AJAC  Vol.2 No.7 , November 2011
The Influence of Initial Carbonate Concentration on the Folin-Ciocalteu Micro-Method for the Determination of Phenolics with Low Concentration in the Presence of Me-thanol: A Comparative Study of Real-Time Monitored Reactions
Abstract: During the Folin Ciocalteu (F-C) micro-assay for the determination of phenolics in the presence of methanol, fine solids can form. In a previous paper, we hypothesized that the interference from alcohol on the F-C reaction can be minimized depending on the particular procedure used to reach the alkalinity condition. In order to demonstrate our hypothesis we studied, by spectrophotometrically monitoring, the time-behaviour of the reactions carried out in the presence of different methanol concentrations at the same alkalinity condition from two protocols. The results showed that the interfering effect of methanol on the F-C micro-method can be affect and even prevented depending on working conditions. In particular, the formation of fine solids can be delayed, slowed down and prevented depending on the initial carbonate concentration used. We have explained why the initial carbonate concentration, used to reach the final alkalinity condition, plays an important role in the F-C reaction carried out in the presence of methanol. Moreover, the results from real-time monitoring showed that, differently from traditional F-C procedure, our procedure allows us to carry out the F-C micro method in the presence of 6% methanol, as an extreme concentration, reading the absorbance at real time 24 min. The real-time monitoring of absorbance can be considered as a useful means to explore the effect of other parameters on precipitate formation caused by the presence of methanol in the F-C reaction.
Cite this paper: nullN. Cicco and V. Lattanzio, "The Influence of Initial Carbonate Concentration on the Folin-Ciocalteu Micro-Method for the Determination of Phenolics with Low Concentration in the Presence of Me-thanol: A Comparative Study of Real-Time Monitored Reactions," American Journal of Analytical Chemistry, Vol. 2 No. 7, 2011, pp. 840-848. doi: 10.4236/ajac.2011.27096.

[1]   N. C. Cook and S. Samman, “Flavonoids-Chemistry, Metabolism, Cardioprotective Effects and Dietary sour- ces,” The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, Vol. 7, 1996, pp. 66-76. doi:10.1016/0955-2863(95)00168-9

[2]   C. A. Rice-Evans, R. N. J. Mille and G. Paganga, “Anti-Oxidant Properties of Phenolic Compounds,” Trends in Plant Science, Vol. 2, 1997, pp. 152-159. doi:10.1016/S1360-1385(97)01018-2

[3]   V. L. Singleton and J. A. Rossi, “Colorimetry of Total Phenolics with Phosphomolybdic-Phosphotungstic Acid Reagents,” American Journal of Enology and Viticulture, Vol. 16, 1965, pp. 144-158.

[4]   J. Blouin, L. LLorca, F. R. Montreau and J. H. Dufour, “Etude des Conditions Optimales Pour la Determination des Composes Phenoliques Totaux par le Reactif de Folin Ciocalteu,” Connaissance de la Vigne et du Vin, Vol. 6, 1972, pp. 405-413.

[5]   F. R. Montreau, “Sur le Dosage des Composes Pheno- liques Totaux dans les vins par la Methode F-C,” Connaissance de la Vigne et du Vin, Vol. 6, 1972, pp. 397-404.

[6]   K. Slinkard and V. L. Singleton, “Total Phenol Analysis: Automation and Comparison with Manual Methods,” American Journal of Enology and Viticulture, Vol. 28, 1977, pp. 49-55.

[7]   N. Cicco, M. T. Lanorte, M. Paraggio, M. Viaggiano and V. Lattanzio, “A Reproducible Rapid and Inexpensive Folin-Ciocalteu Micro-Method in Determining Phenolics of Plant Methanol Extracts,” Microchemical Journal, Vol. 91, No. 1, 2009, pp. 107-110. doi:10.1016/j.microc.2008.08.011

[8]   O. S. Balogun and T. Teraoka, “Time-Course Analysis of the Accumulation of Phenols in Tomato Seedlings Infected with Potato Virus X and Tobacco mosaic virus,” Biokem, Vol. 16, No. 2, 2004, pp. 112-120.

[9]   M. Monagas, V. Nunez, B. Bartolomé and C. Go-mez-Cordoves, “Phenolic Content of Blends of Tem-pranillo with Graciano or Cabernet Sauvignon Wines Produced in Spain,” Food Technology and Biotechnology, Vol. 44, No. 4, 2006, pp. 507-513.

[10]   V. Papadimitriou, T. G. Sotiroudis, A. Xenakis, N. Sofi- kiti, V. Stavyiannoudaki and N. A. Chaniotakis, “Oxida-tive Stability and Radical Scavenging Activity of Extra Virgin Olive Oils: An Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Study,” Analytica Chimica Acta, Vol. 573- 574, 2006, pp. 453-458. doi:10.1016/j.aca.2006.02.007

[11]   G. Marigo, “Sur une Methode de Fractionnement et d’E- stimation des Composes Phenoliques Chez lez Vegetaux,” Analusis, Vol. 2, 1973, pp. 106-110.

[12]   G. A. Spanos and R. E. Wrolstad, “Influence of Process-ing and Storage on the Phenolic Composition of Thomp-son Seedless Grape Juice,” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Vol. 38, No. 7, 1990, pp. 1565-1571. doi:10.1021/jf00097a030

[13]   N. Sadler and H. Jacobs, “Application of the Folin-Cio- calteu Reagent to the Determination of Salbutamol in Pharmaceutical Preparations,” Talanta, Vol. 42, No. 10, 1995, pp. 1385-1388. doi:10.1016/0039-9140(95)01534-I

[14]   V. L. Singleton, R. O. Orthofer and R. M. Lamuela-Ra- ventos, “Analysis of Total Phenols and Other Oxidation Substrates and Antioxidants by Means of Folin-Ciocalteu Reagent,” Methods in Enzymology, Vol. 299, 1999, pp. 152-178. doi:10.1016/S0076-6879(99)99017-1

[15]   F. Manoli and E. Dalas, “Spontaneous Precipitation of Calcium Carbonate in the Presence of Ethanol, Isopropanol and Diethylene Glycol,” Journal of Crystal Growth, Vol. 218, No. 2-4, 2000, pp. 359-364. doi:10.1016/S0022-0248(00)00560-1

[16]   M. Z. C. Hu, E. A. Payzant and C. H. Byers, “Sol-Gel and Ultrafine Particle Formation via Dielectric Tuning of Inorganic Salt-Alcohol-Water Solutions,” Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, Vol. 222, 2000, pp. 20-36.

[17]   G. Guo, G. Yan, L. Wang and J. Huang, “Crystallization of Strontium Carbonate in Alcohol or Water Solution Containing Mixed Nonionic/Anionic Surfactants,” Mate-rials Letters, Vol. 62, No. 24, 2008, pp. 4018-4021. doi:10.1016/j.matlet.2008.05.052

[18]   A. S. Myerson, “Crystal, Crystal Growth and Nucleation,” Handbook of Industrial Crystallization, Butter-worth-Heinmann Publications, London, 1993, pp. 33-63.

[19]   V. Liotta and V. Sabesan, “Monitoring and Feedback Control of Supersaturation Using ATR-FTIR to Produce an Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient of a Desired Crystal Size,” Organic Process Research & Development, Vol. 8, No. 3, 2004, pp. 488-494. doi:10.1021/op049959n