Back
 JBM  Vol.6 No.3 , March 2018
Evaluation of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in a Young Adults Tunisian Group
Abstract: Introduction: Cardiovascular diseases have become more common in young adults. Their emergence is due to the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in a Tunisian young adult group. Material and methods: This is an epidemiological study of 705 Tunisians volunteers, free from any cardiovascular pathology; who are recruited at the Military Hospital of Tunis. Besides the classical cardiovascular risk factors (obesity, dyslipidemia, smoking, alcohol…), we evaluate the level of homocysteinemia and determined the C677T mutation of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene by PCR-RFLP method. Results and conclusions: The mean age of our population is 28.25 ± 9.08 with a male majority (83.8%). We have 43.8% obese subject or overweight, 54.3% smokers and 12.9% alcoholics. The lipid profile showed that 12.6% of the population had hypercholesterolemia and 39.5% had hypoHDLemia, 7.9% had a high lipoprotein(a) concentration. In our study population we found that 10.9% of subjects had an hs-CRP concentration greater than 3 mg/L. Genotyping of the MTHFR gene revealed that 34% of young adults had a mutated genome (CT). The results showed a significant correlation between different factors, such as cholesterolemia and obesity. The prevalence of these risk factors showed the severity of our young people’s health status and imposes a change in the way of Tunisians life.
Cite this paper: Oussama, L. , Sana, A. , Nedra, G. , Manel, A. , Rihab, S. , Mabrouka, E. , Nejla, S. , Chakib, M. and Zied, A. (2018) Evaluation of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in a Young Adults Tunisian Group. Journal of Biosciences and Medicines, 6, 1-14. doi: 10.4236/jbm.2018.63001.
References

[1]   Organisation Mondiale de la Santé (2015) Maladies cardiovasculaires [En Ligne]. [Consulté le 4 avril 2015].
http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs317/fr/

[2]   Maaijwee, N.A., Rutten-Jacobs, L.C., Schaapsmeerders, P., Van Dijk, E.J. and de Leeuw, F.E. (2014) Ischaemic Stroke in Young Adults: Risk Factors and Long-Term Consequences. Nature Reviews Neurology, 10, 315-325.
https://doi.org/10.1038/nrneurol.2014.72

[3]   Elasmi, M., Feki, M., Sanhaji, H., Jemaa, R., Haj Taeib, S., Omar, S., et al. (2009) Prévalence des facteurs de risque cardiovasculaires conventionnels dans la population du Grand Tunis. Revue d'Epidémiologie et de Santé Publique, 57, 87-92.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.respe.2008.12.010

[4]   Organisation Mondiale de la Santé (2014) Tunisia [En Ligne]. [Consulté le 4 avril 2015].
http://www.who.int/nmh/countries/tun_en.pdf?ua=1

[5]   Aounallah-Skhiri, H., Romdhane, H.B., Traissac, P., Eymard-Duvernay, S., Delpeuch, F., Achour, N., et al. (2008) Nutritional Status of Tunisian Adolescents: Associated Gender, Environmental and Socio-Economic Factors. Public Health Nutrition, 11, 1306-1317.
https://doi.org/10.1017/S1368980008002693

[6]   Sozmen, K., Unal, B., Saidi, O., Ben Romdhane, H., Abu-Rmeileh, N.M., Husseini, A., et al. (2015) Cardiovascular Risk Factor Trends in the Eastern Mediterranean Region: Evidence from Four Countries Is Alarming. International Journal of Public Health, 60, S3-11.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s00038-014-0610-6

[7]   Uvacsek, M., Kneffel, Z., Toth, M., Johnson, A.W., Vehrs, P., Myrer, J.W., et al. (2014) Ten-Year Cardiovascular Risk Assessment in University Students. Acta Physiologica Hungarica, 101, 321-328.
https://doi.org/10.1556/APhysiol.101.2014.3.7

[8]   Wan, Y., Jiang, X., He, Y., Zhang, Y., Liang, Y., Pan, F., et al. (2016) Body Mass Index of Young Men in China: Results from Four National Surveys Conducted between 1955 and 2012. Medicine, 95, e2829.
https://doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000002829

[9]   Meshram, I.I., Vishnu Vardhana Rao, M., Sudershan Rao, V., Laxmaiah, A. and Polasa, K. (2016) Regional Variation in the Prevalence of Overweight/Obesity, Hypertension and Diabetes and Their Correlates among the Adult Rural Population in India. British Journal of Nutrition, 115, 1265-1272.
https://doi.org/10.1017/S0007114516000039

[10]   Carreira, H., Pereira, M., Azevedo, A. and Lunet, N. (2012) Trends of BMI and Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity in Portugal (1995-2005): A Systematic Review. Public Health Nutrition, 15, 972-981.
https://doi.org/10.1017/S1368980012000559

[11]   Moradi-Lakeh, M., El Bcheraoui, C., Tuffaha, M., Daoud, F., Al Saeedi, M., Basulaiman, M., et al. (2015) Tobacco Consumption in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, 2013: Findings from a National Survey. BMC Public Health, 15, 1-10.
https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-015-1902-3

[12]   Pessinaba, S., Mbaye, A., Yabeta, G.A., Harouna, H., Sib, A.E., Kane, A.D., et al. (2013) Prevalence Survey of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in the General Population in St. Louis (Senegal). Annales de Cardiologie et D’Angeiologie, 62, 253-258.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ancard.2013.02.005

[13]   Palangrit, S. and Muengtaweepongsa, S. (2015) Risk Factors of Stroke in Pathumthani Province, Thailand. Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand, 98, 649-655.

[14]   Merhi, M., Demirdjian, S., Hariri, E., Sabbah, N., Youhanna, S., Ghassibe-Sabbagh, M., et al. (2015) Impact of inflammation, Gene Variants, and Cigarette Smoking on Coronary Artery Disease Risk. Inflammation Research, 64, 415-422.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s00011-015-0821-1

[15]   Epacka Ewane, M., Mandengue, S.H., Ahmadou, G., Moumbe Tamba, S., Dzudie, A. and Luma, H.N. (2011) Dépistage des maladies cardiovasculaires et des facteurs de risque dans une cohorte de 270 Camerounais: effets des activités physiques et sportives. Med Mal Metab., 5, 655-658.
https://doi.org/10.1016/S1957-2557(11)70342-X

[16]   Beck, F. and Richard, J.B. (2013) Epidémiologie de l’alcoolisation. Endocrinologie-Nutrition, 10, 1-9.

[17]   van Dis, I., Kromhout, D., Boer, J.M., Geleijnse, J.M. and Verschuren, W.M. (2011) Paternal and Maternal History of Myocardial Infarction and Cardiovascular Diseases Incidence in a Dutch Cohort of Middle-Aged Persons. PLoS ONE, 6, e28697.
https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0028697

[18]   Weijmans, M., van der Graaf, Y., Reitsma, J.B. and Visseren, F.L. (2015) Paternal or Maternal History of Cardiovascular Disease and the Risk of Cardiovascular Disease in Offspring. A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. International Journal of Cardiology, 179, 409-416.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcard.2014.11.017

[19]   Sesso, H.D., Lee, I.M., Gaziano, J.M., Rexrode, K.M., Glynn, R.J. and Buring, J.E. (2001) Maternal and Paternal History of Myocardial Infarction and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease in Men and Women. Circulation, 104, 393-398.
https://doi.org/10.1161/hc2901.093115

[20]   Yahia-Berrouiguet, A., Benyoucef, M., Meguenni, K. and Brouri, M. (2011) Enquête sur la prévalence des facteurs de risque de maladies cardiovasculaires à Tlemcen (Algérie). Médecine des maladies Métaboliques, 5, 42-48.
https://doi.org/10.1016/S1957-2557(11)70071-2

[21]   Zaman, M.M., Choudhury, S.R., Ahmed, J., Talukder, M.H. and Rahman, A.H. (2016) Blood Glucose and Cholesterol Levels in Adult Population of Bangladesh: Results from STEPS 2006 Survey. Indian Heart Journal, 68, 52-56.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ihj.2015.06.031

[22]   Paul, J. and Baudin, B. (2009) Physiopathologie de l’athérosclérose et marqueurs précoces. Revue francophone des laboratories, 409, 41-50.
https://doi.org/10.1016/S1773-035X(09)70199-6

[23]   Stapleton, P.A., Goodwill, A.G., James, M.E., Brock, R.W. and Frisbee, J.C. (2010) Hypercholesterolemia and Microvascular Dysfunction: Interventional Strategies. Journal of Inflammation, 7, 54.
https://doi.org/10.1186/1476-9255-7-54

[24]   Prospective Studies Collaboration, Lewington, S., Whitlock, G., Clarke, R., Sherliker, P., Emberson, J., et al. (2007) Blood Cholesterol and Vascular Mortality by Age, Sex, and Blood Pressure: A Meta-Analysis of Individual Data from 61 Prospective Studies with 55000 Vascular Deaths. The Lancet, 370, 1829-1839.
https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(07)61778-4

[25]   Perez, C.M., Sanchez, H. and Ortiz, A.P. (2013) Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity and Their Cardiometabolic Comorbidities in Hispanic Adults Living in Puerto Rico. Journal of Community Health, 38, 1140-1146.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10900-013-9726-5

[26]   Gordon-Larsen, P., Adair, L.S., Meigs, J.B., Mayer-Davis, E., Herring, A., Yan, S.K., et al. (2013) Discordant Risk: Overweight and Cardiometabolic Risk in Chinese Adults. Obesity, 21, E166-E174.
https://doi.org/10.1002/oby.20409

[27]   Bruckert, E., Farnier, M. and Ferrières, J. (2010) HDL-Cholestérol et risque cardiovasculaire: Audelà du LDL. Médecine des maladies Métaboliques, 4, 379-388.
https://doi.org/10.1016/S1957-2557(10)70081-X

[28]   Chatti, S., Debbabi, F., Ben Abdelaziz, A., Harbaoui, R., Ghannem, H. and Mrizak, N. (2010) Cardiovascular Risk Factors among Shift Workers in Company of Electricity Production in the Centre of Tunisia. Annales de Cardiologie et d’Angéiologie, 59, 190-195.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ancard.2009.07.002

[29]   Liao, P.J., Xie, R.B., Yin, R.X., Wei, D.X., Huang, J., Huang, F., et al. (2015) Serum Lipid Profiles, the Prevalence of Dyslipidemia and the Risk Factors in Two Isolated Chinese Minorities. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, 8, 19200-19211.

[30]   Brinton, E.A. (2016) Management of Hypertriglyceridemia for Prevention of Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease. Endocrinology Metabolism Clinics of North America, 45, 185-204.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecl.2015.09.012

[31]   Pan, L., Lu, G. and Chen, Z. (2014) Combined Use of Apolipoprotein B/Apolipoprotein A1 Ratio and Non-High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol before Routine Clinical Lipid Measurement in Predicting Coronary Heart Disease. Coronary Artery Disease, 25, 433-438.
https://doi.org/10.1097/MCA.0000000000000100

[32]   Raitakari, O.T., Makinen, V.P., McQueen, M.J., Niemi, J., Juonala, M., Jauhiainen, M., et al. (2013) Computationally Estimated Apolipoproteins B and A1 in Predicting Cardiovascular Risk. Atherosclerosis, 226, 245-251.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2012.10.049

[33]   Andrikoula, M. and McDowell, I.F. (2008) The Contribution of ApoB and ApoA1 Measurements to Cardiovascular Risk Assessment. Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism, 10, 271-278.
https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1463-1326.2007.00714.x

[34]   Gehani, A.A., Al-Hinai, A.T., Zubaid, M., Almahmeed, W., Hasani, M.R., Yusufali, A.H., et al. (2014) Association of Risk Factors with Acute Myocardial Infarction in Middle Eastern Countries: The Interheart Middle East Study. European Journal of Preventive Cardiology, 21, 400-410.
https://doi.org/10.1177/2047487312465525

[35]   Dong, H., Chen, W., Wang, X., Pi, F., Wu, Y., Pang, S., et al. (2015) Apolipoprotein A1, B Levels, and Their Ratio and the Risk of a First Stroke: A Meta-Analysis and Case-Control Study. Metabolic Brain Disease, 30, 1319-1330.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11011-015-9732-7

[36]   Xu, W., Li, R., Zhang, S., Gong, L., Wang, Z., Ren, W., et al. (2012) The Relationship between High-Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein and ApoB, ApoB/ApoA1 Ratio in General Population of China. Endocrine, 42, 132-138.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s12020-012-9599-x

[37]   Walldius, G., Aastveit, A.H. and Jungner, I. (2006) Stroke Mortality and the apoB/apoA-I Ratio: Results of the AMORIS Prospective Study. Journal of Internal Medicine, 259, 259-266.
https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2796.2005.01610.x

[38]   Scheen, A.J. and Kulbertus, H. (2004) L’étudde clinique du mois INTERHEART: La preuve par 9 Neuf facteurs de risque prédisent neuf infarctus du myocarde sur dix. Revue Medicale De Liege, 59, 676-679.

[39]   Li, S.Y., Gao, Y., Ma, W.N., Wang, H.C., Zhou, G., Guo, W.C., et al. (2014) The Relationship between Serum Lipoprotein(a) Levels and Ischemic Stroke Risk: A Cohort Study in the Chinese Population. Inflammation, 37, 686-693.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10753-013-9785-x

[40]   Erqou, S., Kaptoge, S., Perry, P.L., Di Angelantonio, E., Thompson, A., White, I.R., et al. (2009) Lipoprotein(a) Concentration and the Risk of Coronary Heart Disease, Stroke, and Nonvascular Mortality. JAMA, 302, 412-423.
https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2009.1063

[41]   Nendaz, M.R. and Perrier, A. (2004) Maladie Thromboembolique Veineuse—Un taux de lipoprotéine (a) sérique supérieur à 300 mg/L est un facteur de risque de thrombose veineuse. Revue des Maladies Respiratoires, 21, 87-88.
https://doi.org/10.1016/S0761-8425(04)71988-9

[42]   Joussein-Remacle, S., Delarche, N., Bader, H., Lasserre, R. and Estrade, G. (2006) Risk Factors in a Young Population with Acute Myocardial Infarction: One Year Prospective Study. Annales De Cardiologie Et D’Angeiologie, 55, 204-209.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ancard.2006.05.001

[43]   Kamstrup, P.R. and Nordestgaard, B.G. (2013) Lipoprotein(a) Concentrations, Isoform Size, and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes: A Mendelian Randomisation Study. The Lancet, 1, 220-227.
https://doi.org/10.1016/S2213-8587(13)70064-0

[44]   Forbang, N.I., Criqui, M.H., Allison, M.A., Ix, J.H., Steffen, B.T., Cushman, M., et al. (2016) Sex and Ethnic Differences in the Associations between Lipoprotein(a) and Peripheral Arterial Disease in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Journal of Vascular Surgery, 63, 453-458.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvs.2015.08.114

[45]   Bennet, A., Di Angelantonio, E., Erqou, S., Eiriksdottir, G., Sigurdsson, G., Woodward, M., et al. (2008) Lipoprotein(a) Levels and Risk of Future Coronary Heart Disease: Large-Scale Prospective Data. Archives of Internal Medicine, 168, 598-608.
https://doi.org/10.1001/archinte.168.6.598

[46]   Manocha, A. and Srivastava, L.M. (2016) Lipoprotein(a): A Unique Independent Risk Factor for Coronary Artery Disease. Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry, 31, 13-20.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s12291-015-0483-3

[47]   Goussault, Y. (2002) La lipoprotéine(a). Revue Francaise des Laboratoires, 340, 27-29.
https://doi.org/10.1016/S0338-9898(02)80101-9

[48]   Stone, P.A. and Kazil, J. (2014) The Relationships between Serum C-Reactive Protein Level and Risk and Progression of Coronary and Carotid Atherosclerosis. Seminars in Vascular Surgery, 27, 138-142.
https://doi.org/10.1053/j.semvascsurg.2015.04.002

[49]   Ridker, P.M. (2016) A Test in Context: High-Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 67, 712-723.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2015.11.037

[50]   Koenig, W. (2013) High-Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein and Atherosclerotic Disease: from Improved Risk Prediction to Risk-Guided Therapy. International Journal of Cardiology, 168, 5126-5134.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcard.2013.07.113

[51]   Saito, I., Sato, S., Nakamura, M., Kokubo, Y., Mannami, T., Adachi, H., et al. (2007) A Low Level of C-Reactive Protein in Japanese Adults and Its Association with Cardiovascular Risk Factors: The Japan NCVC-Collaborative Inflammation Cohort (JNIC) Study. Atherosclerosis, 194, 238-244.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2006.07.032

[52]   Erem, C., Hacihasanoglu, A., Deger, O., Kocak, M. and Topbas, M. (2008) Prevalence of Dyslipidemia and Associated Risk factors among Turkish Adults: Trabzon Lipid Study. Endocrine, 34, 36-51.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s12020-008-9100-z

[53]   Chellak, S., Bigaillon, C., El Jahiri, Y., Garcia, C., Ceppa, F., Mayaudon, H., et al. (2005) Homocystéine et paramètres du syndrome métabolique et du risque cardiovasculaire chez 2045 militaires: Etude EPIMIL. Immuno-Analyse & Biologie Specialisee, 20, 169-172.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.immbio.2005.03.002

[54]   De jaegera, C., Fraoucenea, N., Voronskaa, E. and Cherin, P. (2010) Role de l’homocystéine en pathologie. Medecine et longévité, 2, 73-86.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mlong.2010.03.002

 
 
Top