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 AJPS  Vol.9 No.4 , March 2018
Flower Characteristics and Pollination Behavior of Euryale ferox (Salisb.)
Abstract: The Euryale ferox (Salisb.) or gorgon or makhana is one of the most important non cereal food crops of commerce from wetland ecosystem in India. Flower is cleistogamous (CLS) and predominantly self-pollinated. The variations in floral characters were observed in 10 types of germplasm viz., Manipur-2, Manipur-4, Manipur-7, Manipur-9, Selection-17, Selection-23, Selection-27, Selection-28, Superior Selection-1 and cv. Swarna Vaidehi. In our present study, the number of flowers varied from 8.33 (Manipur-9) to 16.33 (Superior Selection-1) per plant and flowering period was about 40 days. However, peak pollination was observed between 60 - 70 days after transplanting. The weather of August and September were ideal for pollination and fruit set. The temperature and humidity of this period were 29°C - 31°C and 79% - 81%, respectively. Besides cleistogamy (CL), chasmogamy (CH) is also observed after July flowering in Euryale, when crop gets matured, water level considerably goes down, and flowers are generally opened in air. There were rare chances for cross pollination by insect. In later stage, chasmogamous (CHS) flower increases up to 22.50% in October. Seed formation of the CHS flower was very less and seed number varies from July (11.25/fruit) to September (28.33/fruit). Artificial hybridization can be performed in CHS flower. The complete flower development was noticed within 72 - 96 hrs from floral initiation. Therefore, getting of CHS flower outside water is very less. There were strong correlations between number of embryos (r = 0.762), ovary area (longitudinal) (r = 0.681) with the yield of the Euryale plant.
Cite this paper: Jana, B. (2018) Flower Characteristics and Pollination Behavior of Euryale ferox (Salisb.). American Journal of Plant Sciences, 9, 722-731. doi: 10.4236/ajps.2018.94057.
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