JEP  Vol.2 No.9 , November 2011
Heavy Metals Concentration in Mullet Fish, Liza abu from Petrochemical Waste Receiving Creeks, Musa Estuary (Persian Gulf)
Abstract: Fish in estuaries, especially those live near petrochemical area, may be exposed to various kinds of contaminants such as heavy metals. This study was to investigate the variations of heavy metals in Liza abu from the Musa estuary which receives petrochemical wastes. Fish samples were obtained from five different creeks. The samples were dissected into liver, gill and muscle, acid digested and their heavy metals level were analyzed. The results showed that the concentration of Cd, Co, Cu, Ni and Pb in muscle ranged 0.08-0.44, ND-1.63, 0.89 - 4.28, 0.48 - 2.73 and 0.5 - 2.50 (µg/g) respectively. Their concentrations in liver were 0.44 - 2.03, 0.5 - 2.80, 5.05 - 36.22, 0.48 - 4.91 and 0.66 - 5.74 (µg/g) respectively. The concentration of these metals in gill was 0.32 - 2.72, 0.29 - 1.10, 4.33 - 6.03, 4.61 - 17.52 and 2.64 - 21.41 (µg/g) respectively. Generally, the level of heavy metals in muscle tissue of Liza abu was lower than the general standard.
Cite this paper: nullA. Doraghi, F. Monikh, A. Safahieh and A. Savari, "Heavy Metals Concentration in Mullet Fish, Liza abu from Petrochemical Waste Receiving Creeks, Musa Estuary (Persian Gulf)," Journal of Environmental Protection, Vol. 2 No. 9, 2011, pp. 1218-1226. doi: 10.4236/jep.2011.29140.

[1]   J. Burger and M. Gochfeld, “Heavy Metals in Commercial Fish in New Jersey,” Environmental Research, Vol. 99, No. 3, 2005, pp. 403-412. doi:10.1016/j.envres.2005.02.001

[2]   J.L. Domingo, A. Bocio, R. Mart?-Cid and J. M. Llobet, “Benefits and Risks of Fish Consumption Part II. RIBEPEIX, a Computer Program to Optimize the Balance between the Intake of Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Chemical Contaminants,” Toxicology, Vol. 230, No. 2-3, 2007, pp. 227-233. doi:10.1016/j.tox.2006.11.059

[3]   N. Shirai, T. Higuchi and H. Suzuki, “Analysis of Lipid Classes and the Fatty Acid Composition of the Salted Fish Roe Food Products, Ikura, Tarako, Tobiko and Kazunoko,” Food Chemistry, Vol. 94, No. 1, 2006, pp. 61-67. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2004.10.050

[4]   N. Sinn and P. R. C. Howe, “Mental Health Benefits of Omega-3 Fatty Acids May Be Mediated by Improvements in Cerebral Vascular Function,” Bioscience Hypotheses, Vol. 1, No. 2, 2008, pp. 103-108. doi:10.1016/j.bihy.2008.02.003

[5]   M. I. Gladyshev, N. Sushchik, O. Anishchenko and O. N. Makhutova, “Benefit-Risk Ratio of Food Fish Intake as the Source of Essential Fatty Acids vs. Heavy Metals: A Case Study of Siberian Grayling from the Yenisei River,” Food Chemistry, Vol. 115, No. 2, 2009, pp. 545-550. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2008.12.062

[6]   N. Tarras-Wahlberg, A. Flachier, S. N. Lane and O. Sangfors, “Environmental Impacts and Metal Exposure of Aquatic Ecosystems in Rivers Contaminated by Small Scale Gold Mining: The Puyango River Basin, Southern Ecuador,” Science of Total Environment, Vol. 278, No. 1-3, 2001, pp. 239-261.

[7]   H. l. Karadede, S. A. Oymak and E. Unlu, “Heavy Metals in Mullet, Liza abu, and Catfish, Silurus triostegus, from the Ataturk Dam Lake (Euphrates), Turkey,” Environment International, Vol. 30, No. 2, 2004, pp. 183-188. doi:10.1016/S0160-4120(03)00169-7

[8]   M. Ozmen, Z. Ayas, A. Gungordu, G. F. Ekmekci and S. Yerli, “Ecotoxicological Assessment of Water Pollution in Sariyar Dam Lake, Turkey,” Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, Vol. 70, No. 1, 2008, pp. 163-173. doi:10.1016/j.ecoenv.2007.05.011

[9]   M. H. Al-Yousuf, M. S. El-Shahawi, and S. M. Al-Ghais. “Trace Metals in Liver, Skin and Muscle of Lethrinus lentjan Fish Species in Relation to Body Length and Sex,” The Science of the Total Environment, Vol. 256, No. 2-3, 2000, pp. 87-94. doi:10.1016/S0048-9697(99)00363-0

[10]   A. Turkmen, M. Tu¨rkmen, Y. Tepe and I. Akyurt, “Heavy Metals in Three Commercially Valuable Fish Species from Iskenderun Bay, Northern East Mediterranean Sea, Turkey,” Food Chemistry, Vol. 91, No. 1, 2005, pp. 167-172. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2004.08.008

[11]   M. Tuzen, “Determination of Heavy Metals in Fish Samples of the Middle Black Sea (Turkey) by Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometry,” Food Chemistry, Vol. 80, No. 1, 2003, pp. 119-123. doi:10.1016/S0308-8146(02)00264-9

[12]   A. Alt?ndag and S. Yig, “Assessment of Heavy Metal Concentrations in the Food Web of Lake Beys_Ehir, Turkey,” Chemosphere, Vol. 60, No. 4, 2005, pp. 552-556. doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2005.01.009

[13]   M. Dural, M. Ziya Lugal Goksu, and A. A. Ozak. “Investigation of Heavy Metal Levels in Economically Important Fish Species Captured from the Tuzla Lagoon,” Food Chemistry, Vol. 102, No. 1, 2007, pp. 415-421. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2006.03.001

[14]   P. Grandjean, “Methylmercury Toxicity and Functional Programming,” Report of Toxicology, Vol. 23, No. 3, 2007, pp. 414-420. doi:10.1016/j.reprotox.2007.03.002

[15]   J. G. Dorea, “Persistent, Bioaccumulative and Toxic Substances in Fish: Human Health Considerations,” Science of the Total Environment, Vol. 400, No. 1-3, 2008, pp. 93-114. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2008.06.017

[16]   B. L. Gulson, K. R. Mahaffey, C. W. Jameson, K. J. Mizon, M. J. Korsch, M. A. Cameron and J. A. Eisman, “Mobilization of Lead from the Skeleton during the Postnatal Period Is Larger than during Pregnancy,” Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine, Vol. 131, No. 4, 1998, pp. 324-329. doi:10.1016/S0022-2143(98)90182-2

[17]   M. C. Navarro, C. Perez-Sirvent, M. J. Mart?nez-Sanchez, J. Vidal and J. Marimon, “Lead, Cadmium and Arsenic Bioavailability in the Abandoned Mine Site of Cabezo Rajao (Murcia, SE Spain),” Chemosphere, Vol. 63, No. 3, 2006, pp. 484-489. doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2005.08.017

[18]   M. Canli and G. Z. Atli, “The Relationships between Heavy Metal (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, Zn) Levels and the Size of Six Mediterranean Fish Species,” Environmental Pollution, Vol. 121, No. 1, 2003, pp. 129-136. doi:10.1016/S0269-7491(02)00194-X

[19]   M. Tuzen, “Toxic and Essential Trace Elemental Contents in Fish Species from the Black Sea, Turkey,” Food and Chemical Toxicology, Vol. 47, No. 8, 2009, pp. 1785-1790. doi:10.1016/j.fct.2009.04.029

[20]   X. Wang, T. Sato, B. Xing and S. Tao, “Health Risks of Heavy Metals to the General Public in Tianjin, China via Consumption of Vegetables and Fish,” Science of the Total Environment, Vol. 350, No. 1-3, 2005, pp. 28-37. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2004.09.044

[21]   H. Feng, J. K. Cochran and D. J. Hirschberg, “Transport and Sources of Metal Contaminants over the Course of Tidal Cycle in the Turbidity Maximum Zone of the Hudson River Estuary,” Water Research, Vol. 36, No. 3, 2002, pp. 733-743. doi:10.1016/S0043-1354(01)00268-8

[22]   V. K. Mubiana, K. Vercauteren and R. Blust, “The Influence of Body Size, Condition Index and Tidal Exposure on the Variability in Metal Bioaccumulation in Mytilus edulis,” Environmental Pollution, Vol. 144, No. 1, 2006, pp. 272-279. doi:10.1016/j.envpol.2005.12.017

[23]   J. Aucoin, R. Blanchard, C. Billiot, C. Partridge, D. Schultz, K. Mandhare, M. J. Beck and J. N. Beck, “Trace Metals in Fish and Sediments from Lake Boeuf, Southeastern Louisiana,” Microchemical Journal, Vol. 62, No. 2, 1999, pp. 299-307. doi:10.1006/mchj.1999.1735

[24]   S. Eastwood and P. Couture, “Seasonal Variations in Condition and Liver Metal Concentrations of Yellow Perch (Perca flaescens) from a Metal-Contaminated Environment,” Aquatic Toxicology, Vol. 58, No. 1, 2002, pp. 43-56. doi:10.1016/S0166-445X(01)00218-1

[25]   D. Mendil, O. D. Uluozlu, E. Hasdemir, M. Tuzen, H. Sari and M. Suic?mez, “Determination of Trace Metal Levels in Seven Fish Species in Lakes in Tokat, Turkey,” Food Chemistry, Vol. 90, No. 1-2, 2005, pp. 175-179. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2004.03.039

[26]   T. Ahmad, N. A. Salman and N. A. Hussain, “Effects of Some Experimental Conditions on the Behaviour and Survival of Liza abu (Heckel) from Basrah, Iraq,” Journal of The Faculty of Marine Science, Vol. 3, 1404H, 1983.

[27]   F. Y?lmaz , N. Ozdemir, A. Demirak and A. Levent Tuna, “Heavy Metal Levels in Two Fish Species Leuciscus cephalus and Lepomis gibbosus,” Food Chemistry, Vol. 100, No. 2, 2007, pp. 830-835. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2005.09.020

[28]   A. R. M. Mohamed, N. A. Hussain, S. S. Al-Noor, F. M. Mutlak, I. M. Al-Sudani, A. M. Mojer, A. J. Toman and M. A. Abdad, “Fish Assemblage of Restored Al-Hawizeh Marsh, Southern Iraq,” Ecohydrological Processes and Sustainable Floodplain Managemen, Vol. 8, No. 2-4, 2008, pp. 375-384.

[29]   S. Duquesne, L. C. Newton, L. Giusti, S. B. Marriott, H. J. Stark and D. J. Bird, “Evidence for Declining Levels of Heavy-Metals in the Severn Estuary and Bristol Channel, U.K. and Their Spatial Distribution in Sediments,” Environmental Pollution, Vol. 143, No. 2, 2006, pp. 187-196. doi:10.1016/j.envpol.2005.12.002

[30]   E. P. Nobi, E. Dilipan, T. Thangaradjou, K. Sivakumar and L. Kannan, “Geochemical and Geo-Statistical Assessment of Heavy Metal Concentration in the Sediments of Different Coastal Ecosystems of Andaman Islands, India,” Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, Vol. 87, No. 2, 2010, pp. 253-264. doi:10.1016/j.ecss.2009.12.019

[31]   A. Farkas, J. Salanki and A. Specziar, “Age- and Size- Specific Patterns of Heavy Metals in the Organs of Freshwater Fish Abramis brama L. Populating a Low- Contaminated Site,” Water Research, Vol. 37, No. 5, 2003, pp. 959-964.

[32]   J. Kojadinovic, M. Potier, M. L. Corre, R. P. Cosson and P. Bustamante, “Bioaccumulation of Trace Elements in Pelagic Fish from the Western Indian Ocean,” Environmental Pollution, Vol. 146, No. 2, 2007, pp. 548-566. doi:10.1016/j.envpol.2006.07.015

[33]   F. Dang and W. X. Wang, “Assessment of Tissue-Spe- cific Accumulation and Effects of Cadmium in a Marine Fish Fed Contaminated Commercially Produced Diet,” Aquatic Toxicology, Vol. 95, No. 3, 2009, pp. 248-255. doi:10.1016/j.aquatox.2009.09.013

[34]   J. Kalman, I. Riba, T. A. DelValls and J. Blasco, “Comparative Toxicity of Cadmium in the Commercial Fish Species Sparus aurata and Solea senegalensis,” Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, Vol. 73, No. 3, 2010, pp. 306-311. doi:10.1016/j.ecoenv.2009.10.013

[35]   A. B. Y?lmaz, “Levels of Heavy Metals (Fe, Cu, Ni, Cr, Pb and Zn) in Tissue of Mugil cephalus and Trachurus mediterraneus from Iskenderun Bay Turkey,” Environmental Research, Vol. 92, No. 3, 2003, pp. 277-281. doi:10.1016/S0013-9351(02)00082-8

[36]   L. D. Kraemer, P. G. C. Campbell and L. Hare, “Seasonal Variations in Hepatic Cd and Cu Concentrations and in the Sub-Cellular Distribution of These Metals in Juvenile Yellow Perch (Perca flavescens),” Environmental Pollution, Vol. 142, No. 2, 2006, pp. 313-325. doi:10.1016/j.envpol.2005.10.004

[37]   R. Company, H. Fel?cia, A. Serafim, A. J. Almeida, M. Biscoito and M. J. Bebianno, “Metal Concentrations and Metallothionein-Like Protein Levels in Deep-Sea Fishes Captured near Hydrothermal Vents in the Mid-Atlantic Ridge off Azores,” Deep-Sea Research I, Vol. 57, No. 7, 2010, pp. 893-908. doi:10.1016/j.dsr.2010.02.005

[38]   S. L. R. G. Junior, F. G. Araujo, M. F. Maia and S. B. A. S. Pinto, “Evaluation of Heavy Metals in Fish of the Sepetiba and Ilha Grande Bays, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil,” Environmental Research Section A, Vol. 89, 2002, pp. 171-179. doi:10.1006/enrs.2002.4341

[39]   J. Usero, C. Izquierdo, J. Morillo and I. Gracia, “Heavy metals in fish (Solea vulgaris, Anguilla anguilla and Liza aurata) from Salt Marshes on the Southern Atlantic Coast of Spain,” Environment International, Vol. 29, No. 7, 2003, pp. 949-956. doi:10.1016/S0160-4120(03)00061-8

[40]   N. Pourang, A. Nikouyan and J. H. Dennis, “Trace Element Concentrations in Fish, Surficial Sediments and Water from Northern Part of the Persian Gulf,” Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, Vol. 109, No. 1-3, 2005, pp. 293-316. doi:10.1007/s10661-005-6287-9

[41]   S. Franca, C. Vinagre, I. Cacador and H. N. Cabral, “Heavy Metal Concentrations in Sediment, Benthic Invertebrates and Fish in Three Salt Marsh Areas Subjected to Different Pollution Loads in the Tagus Estuary (Portugal),” Marine Pollution Bulletin, Vol. 50, 2005, pp. 993-1018. doi:10.1016/j.marpolbul.2005.06.040

[42]   T. V. Sankar, A. A. Zynudheen, R. Anandan and P. G. Viswanathan Nair, “Distribution of Organochlorine Pesticides and Heavy Metal Residues in Fish and Shellfish from Calicut Region, Kerala, India,” Chemosphere, Vol. 65, No. 4, 2006, pp. 583-590. doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2006.02.038

[43]   A. Demirak, F. Yilmaz, L. Tuna and N. Ozdemir, “Heavy Metals in Water, Sediment and Tissues of Leuciscus cephalus from a Stream in Southwestern Turkey,” Chemosphere, Vol. 63, No. 9, 2006, pp. 1451-1458. doi:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2005.09.033

[44]   I. Al-Saleh and N. Shinwari, “Preliminary Report on the Levels of Elements in Four Fish Species from the Arabian Gulf of Saudi Arabia,” Chemosphere, Vol. 48, No. 7, 2002, pp. 749-755. doi:10.1016/S0045-6535(02)00126-1