Back
 GEP  Vol.6 No.4 , April 2018
Heavy Metals Distribution and Their Correlation with Clay Size Fraction in Stream Sediments of the Lesser Zab River at Northeastern Iraq
Abstract: Heavy metals (i.e. Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr, Ba, Pb, V and Ga) distribution and their correlation with clay fraction were investigated. Fifteen samples of stream sediments were collected from the Lesser Zab River (LZR), which represent one of three major tributaries of the Tigris River at north-eastern Iraq. Grain size distributions and textural composition indicate that these sediments are mainly characterized as clayey silt and silty sand. This indicates that the fluctuation in the relative variation of the grain size distribution in the studied sediments is due local contrast in the hydrological conditions, such as stream speed, energy of transportation and geological, geomorphological and climatic characterizations that influenced sediments properties. On the other hand, clay mineral assemblages consist of palygorskite, kaolinite, illite, chlorite and smectite, which in turn reveals that these sediments were derived from rocks of similar mineralogical and chemical composition as it is coincided with other published works. The clay mineral assemblages demonstrate that major phase transformations were not observed except for the palygorskite formation from smectite, since the minerals pair exhibit good negative correlation (-0.598) within the Lesser Zab River (LZR) sediments. To determine interrelation between the heavy metals and the clay fractions in the studied samples, correlation coefficients and factor analysis were performed. Heavy metals provide significant positive correlation with themselves and with Al2O3, Fe2O3 and MnO. In addition, the results of factor analysis extracted two major factors; the first factor loading with the highest percent of variation (60%) from the major (Fe2O3, Al2O3 and MnO in weight %), heavy metals and clay fraction. While the second factor with the (14%) of variance includes Cr and silt fraction, which indicate the affinity of the heavy metals being adsorbed onto solid phase like clay particles. These observations suggest that a common mechanism regulates the heavy metal abundance, and that their concentrations are significantly controlled by fine clay fractions, clay mineral abundance and ferro manganese oxides-hydroxides.
Cite this paper: Ali, A. and Talabani, M. (2018) Heavy Metals Distribution and Their Correlation with Clay Size Fraction in Stream Sediments of the Lesser Zab River at Northeastern Iraq. Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection, 6, 89-106. doi: 10.4236/gep.2018.64006.
References

[1]   Joshua, E.O. and Oyebanjo, O.A. (2010) Grain-Size and Heavy Mineral Analysis of River Osun Sediments. Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 4, 498-501.

[2]   Jayalakshmi, K., Nair, K.M., Hisao, K. and Santosh, M. (2003) Mineralogical and Geochemical Variations as Indicators of Provenance in the Heavy Mineral Deposits of Ambalapuzha Beach Sands, SW Coast of India, Journal of Geosciences, 46, 157-168.

[3]   Karbassi, A.R., Monavari, S.M., Nabi Bidhendi, G.R., Nouri, J. and Nematpour, K. (2008) Metal Pollution Assessment of Sediment and Water in the Shur River. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 147, 107-116.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-007-0102-8

[4]   Murthy, B.N. (1977) Sedimentation Studies in Reservoirs, Technical Report, 1 (20), Central Board of Irrigation and Power, New Delhi, 105 p.

[5]   Muwanga, A. (1997) Environmental Impacts of Copper Mining at Kilembe, Uganda: A Geochemical Investigation of Heavy Metal Pollution of Drainage Waters, Stream, Sediments and Soils in the Kilembe Valley in Relation to Mine Waste Disposal. Ph.D. Dissertation, Universitat Braunschweig, Germany.

[6]   Zoumis, T., Schmidt, A., Grigorova, L. and Calmano, W. (2001) Contaminants in Sediments: Remobilisation and Demobilisation. Science of The Total Environment, 266, 195-202.
https://doi.org/10.1016/S0048-9697(00)00740-3

[7]   Chakravarty, M. and Patgiri, A.D. (2009) Metal Pollution Assessment in Sediments of the Dikrong River, N.E. India. Journal of Human Ecology, 27, 63-67.
https://doi.org/10.1080/09709274.2009.11906193

[8]   Salomons, W. and Forstner, U. (1984) Metals in the Hydrocycle. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, Tokyo.
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-69325-0

[9]   Prego, R., Barciela, C. and Varela, M. (1999) Nutrient Dynamics in the Galician Coastal Area (Northwestern Iberian Peninsula): Do the Rias Bajas Receive More Nutrient Salts than the Rias Altas? Continental Shelf Research, 19, 317-334.
https://doi.org/10.1016/S0278-4343(98)00099-5

[10]   Rasul, A.K. (2013) Hydrochemistry and Geochemistry of Recent Sediments of Lesser Zab River and Dokan Reservoir, Kurdistan Region-NE Iraq. Ph.D Thesis, College of Science, University of Salahaddin-Erbil, 163 p.

[11]   Juracic, M., Bauman, I. and Pavdic, V. (1982) Are the Sediments the Ultimate Depository of Hydrocarbon Pollutions? Vème Journées Etudes Pollutions Marin, Cannes, 83-87.

[12]   Ho, H.H., Swennen, R. and Van Damme, A. (2010) Distribution of Heavy Metals in Estuarine Sediments near Cua Ong Harbor, Ha Long Bay, Vietnam. Geologica Beligica, 13, 37-47.

[13]   Bolton, C.M.G. (1958) The Geology of Ranyia Area. GEOSURV, Int. Report No. 276. Site Investigation Company Ltd., England.

[14]   Jassim S.Z. and Goff J.C. (2006) Geology of Iraq, Dolin, Prague, Czech Republic. 241 p.

[15]   Jassim, S.Z., Raiswell, R., Bottrell, H. (1999) Genesis of the Middle Miocene Strata-Bound Sulphur Deposits of Northern Iraq. Journal of the Geological Society London, 156, 25-99.
https://doi.org/10.1144/gsjgs.156.1.0025

[16]   Numan, N.M.S. (1997) A Plate Tectonic Scenario for the Phanerozoic Succession in Iraq. Journal of the Geological Society of Iraq, 30, 85-110.

[17]   Numan, N.M.S. (2001) Discussion on; Dextral Transportation in Late Cretaceous Continental Collision, Sanandaj-Sirjan-Zone, Western Iran. Journal of Structural Geology, 23, 2033-2034.
https://doi.org/10.1016/S0191-8141(01)00075-X

[18]   Ali, A.R. (2012) Major and Trace Elements Distribution in Stream Sediments of the Lesser Zab River at Northeastern Iraq: Implications to Weathering and Transportation. Iraqi Bulletin of Geology and Mining, 8, 25-44.

[19]   Timothy, E. and Tour, La. (1989) Analysis of Rocks Using X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometry. The Rigaku Journal, 6, 3-9.

[20]   Johnson, D.M., Hooper P.R. and Conrey, R.M. (1997) XRF Analysis of Rocks and Minerals for Major and Trace Elements on a Single Low Dilution Li-Tetraborate Fused Bead. Advances in X-Ray Analysis, 41, 843-867.

[21]   Stephens, W.E. and Calder, A. (2004) Analysis of Non-Organic Elements in Plant Foliage Using Polarized X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometry. Analytica Chimica Acta, 527, 89-96.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aca.2004.08.015

[22]   Carver, R.E. (1971) Procedures in Sedimentary Petrology. John Wiley and Sons, New York, 329 p.

[23]   Folk, R.L. (1974) Petrology of Sedimentary Rocks. Hemphill, TX, 182 p.

[24]   Folk, R.L. and Ward, W.C. (1957) Brazos River Bar—A Study in the Significance of Grain Size Parameters. Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, 27, 3-26.
https://doi.org/10.1306/74D70646-2B21-11D7-8648000102C1865D

[25]   Carroll, D. (1970) Clay Minerals: A Guide to Their X-Ray Identification. Special Paper 126. Geological Society of America, Colorado, 80 p.
https://doi.org/10.1130/SPE126-p1

[26]   Chao, G.Y. (1969) 2θ (Cu) Table for Common Minerals. Geological Paper 69-2, Ottawa, Canada, 34 p.

[27]   Picard, M.D. (1971) Classification of Fine-Grained Sedimentary Rocks. Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, 41, 179-195.

[28]   Ali, A.R. and Al-Dabagh, S.M (2007) Mineralogy of Recent Sediments and It’s Relation with Outcrop Rocks in Al-Adhaim River Basin-Eastern Iraq. Kirkuk University Journal Scientific Studies, 2, 60-77.

[29]   Al-Juboury, A. I. (2009) Natural Pollution by Some Heavy Metals in the Tigris River, Northern Iraq. International Journal of Environmental Research, 3, 189-198.

[30]   Goldschmidt, V.M. (1964) Geochemistry, Oxford. Clarendon Press, Wotton-under-Edge, 730 p.

[31]   Mason, B. (1966) Principles of Geochemistry. 3rd Edition, John Wiley & Sons Inc, New York, 329 p.

[32]   Hejabi, A.T., Basavarajappa, H.T. and Qaid Saeed, A.M. (2010) Heavy Metal Pollution in Kabini River Sediments. International Journal of Environmental Research, 4, 629-636.

[33]   Evans, C.D., Davies, T.D., Wigington Jr, P.J., Tranter, M. and Kretser, W.A. (1996) Use of Factor Analysis to Investigate Processes Controlling the Chemical Composition of Four Streams in Adirondack Mountains, New York. Journal of Hydrology, 185, 297-316.
https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-1694(95)02997-4

[34]   Cameron, E.M. (1996) Hydrogeochemistry of the Fraser River, British Columbia: Seasonal Variation in Major and Minor Components. Journal of Hydrology, 182, 209-225.
https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-1694(95)02924-9

[35]   Adams, S., Titus, R., Pietersen, K. and Harris, G. (2001) Hydrochemical Characteristics of Aquifers near Sutherland in the Western Karoo, South Africa. Journal of Hydrology, 241, 91-103.
https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-1694(00)00370-X

[36]   Zhou, H.Y., Peng, X.T. and Pan, J.M. (2004) Distribution, Source and Enrichment of Some Chemical Elements in Sediments of the Pearl River Estuary, China. Continental Shelf Research, 24, 1857-1875.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.csr.2004.06.012

[37]   Kim, J.-O. and Mueller, C.W. (1978) Factor Analysis: Statistical Methods and Practical Issues. HA29.Q35/VOL 14, Sage Publications, Beverly Hills, CA.
https://doi.org/10.4135/9781412984256

[38]   Krauskopf, K.B. (1979) Introduction to Geochemistry. 2nd Edition, McGraw Hill, New York, 617 p.

[39]   Ali, A.R. (1996) Mineralogy and Geochemistry of Stream Sediments, Adhaim River Basin, Eastern Iraq. Unpublished M.Sc. Thesis, Mosul University, Iraq, 99 p.

[40]   Bhattacharjee, J., Ghosh, K.K. and Bhattacharya, B. (2017) Petrography and Geochemistry of Sandstone-Mudstone from Barakar Formation (Early Permian) Raniganj Basin, India: Implications for Provenance, Weathering and Marine Depositional Conditions during Lower Gondwana Sedimentation. Geological Journal, 1-12.
https://doi.org/10.1002/gj.2946

[41]   Hossain, H.Z., Kawahata, H., Roser, B.P., Sampei, Y., Manaka, T. and Otani, S. (2017) Geochemical Characteristics of Modern River Sediments in Myanmar and Thailand: Implications for Provenance and Weathering. Chemie der Erde-Geochemistry, 77, 443-458.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemer.2017.07.005

 
 
Top