JBM  Vol.6 No.3 , March 2018
Prevalence and Characteristics of Peripartum Cardiomyopathy among Women with Cadiac Failure Referred for Echocardiography in a Tertiary Hospital in Northern Nigeria
Abstract: Introduction: Peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM) is a common clinical condition in northern Nigeria. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and characteristics of PPCM among women with heart failure referred for echocardiography. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective study of 401 women managed for heart failure referred for echocardiography between October 2016 and September 2017. Their reports were analyzed for demographic and echocardiographic parameters. Results: The mean age of the 401 individuals studied was 41.28 ± 16.25 years. The commonest cause of heart failure was PPCM, accounting for 256 (69.5%), followed by hypertension 79 (19.7%) and rheumatic heart disease (RHD) 24 (5.9%). Conclusion: PPCM is a common and important cause of heart failure among women in Northern Nigeria.
Cite this paper: Saidu, H. , Kabir, A. , Ndiche, N. , Yau, J. , Abdullahi, U. and Mijinyawa, M. (2018) Prevalence and Characteristics of Peripartum Cardiomyopathy among Women with Cadiac Failure Referred for Echocardiography in a Tertiary Hospital in Northern Nigeria. Journal of Biosciences and Medicines, 6, 95-104. doi: 10.4236/jbm.2018.63007.

[1]   Toure, I.A., Salissou, O. and Chapko, M.K. (1992) Hospitalizations in Niger for Complications from Arterial Hypertension. American Journal of Hypertension, 5, 322-324.

[2]   Oyoo, G.O. and Ogola, E.N. (1999) Clinical and Sociodemographic Aspects of Congestive Heart Failure Patients in Kenyatta National Hospital. Nairobi. East African Medical Journal, 76, 23-27.

[3]   Bardgett, H.P., Dixon, M. and Beeching, N.J. (2006) Increase in Hospital Mortality from Non-Communicable Disease and HIV Related Conditions in Bulawaye Zimbabwe, between 1992 to 2000. Tropical Doctor, 36, 129-131.

[4]   Kingue, S., Dzudie, A., Menanga, A., Akono, M. and Ouankou, M. (2005) A New Look at Adult Chronic Heart Failure in the Age of the Doppler Echocardiography: Experience of the Medicine Department at Yaoundé General Hospital. Annales de Cardiologie et D’Angeiologie, 54, 276-283.

[5]   Khatibzadeh, S., Farzadfar, F., Oliver, J. and Moran, E.M. (2013) Worldwide Risk Factors for Heart Failure: A Systematic Review and Pooled Analysis. International Journal of Cardiology, 168, 1186-1194.

[6]   Schocken, D.D., Benjamin, E.J., Fonarow, G.C., Krumholz, H.M. and Levy, D. (2008) Prevention of Heart Failure: A Scientific Statement from the American Councils on Epidemiology and Prevention, Clinical Cardiology, Cardiovascular Nursing and High Blood Pressure Research; Quality of Care and Outcomes of Research Interdisplinary Working Group; and Functional Genomics and Translational Biology. Circulation, 117, 2544-2565.

[7]   Damasceno, A., Cotter, G., Dzudie, A., Silwa, K. and Mayosi, B.M. (2007) Heart Failure in Sub-Saharan Africa: Time for Action. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 50, 688-693.

[8]   Owosu, I.K. (2007) Causes of Heart Failure as Seen in Kumasi, Ghana. The Int J Third World Med, 5, 1-10.

[9]   Mendez, G.F. and Cowie, M.R. (2001) The Epidemiological Features of Heart Failure in Developing Countries: A Review of the Literature. International Journal of Cardiology, 80, 213-219.

[10]   Yamani, M. and Massie, B.M. (1993) Congestive Heart Failure: Insights from Epidemiology, Implications for Treatment. Mayo Clinic Proceedings, 68, 1214-1218.

[11]   Pearson, G.D., Veille, J.C. and Rahimtoola, S. (2000) Peripartum Cardiomyopathy: National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute and Office of Rare Diseases (National Institute of Health) Workshop Recommendations and Review. JAMA, 283, 1183-1188.

[12]   Ansari, A.A., Fett, J.D., Damascenu, A., Mayne, A.E., Onlamoon, M. and Sandstorm, J.B. (2002) Autoimmune Mechanisms as the Basis for Peripartum Cardiomyopathy. Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology, 23, 289-312.

[13]   Wash, J.J. and Burch, G.E. (1961) Post Partal Heart Disease. Archives of Internal Medicine, 108, 817-822.

[14]   Hafkesbring, H.E. (1971) Toxic Postpartal Heart Disease. New Orleans Medical-Surgical, 44, 964-968.

[15]   Demakis, J.G. and Rahimtoola, S.H. (1971) Peripartum Cardiomyopathy. Circulation, 44, 964-968.

[16]   The Task Force for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Chronic Heart Failure of the European Society of Cardiology (2005) Guidelines for the Treatment and Diagnosis of Chronic Heart Failure: An Executive Summary. European Heart Journal, 26, 1115-1140.

[17]   Disease of Heart Blood Vessels (1964) Nomenclature and Criteria for Diagnosis. 6th Edition, Little, Brown, Boston, 114.

[18]   Sahn, D.J., De Maria, A., Kisslo, J. and Weyman, A. (1978) Recommendations Regarding Quantitation in the M-Mode Echocardiography. Results of the Survey of Echocardiographic Measurements. Circulation, 58, 1072-1083.

[19]   Sahn, D.J., De Maria, A., Kisslo, J. and Weyman, A. (1978) The Committee on M-Mode Standardization of the American Society of Echocardiography: Recommendation Regarding Quantitation in M-Mode Echocardiography: Results of a Survey of Echocardiographic Measurements. Circulation, 58, 1072-1081.

[20]   Teichholz, L.E., Kreulen, T. and Herman, M.V. (1976) Problems in Echocardiographic Volume Determinations: Echocardiographic-Angiographic Correlations in the Presence or Absence of Synergy. American Journal of Cardiology, 37, 7-11.

[21]   Oh, J.K., Seward, J.B. and Tafik, A.J. (2006) Goal Directed and Comprehensive Examination. In the Echo Manual 3rd Edition, 390-400.

[22]   Sliwa, K., Hilfiker-Kleino, D., Petrie, M.C., et al. (2010) Current State of Knowledge on Etiology, Diagnosis, Management and Therapy of Peripartum Cardiomyopathy: A Position Statement from the Heart Failure Associations of the European Society of Cardiology Working Group on Peripartum Cardiomyopathy. European Journal of Heart Failure, 8, 767-778.

[23]   Ganau, A., Devereux, R.B., Roman, M.J., de Simone, G., Pickering, T.G., Saba, P.S., Vargiu, P., Simongini, J. and Laragh, J.H. (1992) Pattern of Left Ventricular Hypertrophy and Geometry in Essential Hypertension. American Journal of Cardiology, 19, 1550-1558.

[24]   Remenyi, N., Wilson, A., Steer, A., et al. (2012) World Heart Federation Criteria for Echocardiographic Diagnosis of Rheumatic Heart Disease—An Evidence Based Guidelines. Nature Reviews Cardiology, 9, 297-309.

[25]   WHO Expert Committee (1984) Cardiomyopathies. World Health Organization Technical Report Series, 697, 7-64.

[26]   Jaffe, C.C. and Weltin, G. (1992) Echocardiography of the Right Side of the Heart. Cardiology Clinics, 10, 41-57.

[27]   Armstrong, W.F. and Ryan, T. (2010) Echocardiography and Coronary Heart Disease. In: Feigenbarun’s Echocardiography, Lippincott Williams and Williams, Philadelphia, 7th Edition, 427-472.

[28]   Karaye, K.M., Sani, M.U., Mijinyawa, M.S. and Borodo, M.M. (2007) Aetiology and Echocardiographic Features of Heart Failure with Preserved and Reduced Ejection Fraction in Kano, Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Basic and Clinical Sciences, 4, 11-17.

[29]   Antony, K.K. (1980) Pattern of Cardiac Failure in Northern Savannah, Nigeria. Tropical and Geographical Medicine, 32, 118-125.

[30]   Isezuo, S.A. and Abubakar, S.A. (2007) Epidemiologic Profile of Postpartum Cardiomyopathy in a Tertiary Care Hospital. Ethnicity & Disease, 17, 228-233.

[31]   Brokington, I.F. (1970) Peripartum Heart Failure. American Journal of Cardiology, 7, 63-68.

[32]   Karaye, K.M. and Sani, M.U. (2008) Factors Associated with Poor Prognosis among Patients Admitted with Heart Failure in a Nigerian Tertiary Medical Center: A Cross-Sectional Study. BMC Cardiovascular Disorders, 6, 16.

[33]   Silwa, K., Forster, O., Libherber, E., Fett, J.D., Sundstrom, J.B., Hilfiker-Kleiner, D. and Ansari, A.A. (2006) Peripartum Cardiomyopathy: Inflammatory Markers as Predictors of Outcome in 100 Prospectively Studied Patients. European Heart Journal, 27, 441-446.

[34]   Fett, J.D., Chritie, L.G., Carraway, R.D. and Murphy, J.G. (2005) Five Year Prospective Study of the Incidence and Prognosis of Peripartum Cardiomyopathy at a Single Institution. Mayo Clinic Proceedings, 80, 1602-1606.

[35]   Davidson, N.M. and Parry, E.H.O. (1978) Peripartum Cardiac Failure. QJM, 188, 431-463.

[36]   Davidson, N.M., Trevit, L.S. and Parry, E.H.O. (1974) Perpartum Cardiac Failure: An Explanation for Observed Geographic Distribution in Nigeria. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 51, 203-208.

[37]   Mundy, M.I. (1995) The Effects of Increased Salt Intake on Blood Pressure of Chimpanzes. Nature Medicine, 1, 1009-1016.

[38]   Mufunda, J., Chemistry, J.E. and Matenga, J. (1992) Blood Pressure Response to Acute Changes in Dietary Sodium in Young Zimbabweans. Journal of Hypertension, 10, 279-285.

[39]   Safola, O.A., Arinze, E.C. and Mabayoje, M.O. (1998) The Cardiovascular and Serum Electrolytes Responses to Acute High Salt Loading in Normotensive Nigerians. The Nigerian Medical Practitioner, 35, 10-12.

[40]   Isezuo, S.A. (2006) Echocardiographic Profile of Peripartum Cardiomyopathy in a Tertiary Care Hospital in Sokoto, Nigeria. Indian Heart Journal, 58, 234-238.

[41]   Karaye, K.M., Lindmark, K. and Henein, M.Y. (2016) One Year Survivalin Nigerians with Peripartum Cardiomyopathy. Heart Views, 17, 55-61.