JEP  Vol.9 No.3 , March 2018
A Comparative Study of Intra-Seasonal Variability of Total Column Ozone Measured over the Tropical Maritime and Coastal Stations Using Microtop II Ozonometer
Abstract: The study of temporal and spatial distribution of ozone is very important for understanding the atmospheric chemistry and thereby its impact on environment, weather and climate. The intra-seasonal variability plays a major role in the inter-annual variability of weather parameters such as rainfall, temperature, pressure and atmospheric trace gas constituents such as atmospheric ozone. The strength of monsoon circulation and deep convection greatly modifies the atmospheric compositions and meteorological parameters such as rainfall amount, distributions of atmospheric trace gas concentrations and other weather parameters over the summer monsoon region. The daily total column ozone (TCO) measured over maritime station (Lakshadweep Island— 10°10'N & 73°30'E) and coastal station (Cochin—9°55'N and 76°16'E) using Microtop II Ozonometer were considered for the comparative study of seasonal and intra-seasonal variability for the year 2015. The annual average of total column ozone over Lakshadweep Islands and Cochin was 290 DU and 280 DU respectively for the year 2015. The greater concentrations in daily TCO measurements over Lakshadweep Islands for all seasons compared to Cochin lead to the speculations that, the surface ozone concentration is more because of pollution from the diesel burning emissions, since the whole Island’s population completely depends on diesel generator for the power supply. During winter season maritime station shows a decrease of ~30 DU in TCO over Lak-shadweep Island compared to coastal station Cochin (~18 DU) from the annual mean in the month of December. During pre-monsoon season TCO concentration is high over both locations. There is gradual increase of TCO concentration over Cochin from pre-monsoon to monsoon season and peak in the month of September, but decreasing TCO concentrations measured over Lakshadweep during July to August. In the analysis it was found that Intra-Seasonal Variability (ISV) in total column ozone over Lakshadweep Islands and Cochin during summer monsoon season was modulated by the monsoon dynamics and convection, thereby changes in the photochemistry of ozone production and distributions over the monsoon region. Two significant intra-seasonal oscillations (ISOs) such as Madden Julian Oscillation (MJO) and Quasi-Biweekly Oscillations (QBW) were identified in the TCO during monsoon season. The MJO shows higher periodicity (~54 days) over Lakshadweep Islands compared to the coastal station, Cochin (~48 days). Intra-seasonal variability of TCO over the maritime and coastal stations varies with geographic locations, marine boundary layer characteristics and also with seasons. The intra-seasonal variability or ISOs controls the interannual variability of TCO over a region. Hence deeper knowledge of ISOs in trace gases such as ozone helps us to understand more about the regional climate and air quality.
Cite this paper: Madhu, V. and Karthika, G. (2018) A Comparative Study of Intra-Seasonal Variability of Total Column Ozone Measured over the Tropical Maritime and Coastal Stations Using Microtop II Ozonometer. Journal of Environmental Protection, 9, 175-193. doi: 10.4236/jep.2018.93013.

[1]   Crutzen, P.J. (1971) Ozone Production Rates in an Oxygen-Hydrogen-Nitrogen Atmosphere. Journal of Geophysical Research, 76, 7311-7327.

[2]   Logan, J.A., Prather, M.J., Wofsy, S.C. and McElroy, M.B. (1981) Tropospheric Chemistry—A Global Perspective. Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans and Atmospheres, 86, 7210-7254.

[3]   Jacob, D.J., Heikes, B.G., Fan, S.M., Logan, J.A., Mauzerall, D.L., Bradshaw, J.D., Singh, H.B., Gregory, G.L., Talbot, R.W., Blake, D.R. and Sachse, G.W. (1996) Origin of Ozone and NOx in the Tropical Troposphere: A Photochemical Analysis of Aircraft Observations over the South Atlantic Basin. Journal of Geophysical Research Atmospheres, 101, 24235-24250.

[4]   Thompson, A.M., Pickering, K.E., McNamara, D.P., Schoeberl, M.R., Hudson, R.D., Kim, J.H., Browell, E.V., Kirchhoff, V. and Nganga, D. (1996) Where Did Tropospheric Ozone over Southern Africa and the Tropical Atlantic Come from in October 1992? Insights from TOMS, GTE TRACE A, and SAFARI 1992. Journal of Geophysical Research Atmospheres, 101, 24251-24278.

[5]   Jenkins, G.S. and Ryu, J.H. (2004a) Linking Horizontal and Vertical Transports of Biomass Fire Emissions to the Tropical Atlantic Ozone Paradox during the Northern Hemisphere Winter Season: Climatology. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 4, 449-469.

[6]   Jourdain, L., Worden, H.M., Worden, J.R., Bowman, K., Li, Q., Eldering, A., Kulawik, S.S., Osterman, G., Boersma, K.F., Fisher, B., Rinsland, C.P., Beer, R. and Gunson, M. (2007) Tropospheric Vertical Distribution of Tropical Atlantic Ozone Observed by TES during the Northern African Biomass Burning Season, Geophysical Research Letters, 34.

[7]   Thouret, V., Saunois, M., Minga, A., Mariscal, A., Sauvage, B., Solete, A., Agbangla, D., Nedelec, P., Mari, C., Reeves, C.E. and Schlager, H. (2009) An Overview of Two Years of Ozone Radio Soundings over Cotonou as Part of AMMA. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 9, 6157-6174.

[8]   Chandra, N., Venkataramani, S., Lal, S., Sheel, V. and Pozzer, A. (2016) Effects of Convection and Long-Range Transport on the Distribution of Carbon Monoxide in the Troposphere over India, Atmospheric Pollution Research, 7, 775-785.

[9]   Chandra, S., et al. (2009) Effects of the 2006 El Niño on Tropospheric Ozone and Carbon Monoxide: Implications for Dynamics and Biomass Burning. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 9, 4239-4249.

[10]   Sudo, K., Takahashi, M. and Akimoto, H. (2003) Future Changes in Stratosphere-Troposphere Exchange and Their Impacts on Future Tropospheric Ozone Simulations. Geophysical Research Letters, 30, 2256.

[11]   Weller, R., Lilischkis, R., Schrems, O., Neuber, R. and Wessel, S. (1996) Vertical Ozone Distribution in the Marine Atmosphere over the Central Atlantic Ocean (56 Degrees S 50 Degrees N). Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 101, 1387-1399.

[12]   Stohl, A., Bonasoni, P., Cristofanelli, P., Collins, W., Feichter, J., Frank, A., Forster, C., Gerasopoulos, E., Gaggeler, H., James, P., Kentarchos, T., Kromp-Kolb, H., Kruger, B., Land, C., Meloen, J., Papayannis, A., Priller, A., Seibert, P., Sprenger, M., Roelofs, G.J., Scheel, H.E., Schnabel, C., Siegmund, P., Tobler, L., Trickl, T., Wernli, H., Wirth, V., Zanis, P. and Zerefos, C. (2003) Stratosphere-Troposphere Exchange: A Review, and What We Have Learned from STACCATO, Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 108, 748.

[13]   Martin, R.V., Jacob, D.J., Logan, J.A., Bey, I., Yantosca, R.M., Staudt, A.C., Li, Q.B., Fiore, A.M., Duncan, B.N., Liu, H.Y., Ginoux, P. and Thouret, V. (2002) Interpretation of TOMS Observations of Tropical Tropospheric Ozone with a Global Model and In Situ Observations. Journal of Geophysical Research—Atmospheres, 107, ACH 4-1.

[14]   Murray, L.T., Logan, J.A. and Jacob, D.J. (2013) Interannual Variability in Tropical Tropospheric Ozone and OH: The Role of Lightning. Journal of Geophysical Research—Atmospheres, 118, 11468-11480.

[15]   Randel, W.J. and Park, M. (2006) Deep Convective Influence on the Asian Summer Monsoon Anticyclone and Associated Tracer Variability Observed with Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS). Journal of Geophysical Research, 111, D12314.

[16]   Randel, W.J., Park, M., Emmons, L., Kinnison, D., Bernath, P., Walker, K.A., Boone, C. and Pumphrey, H. (2010) Asian Monsoon Transport of Pollution to the Stratosphere. Science, 328, 611-613.

[17]   Vogel, B., Günther, G., Müller, R., Grooü, J.U. and Riese, M. (2015) Impact of Different Asian Source Regions on the Composition of the Asian Monsoon Anticyclone and on the Extratropical Lowermost Stratosphere. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussion, 15, 9941-9995.

[18]   Pan, L.L., Honomichl, S.B., Kinnison, D.E., Abalos, M., Randel, W.J., Bergman, J.W. and Bian, J. (2016) Transport of Chemical Tracers from the Boundary Layer to Stratosphere Associated with the Dynamics of the Asian Summer Monsoon. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 121, 14,159-14,174.

[19]   Oman, L.D., Ziemke, J.R., Douglass, A.R., Waugh, D.W., Lang, C., Rodriguez, J.M. and Nielsen, J.E. (2011) The Response of Tropical Tropospheric Ozone to ENSO. Geophysical Research Letters, 38, L13706.

[20]   Hoskins, B.J. and Rodwell, M.J. (1995) A Model of the Asian Summer Monsoon. Part I: The Global Scale. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 52, 1329-1340.<1329:AMOTAS>2.0.CO;2

[21]   Krishnamurti, T.N. and Bhalme, H.N. (1976) Oscillations of a Monsoon System. Part 1. Observational Aspects. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 33, 1937-1954.<1937:OOAMSP>2.0.CO;2

[22]   Ananthakrishnan, R. and Soman, M.K. (1988) The Onset of the Southwest Monsoon over Kerala: 1901-1980. International Journal of Climatology, 8, 283-296.

[23]   Krishnamurti, T.N. and Ardanuy, P. (1980) The 10 to 20 Day Westward Propagating Mode and “Breaks in the Monsoon”. Tellus, 32, 15-26.

[24]   Yasunari, T. (1980) A Quasi-Stationary Appearance of the 30-40 Day Period in the Cloudiness Fluctuations during the Summer Monsoon over India. Journal of the Meteorological Society of Japan, 58, 225-229.

[25]   Yasunari, T. (1979) Cloudiness Fluctuations Associated with the Northern Hemisphere Summer Monsoon. Journal of the Meteorological Society of Japan, 57, 227-242.

[26]   Lau, K.M. and Chan, P.H. (1986) Aspects of the 40-50 Day Oscillation during the Northern Summer as Inferred from Ongoing Long Wave Radiation. Monthly Weather Review, 114, 1354-1367.<1354:AOTDOD>2.0.CO;2

[27]   Londhe, A.L., Padma Kumari, B., Kulkarni, J.R. and Jadhav, D.B. (2005) Monsoon Circulation Induced Variability in Total Column Ozone over India. Current Science, 89, 164-167.

[28]   Madhu, V. and Gangadharan, K. (2016) Temporal Distribution of Total Column Ozone over Cochin—A Study Based on in Situ Measurements and ECMWF Reanalysis. Open Journal of Marine Science, 6, 200-209.

[29]   Morys, M., et al. (2001) Design, Calibration, and Performance of MICROTOPS II Handheld Ozone Monitor and Sun Photometer. Journal of Geophysical Research, 106, 14,573-14,582.

[30]   Kohler, U. (1999) A Comparison of the New Filter Ozonometer MICROTOP II with Dobson and Brewer Spectrometers at Hohenpeissenberg. Geophysical Research Letters, 26, 1385-1388.

[31]   Kalita, G., Bhuyan, P.K. and Bhuyan, K. (2010) Variation of Total Columnar Ozone Characteristics over Dibrugarh, India and Comparison with Satellite Observations over the Indian Subcontinent. Indian Journal of Physics, 84, 635-639.

[32]   Meyer, Y. (1993) Wavelets: Algorithms and Applications. SIAM, Philadelphia.

[33]   Mallat, S. (1997) A Wavelet Tour of Signal Processing. Academic Press, Cambridge.

[34]   Johnson, J.E., Gammon, R.H., Larsen, J., Bates, T.S., Oltmans, S.J. and Farmer, J.C. (1990) Ozone in the Marine Boundary Layer over the Pacific and Indian Oceans: latitudinal Gradients and Diurnal Cycles. Journal of Geophysical Research, 95, 11,847-11,856.

[35]   Lal, S., Naja, M. and Jayaraman, A. (1998) Ozone in the Marine Boundary Layer over the Tropical Indian Ocean. Journal of Geophysical Research, 103, 18,907-18,917.

[36]   Lal, S. and Lawrence, M.G. (2001) Elevated Mixing Ratios of Surface Ozone over the Arabian Sea. Geophysical Research Letters, 28, 1487-1490.

[37]   Thompson, A.M., Johnson, J.E., Torres, A.L., Bates, T.S., Kelly, K.C., Atlas, E., Greenberg, J.P., Donahue, N.M., Yvon, S.A., Saltzman, E.S., Heikes, B.G., Mosher, B.W., Shashkov, A.A. and Yegorov, V.I. (1993) Ozone Observations and a Model of Marine Boundary Layer Photochemistry during SAGA 3. Journal of Geophysical Research, 98, 16,955-16,968.

[38]   Ayers, G.P., Penkett, S.A., Gillett, R.W., Bandy, B.J., Galbally, I.E., Meyer, C.P., Elsworth, C.M., Bentley, S.T. and Forgan, B.W. (1996) Annual Cycle of Peroxides and Ozone in Marine Air at Cape Grim, Tasmania. Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry, 23, 221-252.

[39]   William, B.G. (2000) A Case Study of Transport of Tropical Marine Boundary Layer and Lower Tropospheric Air Masses to the Northern Midlatitude Upper Troposphere. Journal of Geophysical Research, 105, 3757-3769.

[40]   Fenn, M.A., et al. (1999) Ozone and Aerosol Distributions and Air Mass Characteristics over the South Pacific during the Burning Season. Journal of Geophysical Research, 104, 16,197-16,212.

[41]   Gregory, G.L., Anderson, B.E. and Browell, E.V. (1996) Influence of Lower Tropospheric Ozone on Total Column Ozone as Observed over the Pacific Ocean during the 1991 PEM-West a Expedition. Journal of Geophysical Research, 101, 1919-1930.

[42]   Ziemke, J.R. and Chandra, S. (2003) A Madden-Julian Oscillation in Tropospheric Ozone. Geophysical Research Letters, 30, 2182.

[43]   Nair, P.R., Liji, M.D., Aryasree, S.K. and Susan George, K.S. (2013) Distribution of Ozone in the Marine Boundary Layer of Arabian Sea Prior to Monsoon: Prevailing Airmass and Effect of Aerosols. Atmospheric Environment, 74, 18-28.

[44]   Yu, P., et al. (2017) Efficient Transport of Tropospheric Aerosol into the Stratosphere via the Asian Summer Monsoon Anticyclone. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 114, 6972-6977.

[45]   Chowdhury, A., Mukhopadhyay, R.K. and Sinha, R. (1988) Low Frequency Oscillations in Summer Monsoon Rainfall over India. Mausam, 39, 375-382.

[46]   Gadgil, S. and Asha, G. (1992) Intra-Seasonal Variation of the Summer Monsoon I: Observational Aspects. Journal of the Meteorological Society of Japan, 70, 517-527.

[47]   Murakami, M. (1976) Analysis of Summer Monsoon Fluctuations over India. Journal of the Meteorological Society of Japan, 54, 15-31.

[48]   Ravi Kumar, K., Valsala, V., Tiwari, Y.K., Revadekar, J.V., Pillai, P., Chakraborty, S. and Murtugudde, R. (2016) Intra-Seasonal Variability of Atmospheric CO2 Concentrations over India during Summer Monsoons. Atmospheric Environment, 142, 229-237.

[49]   Hingane, L.S. (1990) Ozone Valley in the Subtropics. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 47, 1814-1817.<1814:OVITS>2.0.CO;2

[50]   Madhu, V. (2016) Madden Julian Oscillations in Total Column Ozone, Air Temperature and Surface Pressure Measured over Cochin during Summer Monsoon 2015. Open Journal of Marine Science, 6, 270-282.