Back
 AS  Vol.9 No.3 , March 2018
Payments for Ecosystem Services Incentives and Adoption of Land Use Interventions in Uluguru Mountains, Tanzania
Abstract: The role played by Payments for ecosystem services (PES) in promoting land use interventions is increasingly being recognized as an important instrument for changing land use management worldwide. Despite the increase, adoption of land use interventions promoted by PES and factors influencing it are not well understood. This study was carried out to assess the adoption of land use interventions promoted by PES scheme four years after its implementation in the Uluguru Mountains, Tanzania. The specific objectives of this study were to assess the adoption and factors that influenced it. The study employed questionnaire survey method to collect data from 219 households selected randomly. Focus group discussions and key informant interviews were also conducted to complement information obtained through questionnaire surveys. Descriptive and inferential statistical analyses were employed. Binary logistic regression was used to analyse quantitative data obtained, while content analysis was applied to qualitative data. Results revealed that during the project implementation, 40% of the households did not adopt any of the promoted interventions. Unexpectedly, four years after the project ended, every household sampled had adopted the interventions. Households headed by younger heads and those with land ownership, households which received PES incentives and lived for a long time in the same area and those with more labour force and access to extension services were found to have adopted more interventions (p ≤ 0.05). Thus, the study concludes that socioeconomic characteristics, agricultural extension services and incentives initially provided to farmers are key factors influencing the adoption of land use interventions. Therefore, it is recommended to the government that it should support farmers to get land tenure and to provide them with more incentives to improve their farms through adopting technologies.
Cite this paper: Kagata, L. , Mombo, F. and Massawe, F. (2018) Payments for Ecosystem Services Incentives and Adoption of Land Use Interventions in Uluguru Mountains, Tanzania. Agricultural Sciences, 9, 299-316. doi: 10.4236/as.2018.93022.
References

[1]   Wunder, S., Engel, S. and Pagiola, S. (2008) Taking Stock: A Comparative Analysis of Payments for Environmental Services Programs in Developed and Developing Countries. Ecological Economics, 65, 834-852.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolecon.2008.03.010

[2]   Wunsher, T., Engel, S. and Wunder, S. (2008) Spatial Targeting of Payments for Environmental Services; a tool for Boosting Conservation Benefits. Ecological Economics, 65, 822-833.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolecon.2007.11.014

[3]   Miles, L. and Kapos, V. (2008) Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation: Global Land-Use Implications. Science, 320, 1454-1455.
https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1155358

[4]   Malimbwi, R.E. (2002) Forest Extent and Ownership in Tanzania. Consultancy Report, Tanzania Conservation and Management Project Forestry and Beekeeping Division, Dar es Salaam.

[5]   Kiss, A. (2004) Making Biodiversity Conservation a Land Use Priority. In: Mcshane, T. and Wells, M., Getting Biodiversity Project Work: Towards More Effective Conservation & Development, Columbia University Press, New York.
https://doi.org/10.7312/mcsh12764-008

[6]   Engel, S., Pagiola, S. and Wunder, S. (2008) Designing Payments for Environmental Services in Theory and Practice: An Overview of the Issues. Ecological Economics, 65, 663-674.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolecon.2008.03.011

[7]   Waage, S., Scherr, S., Jenkins, M. and Inbar, M. (2006) A Scoping Assessment of Current Work on Payments for Ecosystem Services in Asia. Forest Trends, Washington DC.

[8]   Wunder, S. (2005) Payment for Ecosystem Service; Nuts and Bolts. Center for International Forestry Research Occasional Paper No. 42, Jakarta.

[9]   Kabudi, P.J. (2005) Challenges of Legislating from Water Utilization in Rural Tanzania: Drafting New Laws. The International Workshop on African Water Laws: Plural Legislative Frameworks for Rural Water Management in Africa, Johannesburg, 26-28 January 2005.

[10]   CARE and WWF (2008) Household Survey Conducted in Kibungo Sub-Catchments. EPWS Phase II. CARE International in Tanzania and World Wide Fund for Nature in Tanzania, Dar es Salaam.

[11]   Muller, J. and Albers, H.J. (2004) Enforcement, Payments, and Development Projects near Protected Areas: How the Market Setting Determines What Works Where. Resource and Energy Economics, 26, 185-204.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.reseneeco.2003.11.007

[12]   Pagiola, S., Rios, A. and Arcenas, A. (2008) Can the Poor Participate in Payments for Environmental Services? Lessons from the Silvopastoral Project in Nicaragua, Environment and Development Economics, 13, 299-325.
https://doi.org/10.1017/S1355770X08004270

[13]   Ferraro, P.J. (2009) Regional Review of Payments for Watershed Services: Sub Saharan Africa. Journal of Sustainable Forestry, 28, 525-550.
https://doi.org/10.1080/10549810802701234

[14]   Wunder, S. (2007) The Efficiency of Payment for Environmental Services in Tropical Conservation. Conservation Biology, 21, 48-58.
https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1523-1739.2006.00559.x

[15]   Mombo, F.M. (2013) A New Institutional Economics Approach to Evaluate Management Options for Wetlands: The Case of Kilombero Valley Wetlands in Tanzania. Doctoral Thesis, Ghent University, Ghent.

[16]   CARE and WWF (2009) Equitable Payments for Watershed Services in the Uluguru Mountains in Tanzania: Making Progress on Slippery Slopes.

[17]   John, I. (2012) How Successful Has Payment for Environmental Services Improved Welfare? Dissertation for Award of MA Degree, University of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

[18]   Rogers, M.E. (2003) Diffusion of Innovations. Fifth Edition, Free Press, New York, 221 p.

[19]   Rogers, E.M. (1995) Diffusion of Innovations. Free Press, New York.

[20]   Rogers, E.M., Medina, U.E., Rivera, M.A. and Wiley, M.A. (2005) Complex Adaptive Systems and the Diffusion of Innovations. The Innovation Journal: The Public Sector Innovation Journal, 10, Article 30.

[21]   Rijn, F., Bulte, E. and Adekunle, A. (2012) Social Capital and Agricultural Innovation in Sub Saharan Africa. Agricultural Systems, 108, 112-122.

[22]   The United Republic of Tanzania (2005) Ministry of Natural Resources and Tourism: Conservation and Management of the Eastern Arc Mountain Forests, Tanzania. Uluguru Component Biodiversity Survey 2005 (Volume III) Uluguru North Forest Reserve. GEF-UNDP: URT/01/G32. Prepared by Frontier-Tanzania, Dar es Salaam.

[23]   CARE and WWF (2007) Equitable Payments for Watershed Services-Feasibility Study Methodology. A Business Case Approach. The Capacity-Building Workshop on the Role of Payments for Environmental Services (PES), Dar es Salaam.

[24]   Walliman, N. (2006) Social Research Methods. Sage Publications, London and Thousand Oaks, New Delhi, 224 p.
https://doi.org/10.4135/9781849209939

[25]   Bailey, D.K. (1998) Methods of Social Research. Collier Macmillan Publishers, London, 478 p.

[26]   Mugenda, M.O. and Mugenda, G.A. (2003) Research Methods: Quantitative and Qualitative Approaches. African Centre for Technology Studies, Nairobi.

[27]   Mendenhall, W. and Beaver, R.J. (1991) Introduction to Probability and Statistics. 14th Edition, Richard Stratton Publishers, Boston.

[28]   Hella, J.P. (2003) Economic Analysis of the Relationship between Smallholder Farming Strategies and Soil Degradation in Semi-Arid Tanzania. Thesis for Award of PhD Degree at Gent University, Gent, 277 p.

[29]   Young, R. and Fosbrooke, H. (1960) Smoke in the Hills. Political Tension in the Morogoro District of Tanganyika. North-Western University Press, Evanston, 783 p.

[30]   Koch, A. and Strotmann, H. (2006) Determinants of Innovative Activity in Newly Founded Knowledge Intensive Business Service Firms. In: Fritsch, M. and Schmude, J. Eds., Entrepreneurship in the Region, Vol. 14 of International Studies in Entrepreneurship, Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

[31]   Adesiina, A.A. and Baidu-Forson, J. (1995) Farmers’ Perceptions and Adoption of New Agricultural Technology: Evidence from Analysis in Burkina Faso and Guinea, West Africa. Journal of Agricultural Economics, 13, 1-9.

[32]   Khamis, F.G., Hanoon, M.F. and Belarbi, A. (2010) The Relationship between Education and Occupation Using Fully and Partially Latent Models. International Journal of Intelligent Technologies and applied Statistics, 3, 309-322.

[33]   Pande, V.C., Kurothe, R.S., Singh, H.B. and Tiwari, S.P. (2011) Incentives for Soil and Water Conservation on Farm in Ravines of Gujarat: Policy Implications for Future Adoption. Agricultural Economics Research Review, 24, 109-118.

 
 
Top