LCE  Vol.9 No.1 , March 2018
Low Carbon City Development in China in the Context of New Type of Urbanization
Abstract: Urbanization is an important part of economic development in China which directly related to industrial development. Industrial development is based on energy production, consumption, and trade. A new type of urbanization with low carbon city development is an urgent matter in the researcher community for developing an appropriate strategy, policy, technology, and action. The aim of this study is to explore the status and assess the strategy and policy of low carbon city development in the context of urbanization. It also finds out the effects of new type of urbanization on low carbon city development by finding out constraints and providing recommendations. An extensive literature review with meta-analysis has been done considering various indicators of low carbon city development. This study reveals that most of the large cities are already under the pilot projects of low carbon city development. It also finds out some major indicators of low carbon city like economic growth, energy using pattern, social and life factor, carbon and environment, urban mobilization, solid waste management, and water management in the context of urbanization. Rapid urbanization requires more building construction and energy which emits more GHG. It suggests that an assessment index system should be introduced by the government to control, monitor and motivate people to use low carbon technology. It further suggests that rules and regulations, awareness building, locality-based technology and practices, and participation of all stakeholders in policy making should be maintained by the government for sustainable low carbon city development in China.
Cite this paper: Sarker, M. , Hossin, M. , Hua, Y. , Anusara, J. , Warunyu, S. , Chanthamith, B. , Sarkar, M. , Kumar, N. and Shah, S. (2018) Low Carbon City Development in China in the Context of New Type of Urbanization. Low Carbon Economy, 9, 45-61. doi: 10.4236/lce.2018.91004.

[1]   Liu, W. and Qin, B. (2016) Low-Carbon City Initiatives in China: A Review from the Policy Paradigm Perspective. Cities, 51, 131-138.

[2]   Yu, L. (2014) Low Carbon Eco-City: New Approach for Chinese Urbanization. Habitat International, 44, 102-110.

[3]   Gouldson, A., Colenbrander, S., Sudmant, A., Papargyropoulou, E., Kerr, N., McAnulla, F. and Hall, S. (2016) Cities and Climate Change Mitigation: Economic Opportunities and Governance Challenges in Asia. Cities, 54, 11-19.

[4]   Kedia, S. (2016) Approaches to Low Carbon Development in China and India. Advances in Climate Change Research, 7, 213-221.

[5]   Su, M.R., Chen, B., Xing, T., Chen, C. and Yang, Z.F. (2012) Development of Low-Carbon City in China: Where Will It Go? Procedia Environmental Sciences, 13, 1143-1148.

[6]   Dhakal, S. and Ruth, M. (2017) Creating Low Carbon Cities. Creating Low Carbon Cities, Springer International Publishing, Newyork, 208.

[7]   Tan, S., Yang, J., Yan, J., Lee, C., Hashim, H. and Chen, B. (2017) A Holistic Low Carbon City Indicator Framework for Sustainable Development. Applied Energy, 185, 1919-1930.

[8]   Leimer, H.P. (2015) Low Carbon Economy in the Cities of China—Possibilities to Estimate the Potential os CO2-Emissions. Energy Procedia, 78, 2250-2255.

[9]   Sarker, M.N.I. (2017a) An Introduction to Agricultural Anthropology: Pathway to Sustainable Agriculture. Journal of Sociology and Anthropology, 1, 47-52.

[10]   Sarker, M.N.I. and Jie, Z. (2017) Social Security for Vulnerable Groups in Bangladesh on Government Perspective: Contribution of Research Leader. Journal of Public Policy and Administration, 1, 1-9.

[11]   Liu, X. and Liu, J. (2016) Measurement of Low Carbon Economy Efficiency with a Three-Stage Data Envelopment Analysis: A Comparison of the Largest Twenty CO2 Emitting Countries. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 13, 1116.

[12]   Wang, C., Engels, A. and Wang, Z. (2017) Overview of Research on China’s Transition to Low-Carbon Development: The Role of Cities, Technologies, Industries and the Energy System. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 81, 1350-1364.

[13]   Dong, L., Fujita, T., Zhang, H., Dai, M., Fujii, M., Ohnishi, S., Liu, Z., et al. (2013) Promoting Low-Carbon City through Industrial Symbiosis: A Case in China by Applying HPIMO Model. Energy Policy, 61, 864-873.

[14]   UN Habitat (2011) Global Report on Human Settlements 2011 “Cities and Climate Change”.

[15]   Fu, Y. and Zhang, X. (2017) Planning for Sustainable Cities? A Comparative Content Analysis of the Master Plans of Eco, Low-Carbon and Conventional New Towns in China. Habitat International, 63, 55-66.

[16]   Liu, J. and Deng, X. (2011) Impacts and Mitigation of Climate Change on Chinese Cities. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, 3, 188-192.

[17]   Wang, Z., Yin, F., Zhang, Y. and Zhang, X. (2012) An Empirical Research on the Influencing Factors of Regional CO2 Emissions: Evidence from Beijing City, China. Applied Energy, 100, 277-284.

[18]   Zhang, L., Li, Q. and Zhou, J. (2017) Critical Factors of Low-Carbon Building Development in China’s Urban Area. Journal of Cleaner Production, 142, 3075-3082.

[19]   Cai, B., Geng, Y., Yang, W., Yan, P., Chen, Q., Li, D. and Cao, L. (2017) How Scholars and the Public Perceive a “Low Carbon City” in China. Journal of Cleaner Production, 149, 502-510.

[20]   Chen, Q., Cai, B., Dhakal, S., Pei, S., Liu, C., Shi, X. and Hu, F. (2017) CO2 Emission Data for Chinese Cities. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 126, 198-208.

[21]   Adenle, A.A., Manning, D.T. and Arbiol, J. (2017) Mitigating Climate Change in Africa: Barriers to Financing Low-Carbon Development. World Development, 100, 123-132.

[22]   Liu, T., Wang, Y., Song, Q. and Qi, Y. (2017) Low-Carbon Governance in China—Case Study of Low Carbon Industry Park Pilot. Journal of Cleaner Production, 174, 837-846.

[23]   Lo, K. (2015) How Authoritarian Is the Environmental Governance of China? Environmental Science & Policy, 54, 152-159.

[24]   Lo, K. (2014) China’s Low-Carbon City Initiatives: The Implementation Gap and the Limits of the Target Responsibility System. Habitat International, 42, 236-244.

[25]   Han, F., Xie, R., Lu, Y., Fang, J. and Liu, Y. (2018) The Effects of Urban Agglomeration Economies on Carbon Emissions: Evidence from Chinese Cities. Journal of Cleaner Production, 172, 1096-1110.

[26]   Yang, D., Liu, B., Ma, W., Guo, Q., Li, F. and Yang, D. (2017) Sectoral Energy-Carbon Nexus and Low-Carbon Policy Alternatives: A Case Study of Ningbo, China. Journal of Cleaner Production, 156, 480-490.

[27]   Wang, X. and Chi, C. (2016) Global City Indicators: Towards a Holistic View of Low Carbon City Dimensions. Energy Procedia, 88, 168-175.

[28]   Guo, R., Zhao, Y., Shi, Y., Li, F., Hu, J. and Yang, H. (2017) Low Carbon Development and Local Sustainability from a Carbon Balance Perspective. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 122, 270-279.

[29]   Ma, X., Wang, Y. and Wang, C. (2017) Low-Carbon Development of China’s Thermal Power Industry Based on an International Comparison: Review, Analysis and Forecast. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 80, 942-970.

[30]   Cheshmehzangi, A., Xie, L. and Tan-mullins, M. (2017) The Role of International Actors in Low-Carbon Transitions of Shenzhen’s International Low Carbon City in China. Cities, 74, 64-74.

[31]   He, J.K. (2016) Global Low-Carbon Transition and China’s Response Strategies. Advances in Climate Change Research, 7, 204-212.

[32]   Lv, J. and Qin, S. (2016) On Low-Carbon Technology. Low Carbon Economy, 7, 107-115.

[33]   Yuan, Y. (2016) The Development Status, Problems and Countermeasures of China’s Carbon Financial Market. Low Carbon Economy, 7, 62-69.

[34]   Liang, M., Wang, Y. and Wang, G. (2014) China’s Low-Carbon-City Development with ETS: Forecast on the Energy Consumption and Carbon Emission of Chongqing. Energy Procedia, 61, 2596-2599.

[35]   Su, M., Zheng, Y., Yin, X., Zhang, M., Wei, X., Chang, X. and Qin, Y. (2016) Practice of Low-Carbon City in China: The Status Quo and Prospect. Energy Procedia, 88, 44-51.

[36]   Yang, L. and Li, Y. (2013) Low-Carbon City in China. Sustainable Cities and Society, 9, 62-66.

[37]   Zhou, Z., Liu, C., Zeng, X., Jiang, Y. and Liu, W. (2018) Carbon Emission Performance Evaluation and Allocation in Chinese Cities. Journal of Cleaner Production, 172, 1254-1272.

[38]   Zhou, N., He, G., Williams, C. and Fridley, D. (2015) ELITE Cities: A Low-Carbon Eco-City Evaluation Tool for China. Ecological Indicators, 48, 448-456.

[39]   Cheng, J., Zeng, G. and Fang, T. (2012) The Origin and Connotation of Low Carbon City: A Conceptual Framework. Proceedings of the 2012 5th International Joint Conference on Computational Sciences and Optimization, Harbin, 23-26 June 2012, 706-709.

[40]   Hu, B., Luo, J., Chen, C. and Li, B. (2015) Evaluating Low-Carbon City Development in China: Study of Five Low-Carbon Cities in China. 315-337.

[41]   Feng, S., Huang, W., Wang, J., Wang, M. and Zha, J. (2015) Low-Carbon City and New-Type Urbanization: Proceedings of Chinese Low-Carbon City Development International Conference. Environmental Science and Engineering (Subseries: Environmental Science), 148, 273-284.

[42]   Zhang, Z. (2016) Policies and Measures to Transform China into a Low-Carbon Economy. In: Song, L., Garnaut, R., Fang, C. and Johnston, L., Eds., China’s New Sources of Economic Growth, ANU Press, Canberra, 397-418.

[43]   Riviere, P., Verges, M., Dimou, M. and Garde, F. (2013) Sustainable Cities in Tropical Climates: Presentation of the “Beausejour” Case Study in Reunion Island. WIT Transactions on Ecology and the Environment, 1, 641-650.

[44]   Liu, S., Zhang, P., Wang, Z., Liu, W. and Tan, J. (2016) Measuring the Sustainable Urbanization Potential of Cities in Northeast China. Journal of Geographical Sciences, 26, 549-567.

[45]   Suzuki, H., Dastur, A., Moffatt, S., Yabuki, N. and Maruyama, H. (2010) Eco2 Cities Ecological Cities as Economic Cities. The World Bank.

[46]   World Bank (2015) New Country Classifications Data.

[47]   UNESCAP (2012) Fact Sheet on Low Carbon Green Growth Roadmap for Asia and the Pacific.

[48]   Sarker, M.N.I. (2017) Smart City for Smart Citizen: Dimensions, Challenges and Opportunities for Developing Country. 5th Smart Cities Conference, Bucharest, 7 December 2017, 38.

[49]   Adelaide City Council (2015) Carbon Neutral Adelaide A Shared Vision for the World’s First Carbon Neutral City.

[50]   Urban World (2009) Abu Dhabi to Build the World’s First Zero Carbon City. Urban World, 66-70.

[51]   Hannallah, G.M. and Faragallah, R.N. (2009) Zero-Carbon Cities as a New Realization of Sustainable Cities. In: Renewable Energy, Paper’s No. BUE-FISC-124, 1-14.

[52]   Wang, J. and He, D. (2015) Sustainable Urban Development in China: Challenges and Achievements. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, 20, 665-682.

[53]   EIU (2012) The Green City Index.

[54]   Astiaso Garcia, D. (2017) Green Areas Management and Bioengineering Techniques for Improving Urban Ecological Sustainability. Sustainable Cities and Society, 30, 108-117.

[55]   WHO (2014) Ambient Air Quality and Health. Media Centre, WHO.

[56]   Hoornweg, D. and Bhada, P. (2012) What a Waste. A Global Review of Solid Waste Management. Urban Development Series Knowledge Papers, 281, 44.

[57]   Shen, L., Wu, Y., Lou, Y., Zeng, D., Shuai, C. and Song, X. (2018) What Drives the Carbon Emission in the Chinese Cities?—A Case of Pilot Low Carbon City of Beijing. Journal of Cleaner Production, 174, 343-354.

[58]   Baeumler, A., Ijjasz-Vasquez, E. and Mehndiratta, S. (2012) Sustainable Low-Carbon City Development in China.

[59]   Li, Y., Lia, Y., Zhang, H., Liu, Y., Xu, W. and Zhu, X. (2011) Canadian Experience in Low Carbon Eco-City Development and the Implications for China. Energy Procedia, 5, 1791-1795.

[60]   Addanki, S.C. and Venkataraman, H. (2017) Greening the Economy: A Review of Urban Sustainability Measures for Developing New Cities. Sustainable Cities and Society, 32, 1-8.

[61]   Feng, S., Huang, W., Wang, J., Wang, M. and Zha, J. (2015) Low-Carbon City and New-Type Urbanization: Proceedings of Chinese Low-Carbon City Development International Conference. Environmental Science and Engineering, 148, 273-284.

[62]   Cao, S. and Li, C. (2011) The Exploration of Concepts and Methods for Low-Carbon Eco-City Planning. Procedia Environmental Sciences, 5, 199-207.

[63]   Li, Q., Wei, Y.N. and Dong, Y. (2016) Coupling Analysis of China’s Urbanization and Carbon Emissions: Example from Hubei Province. Natural Hazards, 81, 1333-1348.

[64]   Huang, W., Wang, M., Wang, J., Gao, K., Chen, S.L. and Editors, L. (2016) China Low-Carbon Healthy City, Technology Assessment and Practice. Springer-Verlag GmbH, Berlin Heidelberg.