integrating estimations of power outputs from solar photovoltaic arrays into gravity-fed water distribution network modelling are investigated. The effects of powering a rural water distribution system that is replenished with groundwater pumps that use solar power are investigated, along with the effect of this on other network design decisions. The water storage tank and pipework of a rural community with an estimated 2800 people and 28 standpipes from a borehole was selected. EPANET modelling software and genetic algorithms were used to run network optimisation simulations of: water tank location, elevation and volume; pipe diameter and configuration; and optimal system design in terms of cost. Different scenarios were produced, including supply, demand and required water storage curves, which could have practical application for rural water distribution system design. Indicative costs for theoretical water distribution networks will be useful for decision makers and planners.
Cite this paper: Davey, H. , Ingram, W. and Memon, F. (2018) An Integrated Optimal Approach for Solar Powered Rural Water Distribution Systems in the Gambia. Journal of Water Resource and Protection, 10, 408-421. doi: 10.4236/jwarp.2018.104022.

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