Cite this paper
nullR. Appoh, L. Doamekpor, E. Hayford, R. Klake and V. Nartey, "Assessment of Mercury Pollution in Rivers and Streams around Artisanal Gold Mining Areas of the Birim North District of Ghana," Journal of Environmental Protection
, Vol. 2 No. 9, 2011, pp. 1227-1239. doi: 10.4236/jep.2011.29141
 O. Bermudez-Lugo, “Gold Fields Mineral Survey,” In: Ghana Chamber of Mines Factoid 2008, Ghana Chamber of Mines, Accra, 2008.
 B. K. Ntibery, E. Atorkui and B. N. A. Aryee, “Trends in Small-Scale Mining of Precious Minerals in Ghana: A Perspective on its Environmental Impact,” Journal of Cleaner Production, Vol. 11, 2003, pp. 131-140.
 G. Hilson, “A Contextual Review of the Ghanaian Small-Scale Mining Industry,” Mining, Minerals and Sustainable Development (MMSD), Vol. 76, 2001, pp. 2-30.
 J. Heintz, “Employment, Poverty and Gender in Ghana,” Political Economy Research Institute, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Working Paper Series No. 92, 2005.
 E. H. Mcdonald, “Alluvial Mining: The Geology, Technology and Economics of Placers,” Chapman and Hall, London, 1983, p. 508.
 K. H. Telmer and M. M. Veiga, “World Emissions of Mercury from Artisanal and Small Scale Gold Mining,” In: Mercury Fate and Transport in the Global Atmosphere: Measurements, Models and Policy Implications, Interim Report of the UNEP Global Mercury Partnership, Mercury Transport and Fate Research Partnership Area, Accessed on 14 July 2008.
 Birim North District Assembly, “Birim North District Profile,” An Unpublished Document, 2006.
 G. O. Kesse, “The Mineral and Rock Resources of Ghana,” A. A. Balkema Publisher, Rotterdam, 1985.
 J. S. Kuma, “Is Groundwater in the Tarkwa Gold Mining District of Ghana Potable?” Environmental Geology, Vol. 45, No. 3, 2004, pp. 391-400.
 Anonym, “Preventive Measures against Environmental Mercury Pollution and Its Health Effects,” Japan Public Health Association, 2001.
 APHA, AWWA & WEF, “Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater,” 20th Edition, Washington D.C., 1998.
 WHO, “Guidelines for Drinking—Water Quality,” 4th Edition, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland. 2006.
 E. R. Long, D. D. MacDonalds, S. L Smith and F. D Calder, “Incidence of Adverse Biological Effects within Ranges of Chemical Concentrations in Marine and Estuarine Sediments,” Environmental Management, Vol. 19, No. 1, 1995, pp. 81-97. Accessed on line 4 April 2010.
 M. Macklin, “Metal Contaminated Soils and Sediment: A Geographical Perspective,” In: M. Newson, Ed., Managing the Human Impact on the Natural Environmental Patterns and Processes, Belhaven Press, London, 1992, pp. 173-193.
 T. M. Akabzaa, J. S. Seyire and K. Afriyie, “The Glittering Fa?ade: Effects of Mining Activities on Obuasi and its Surrounding Communities,” Third World Network— Africa, 2007.
 A. K. Donkor, V. K. Nartey, J. C. Bonzongo and D. K. Adotey, “Artisanal Mining of Gold with Mercury in Ghana,” West Africa Journal of Applied Ecology, Vol. 9, 2006, 8 Pages.
 D. Limbong, J. Kumampung, I. F. M. Rumengan, T. Arai and N. Miyazaki, “Measurement of Total Mercury Concentration in the Water Source Pool of Public Drink Water Installations around Manado City, North Sulawesi, Indonesia. Otsuchi,” Marine Science, Vol. 28, 2003, pp. 99-101.
 C. Aspinall, “Small-Scale Mining in Indonesia,” Mining, Minerals and Sustainable Development (MMSD), Vol. 79, 2001, pp. 2-30.
 G. Drasch, S. B?se-O’Reilly, C. Beinhoff, G. Roider and S. Maydl, “The Mt. Diwata Study on the Philippines 1999—Assessing Mercury Intoxication of the Population by Small-Scale Gold Mining,” The Science of the Total Environment, Vol. 267, 2001, pp. 151-168.