AiM  Vol.8 No.3 , March 2018
Isolation, Identification and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Profile Analysis of Vibrio cholerae O1 from Stool Samples of Bangladesh
Abstract: Cholera is a severe diarrheal disease which is usually caused by toxigenic strain of Vibrio cholerae O1 and O139. Cholera is still one of the major health concerns in developing countries like Bangladesh due to poor sanitation and unavailability of safe drinking water. This experiment was confronted to identify V. cholerae O1 from stool samples as well as to determine the antibiotic susceptibility pattern of the isolated strains. A total of 140 stool samples from people infected with diarrheal disease were collected from July 2016 to December 2016. Among all, 58 samples were found positive for V. cholerae which were further subjected to sero-grouping by specific anti-sera and antimicrobial sus-ceptibility test by Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method. The zones of inhibition were measured and interpreted by following the recommendations of the criteria of Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). It was found that 43 (74.1%) isolates of V. cholerae were O1 serogroup of Ogawa serotype and the rest 15 (25.9%) were O1 serogroup of Inaba serotype. People aged between 41 - 50 were most susceptible to V. cholerae O1 having about 39.7% of positive cases. The isolates were highly susceptible to Ciprofloxacin and Gentamicin with 100% susceptibility whereas 100% resistant was found towards Nalidixic acid. Though most of the isolates in our study were susceptible against tested antibiotics, the continuous surveillance is required to see the changing pattern of serogroups or serotypes and antimicrobial profile in this region.
Cite this paper: Uddin, M. , Akter, T. , Sultana, P. , Sultana, P. , Hasan, M. , Lubna, M. , Monem, H. , Parvez, M. , Nahar, S. and Khan, M. (2018) Isolation, Identification and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Profile Analysis of Vibrio cholerae O1 from Stool Samples of Bangladesh. Advances in Microbiology, 8, 188-196. doi: 10.4236/aim.2018.83013.

[1]   Du Preez, M., Venter, S.N. and Theron, J. (2003) Detection of Viable Toxigenic Vibrio cholerae and Virulent Shigella spp. in Environmental Waters by Pit-Stop Seminested Polymerase Chain Reaction Assays. Water SA, 29, 177-182.

[2]   Rivera, I.N., Chun, J., Huq, A., Sack, R.B. and Colwell, R.R. (2001) Genotypes Associated with Virulence in Environmental Isolates of Vibrio cholerae. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 67, 2421-2429.

[3]   Kaper, J.B., Morris, J.R. and Levine, M.M. (1995) Cholera. Clinical Microbiology Review, 8, 48-86.

[4]   Ali, M., Nelson, A.R., Lopez, A.L. and Sack, D.A. (2015) Updated Global Burden of Cholera in Endemic Countries. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 9, e0003832.

[5]   Sack, D.A. (2003) When Should Cholera Vaccine Be Used in Cholera-Endemic Areas? Journal of Health, Population and Nutrition, 299-303.

[6]   Griffith, D.C., Kelly-Hope, L.A. and Miller, M.A. (2006) Review of Reported Cholera Outbreaks Worldwide, 1995-2005. The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 75, 973-977.

[7]   Zuckerman, J.N., Rombo, L. and Fisch, A. (2007) The True Burden and Risk of Cholera: Implications for Prevention and Control. The Lancet Infectious Diseases, 7, 521-530.

[8]   Ali, M., Lopez, A.L., You, Y.A., Kim, Y.E., Sah, B., Maskery, B., et al. (2012) The Global Burden of Cholera. Bulletin World Health Organization, 90, 209-218A.

[9]   World Health Organization. Cholera in Zimbabwe: Epidemiological Bulletin Number 16 Week 13 (22-28 March 2009). March 31, 2009.

[10]   Zimbabwe: Cholera Outbreak Kills 294. The New York Times. Associated Press. 22 November 2008. Retrieved 2011-02-26.

[11]   Cholera Epidemic Death Toll Rises to 352, MSNBC, 25 August 2010.

[12]   Chao, D.L., Halloran, M.E. and Longini I.M. (2011) Vaccination Strategies for Epidemic Cholera in Haiti with Implications for the Developing World. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 108, 7081-7085.

[13]   Vaccine News Reports (2012) Cholera Outbreak in Sierra Leone Slows. Wednesday, 31 October 2012.

[14]   Davies-Teye, B.B., Vanotoo. L., Yabani, J.B. and Kwakye-Maclean, C. (2014) Socio-Economic Factors Associated with Cholera Outbreak in Southern Ghana, 2012: A Case-Control Study. Value in Health, 17, A128.

[15]   WHO, Global Health Atlas.

[16]   WHO.

[17]   WHO.

[18]   Koepke, A.A., Longini, Jr. I.M., Halloran, M.E., Wakefield, J. and Minin, V.N. (2016) Predictive Modeling of Cholera Outbreaks in Bangladesh. The Annals of Applied Statistics, 10, 575-595.

[19]   Tamrakar, A.K., Goel, A.K., Kamboj, D.V. and Singh, L. (2006) Surveillance Methodology for Vibrio cholerae in Environmental Samples. International Journal of Environmental Health Research, 16, 305-312.

[20]   Nair, G.B., Misra, S.U., Bhadra, R.K. and Pal, S.C. (1987) Evaluation of the Multi Test Medium for Rapid Presumptive Identification of Vibrio cholerae from Environmental Sources. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 53, 1203-1205.

[21]   Wayne, P.A. (2014) Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute: Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing: Twenty-Fourth Informational Supplement, M100-S24. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI), 34(1).

[22]   Shears, P. (2001) Recent Developments in Cholera. Current Opinion of Infectious Diseases, 14, 553-558.

[23]   Mrityunjoy, A., Kaniz, F., Fahmida, J., Shanzida, J.S., Uddin, M.A. and Noor, R. (2013) Prevalence of Vibrio cholerae in Different Food Samples in the City of Dhaka, Bangladesh. International Food Research Journal, 20, 1017-1022.

[24]   Casburn-Jones, C. and Farthing, M. (2004) Management of Infectious Diarrhoea. Gut, 53, 296-305.

[25]   World Health Organization (1999) Cholera in 1998. Weekly Epidemiological Record, 74, 257-254.

[26]   Ukaji, D.C., Kemajou, T.S., Ajugwo, A.O., Ezeiruaku, F.C. and Eze, E.M. (2015) Antibiotic Susceptibility Patterns of Vibrio cholerae O1 Isolated during Cholera Outbreak in Uzebba (Edo State). Open Science Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering, 2, 33-36.

[27]   Pal, B.B., Khuntia, H.K., Samal, S.K., Das, S.S. and Chhotray, G.P. (2006) Emergence of Vibrio cholerae O1 Biotype El Tor Serotype Inaba Causing Outbreaks of Cholera in Orissa, India. Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases, 59, 266-269.

[28]   Adagbada, A.O., Adesida, S.A., Nwaokorie, F.O., Niemogha, M.-T. and Coker, A.O. (2012) Cholera Epidemiology in Nigeria: An Overview. The Pan African Medical Journal, 12, 59.

[29]   Urassa, W.K., Mhando, Y.B., Mhalu, F.S. and Mjonga, S.J. (2000) Antimicrobial Susceptibility Pattern of Vibrio cholerae O1 Strains during Two Cholera Outbreaks in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. East African Medical Journal, 77, 350-353.

[30]   Shukla, D., Rumpa, S. and Kaur, I.R. (2008) Trend of Antibiotic Resistance of Vibrio cholerae Strains from East Delhi. Indian Journal of Medical Research, 127, 478-482.

[31]   Das, S., Choudhry, S., Saha, R., Ramachandran, V.G., Kaur, K. and Sarkar, B.L. (2011) Emergence of Multiple Drug Resistance Vibrio cholerae O1 in East Delhi. The Journal of Infection in Developing Countries, 5, 294-298.

[32]   Barati, H., Moradi, G., Rasouli, M.A. and Mohammadi, P. (2015) Epidemiologic and Drug Resistance Pattern of Vibrio cholerae O1 Biotype El Tor, Serotype Ogawa, in the 2011 Cholera Outbreak, in Alborz Province, Iran. Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology, 8, e23477.

[33]   Murhekar, M., Dutta, S., Ropa, B., Dagina, R., Posanai, E. and Rosewell, A. (2013) Vibrio cholerae Antimicrobial Drug Resistance, Papua New Guinea, 2009-2011. Western Pacific Surveillance and Response Journal: WPSAR, 4, 60-62.

[34]   Rahbar, M., Sabourian, R., Saremi, M., Abbasi, M., Masoumi, A.H. and Soroush, M. (2007) Epidemioloic and Drug Resistant Pattern of Vibrio cholerae O1 Biotype EL Tor, Serotype Inaba during the Summer of 2005 Outbreak in Iran. Journal of Ardabil University of Medical Sciences, 7, 41-45.

[35]   Shrestha, U.T., Adhikari, N., Maharjan, R., Banjara, M.R., Rijal, K.R., Basnyat, S.R. and Agrawal, V.P. (2015) Multidrug Resistant Vibrio cholerae O1 from Clinical and Environmental Samples in Kathmandu City. BMC Infectious Diseases, 15, 104.

[36]   Das, S., Saha, R. and Kaur, I.R. (2008) Trend of Antibiotic Resistance of Vibrio cholerae Strains from East Delhi. Indian Journal of Medical Research, 127, 478-482.