ABSTRACT In this study sodium alginate (NaAlg)/poly (vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP) blend membranes were prepared and crosslinked with CaCl2 (0.1 Molarity (M)) for the separation of aqueous/dimethylformamide (DMF) mixtures. Membranes were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and their performance was examined by varying experimental parameters such as feed composition (0 - 100 wt%), operating temperature (30℃ - 50℃) and membrane thickness (30 - 90 micrometer (μm)). Blending NaAlg with PVP, decreased separation factor whereas increased the permeation rate as the permeation temperature was increased in Vapor Permeation (VP) and Vapor Permeation with Temperature Difference (TDVP) methods. In the TDVP method, the separation factors increased and the permeation rates decreased as the temperature of the membrane surrounding is decreased. The highest separation factor of 60 was obtained in TDVP method for 90 wt% DMF concentration in the feed.
Cite this paper
nullE. Solak and O. Şanlı, "Separation Performance of Sodium Alginate/Poly Vinyl Pyrrolidone Membranes for Aqueous/Dimethylformamide Mixtures by Vapor Permeation and Vapor Permeation with Temperature Difference Methods," Advances in Chemical Engineering and Science, Vol. 1 No. 4, 2011, pp. 305-312. doi: 10.4236/aces.2011.14042.
 T. Uragami and K. Takigawa, “Permeation and Separation Characteristics of Ethanol-Water Mixtures through Chitosan Derivative Membranes by Pervaporation and Evapomeation,” Polymer, Vol. 31, No. 4, 1990, pp. 668- 672. doi:10.1016/0032-3861(90)90287-9
 T. Uragami, S. Kato and T. Miyata, “Structure of N-alkyl Chitosan Membranes on Water-Permselectivity for Aqueous Ethanol Solutions,” Journal of Membrane Science, Vol. 124, No. 2, 1997, pp. 203-211.
 C. A. Redich, W. S. Beckett, J. Sparer, K. W. Barwich, C. A. Riely, H. Miller, S. L. Sigal, S. L. Shalat and M. R. Cullen, “Liver Disease Associated with Occupational Exposure to the Solvent Dimethylformamide,” Annals of Internal Medicine, Vol. 108, No. 5, 1998, pp. 680-686.
 X. P. Wang, “Preparation of Crosslinked Alginate Composite Membrane for Dehydration of Ethanol-Water Mixtures”, Journal of Applied Polymer Science, Vol. 77, No. 14, 2000, pp. 3054-3061.
 C. K. Yeom and K. H. Lee, “Characterization of Sodium Alginate and Poly (Vinyl Alcohol) Blend Membranes in Pervaporation Separation,” Journal of Applied Polymer Science, Vol. 67, No. 5, 1998, pp. 949-959.
 Y. Shi, X. Wang, G. Chen, G. Golemme and S. Zhang, “Preparation and Characterization of High-Performance Dehydrating Pervaporation Alginate Membranes,” Journal of Applied Polymer Science, Vol. 68, No. 6, 1998, pp. 959-968.
 C. K. Yeom and K. H. Lee, “Characterization of Sodium Alginate Membrane Crosslinked with Glutaraldehyde in Pervaporation Separation”, Journal of Applied Polymer Science, Vol. 67, No. 2, 1998, pp. 209-219.
 E. Kondolot Solak and O. Sanli, “Separation Characteristics of Dimethylformamide/Water Mixtures through Alginate Membranes by Pervaporation, Vapor Permeation and Vapor Permeation with Temperature Difference Methods,” Separation Science and Technology, Vol. 41, 2006, pp. 627-646. doi:10.1080/01496390500526789
 E. Kondolot Solak and O. Sanli, “Separation Characteristics of Dimethylformamide/Water Mixtures Using Sodium Alginate-g-N-vinyl-2-Pyrrolidone Membranes by Pervaporation Method,” Chemical Engineering and Prosessing, Vol. 47, No. 4, 2008, pp. 633-641.
 E. Kondolot Solak, G. Asman, P. Camurlu and O. Sanli, “Sorption, Diffusion, and Pervaporation Characteristics of Dimethylformamide/Water Mixtures Using Sodium Alginate/Polyvinyl Pyrrolidone Blend Membranes,” Vacuum, Vol. 82, No. 6, 2008, pp. 579-587.
 D. A. Devi, B. Smitha, S. Sridhar and T. M. Aminabhavi, “Pervaporation Separation of Dimethylformamide/Water Mixtures through Poly (Vinyl Alcohol)/Poly (Acrylic Acid) Blend Membranes,” Separation and Purification Technology, Vol. 51, No. 1, 2006, pp. 104-111.
 D. Shah, K. Kissick, A. Ghorpade, R. Hannah amd D. Bhattacharyya, “Pervaporation of Alcohol-Water and Dimethylformamide-Water Mixtures Using Hydrophilic Zeolite NaA Membranes: Mechanisms and Experimental Results,” Journal of Membrane Science, Vol. 179, No. 1-2, 2000, pp. 185-205.
 T. M. Aminabhavi and H. G. Naik, “Pervaporation Separation of Water/Dimethylformamide Mixtures Using Poly (Vinyl Alcohol)-g-Polyacrylamide Copolymeric Membranes,” Journal of Applied Polymer Science, Vol. 83, No. 2, 2002, pp. 273-282. doi:10.1002/app.2242
 M. D. Kurkuri and T. M. Aminabhavi, “Polyacryloni- Trile-G-Poly (Vinyl Alcohol) Membranes for the Pervaporation Separation of Dimethyl Formamide and Water Mixtures,” Journal of Applied Polymer Science, Vol. 91, No. 6, 2004, pp. 4091-4097. doi:10.1002/app.13640
 G. Asman and O. Sanli, “Characteristics of Permeation and Separation for Acetic acid-Water Mixtures Through Poly (Vinyl Alcohol) Membranes Modified with Poly (Acrylic Acid),” Separation Science and Technology, Vol. 38, No. 9, 2003, pp. 1963-1980.
 H. Wu, X. Fang, X. Zhang, Z. Jiang, B. Li and X. Ma, “Cellulose Acetate-Poly (N-Vinyl-2-Pyrrolidone) Blend Membrane for Pervaporation Separation of Methanol/ MTBE Mixtures,” Separation and Purification Technology, Vol. 64, No. 2, 2008, pp. 183-191.
 X. H. Zhang, Q. L. Liu, Y. Xiong, A. Zhu, M. Y. Chen and Q. G. Zhang, “Pervaporation Dehydration of Ethyl Acetate/Ethanol/Water Azeotrope Using Chitosan/Poly (Vinyl Pyrrolidone) Blend Membranes,” Journal of Membrane Science, Vol. 327, No. 1-2, 2009, pp. 274-280.
 J. Lu, Q. Nguyen, L. Zhou, B. Xu and Z. Ping, “Study of the Role of Water in the Transport of Water and THF through Hydrophilic Membranes by Pervaporation,” Journal of Membrane Science, Vol. 226, No. 1-2, 2003, pp. 135-143. doi:10.1016/j.memsci.2003.08.016
 P. J. Flory, “Principles of Polymer Chemistry,” Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, 1953.
 D. A. Devi, B. Smitha, S. Sridhar and T. M. Aminabhavi, “Pervaporation Separation of Dimethylformamide/Water Mixtures through Poly (Vinyl Alcohol)/Poly (Acrylic Acid) Blend Membranes,” Separation and Purufication Technology, Vol. 51, No. 1, 2006, pp. 104-111.
 S. Sommer and T. Melin, “Influence of Operation Parameters on the Separation of Mixtures by Pervaporation and Vapor Permeation with Inorganic Membranes. Part 2: Purely Organic Systems,” Chemical Engineering and Science, Vol. 60, No. 16, 2005, pp. 4525-4533.
 S. Sommer and T. Melin, “Influence of Operation Parameters on the Separation of Mixtures by Pervaporation and Vapor Permeation with Inorganic Membranes. Part 1: Dehydration of Solvents,” Chemical Engineering and Science, Vol. 60, No. 16, 2005, pp. 4509-4523.
 J. E. Elshof, C. R. Abadal, J. Sekulic, S. R. Chrowdhury and D. H. A. Blank, “Transport Mechanisms of Water and Organic Solvents through Microporous Silica in the Pervaporation of Binary Liquids,” Microporous Mesoporous Materials, Vol. 65, No. 2-3, 2003, pp. 197-208.