Law No. 23 of 2014 on Local Government states that in administration of governmental affairs by local government and regional house of people’s representatives is according to principle of autonomy and supporting duty by principle of autonomy extensively within the system and principle of Unitary State of the Republic of Indonesia as explained in 1945 Constitution  .
Through regional autonomy, it is expected that regional independency in managing its assets and potential can be optimized as alternative source of income and to finance its needs. It is also stated in consideration of clause (b) in Law No. 23 of 2014 on Local Government that administration of local government is aimed to accelerate realization of public welfare through improvement of services, empowerment, public participation, and increasing of regional competitiveness by taking into account the principles of democracy, equity, justice, and regional typicality within the system of Unitary State of the Republic of Indonesia.
Astronomically, Indonesia lies between latitudes 6˚N and 11˚S, and longitudes 95˚E and 141˚E. It is an archipelago, extending ± 5.600 km from Sabang to Merauke. Geographically, it lies between Asia continent and Australia continent, and between Indian Ocean and Pacific Ocean. This makes Indonesia located in intersecting position, thus providing Indonesia with variety of arts, cultures and ethnics, and also beautiful natural scenes  .
One of interesting development sectors in Indonesia nowadays is tourism. This sector has quite significant role in regional economic growth and in improving public welfare as also stated in Law No. 10 of 2009 on Tourism that tourism is aimed to improve economic growth, to increase public welfare, to reduce poverty, to reduce unemployment, to preserve natures, environment, and resources, to promote culture and national image, to establish sense of belongingness to motherland, to strengthen national identity and integrity, and also to establish friendly international relationship  .
In its development, tourism sector can create job vacancies for employment, both in management and in any activities that support tourism such as commerce, transportation, management of tourism objects and their facilities. Therefore, development of tourism sector should be improved continuously by optimizing every available resource and potential and exploring new potentials related to tourism sector.
Law No. 33 of 2004 on Finance Balancing between central and local government is meant to provide flexibility to regency/city government to increase its regional economic capability by exploring proportional, rational, transparent, participative, and accountable sources of financing. This flexibility to govern is related to all administrative affairs, including authority in development of local culture and tourism, excluding the ones under direct authority of central government.
Moreover, Law No. 33 of 2004 on Finance Balancing between central and local government also explains that implementation of good governance is prerequisite for every government to implement public aspiration to achieve national goals. Therefore, it is necessary to have appropriate and transparent development, application, and accountability system so that governance and development can be effective and efficient and free from corruption, collusion, and nepotism.
One of efforts by government to obtain foreign-exchange income (devisa) in this era is by advancing tourism sector. Therefore, it is necessary to be prepared and to spruce up including in its management and development. Government has appointed tourist destinations in Indonesia, but there are still many other potential places. Thus it is necessary to have specific skills and creativity so that planning and research on tourist destination can really achievable. Tourism is expected to trigger and mobilize public economic growth, national foreign-exchange income, to create job opportunities, and to improve public welfare. Tourism is also an incentive modernization symptom that is significantly related to community life at local, national, and global dimensions and involving people in developed and developing countries.
In accord with data and information obtained, APEC’s ministerial level conference on tourism in Khabarovsk (27/2/12), the Russian far-east city, leave us to contemplate. Indonesia should immediately make tourism sector as one of pillars in national economic development. Competitiveness in this sector is really tight, finder’s keeper. Commerce and investment have always been two primary sources of national income, yet significance of tourism needs to be paid attention to. In this last 10 years, tourism sector has been one of most important source of foreign-exchange income among Asia Pacific countries. It is due to unarguable fact that tourism has become primary needs of people in developed countries. As in report World Travel and Tourism Council, for example, in 2010, APEC’s members have attracted 40 percent of world’s tourists. Stable economy, increased public income level, and improved infrastructures in APEC region are reasons behind the increasing in this tourism sector  .
In the future, need of tourism shall continue to increase along with the increasing of world population and development which bring the increasing need of refreshing due to higher intensity of work. According to Fandeli, what stimulates people to take a tour are: 1) to relax from pressures of daily life, to feel different atmosphere and to spend their spare time; 2) due to advancement in communication and transportation; 3) desire to watch and feel new experiences with other people in other places; 4) due to high income that enable them to freely take on journey far away  .
Tourism industry has been proven to endure global crisis. While global economy was in crisis, tourism in Indonesia remained to grow even more than national economic growth rate. Deputy Minister of Tourism and Creative Economy, Sapta Nirwandar states that tourism sector contributes to GDP by 347 trillion IDR. As comparation, the number is equal to 23 percent of total national income as listed in Revised National Budget 2013 by 1,502 trillion IDR. Tourism sector was also placed fourth as the biggest contributor to national foreign-exchange income in 2013  .
In the last two decades, development of tourism in Indonesia has been paid serious attention by government since, as previously mentioned, tourism contributes great amount of foreign-exchange income. Government, indeed, shall attempt to develop tourism sector through policies to provide access for foreign tourists and to build facilities and infrastructures related to tourism, and also to encourage private parties to invest in hotels, restaurants, travel agencies, etc. Various natural and cultural potential should be managed in such a way to be attractive and worth selling for both domestic and foreign tourists. Many interesting events about culture have been included in tourism promotion calendar. The milestone is annual program Visit Indonesia  since 2008 to date.
Bantaeng regency can be accessed by land transportation with travelling distance of more or less 127 km from Makassar. Bantaeng regency consists of three clusters: upland cluster, lowland cluster, and coastal cluster with specific characteristics and potential  . Therefore, there are many tourism objects and destinations such as natural, maritime, and cultural-historical tourism objects, such as Eremerasa Natural Bathing Place, Bissapu Waterfall, Loka National Park and outbound resort, Marina White Sand Beach, Seruni Beach, Archeological Park, Balla Lompoa, Balla Bassia, Balla Tujua, and Batu Eja Monuments, Tomb of Datuk Pakkalimbungan, etc.
Development of tourism sector in Bantaeng regency (Table 1) is not yet optimal. This can be seen from minimum number of tourists, of both local and international, due to poor promotions on tourism in Bantaeng regency by local
Table 1. Tourist destinations in Bantaeng regency.
Source: Tourism Office 2016.
government. Promotions on tourism by government, more specifically by Tourism Office, were still poorly implemented in both printed and electronic media. This can be seen from the less optimal using of technological advancement which both profile on tourism objects and tourist visit data in official website of Tourism Office are not up-to-date. Printed media such as newspaper, tabloid, or magazine also rarely feature promotions on tourist destinations in Bantaeng regency.
Tourism sector is one of factors that accelerate economic growth of Bantaeng regency in the future. It is known that Bantaeng regency has great potentials in tourism that shall bring benefit by foreign-exchange income. Regent of Bantaeng also suggests that development of many sectors in Bantaeng regency still heavily require promotions. Bantaeng regency has many potentials, including in tourism sector. Many tourism objects are located in Bantaeng regency, such as Seruni beach, Ulu Ere agrotourism, Marina beach, Eremerasa natural bath, Bissappu waterfall, and others  . Number of tourist who visit through Makassar in January 2016 decreased by 40.06 percent compared to December 2015. There were 1,263 tourists in December 2015 and 757 tourists in January 2016.
From Table 2, it can be seen that Malaysia, Singapore, America, German, and Netherland are five countries with highest number of tourist visiting Indonesia through Makassar in January 2016. Number of tourist from those five countries is 569 or approximately 75.17% of total tourists visiting through Makassar. Below is recapitulation of number of visitor in Bantaeng regency within period of 2012-2016:
From Table 3, in the last 6 years, the highest number of tourist was in 2012 by 107,265. Number of tourist visiting Bantaeng regency, both domestic and international, in 2014 indeed increased from the previous year to 81,128, yet it decreased again in 2015 and 2016. The highest number of tourist visiting Marina beach was in 2012 by 107,265, and kept decreasing until 2016 to 73,699.
Marina beach is located in Pajukukang district, Bantaeng regency, approximately 130 km or 3 - 4 hours of trip from Makassar. Development of modern tourist destination Marina Korongbatu beach, located in Baruga village, Pajukukang district, border of Bantaeng district and Bulukumba district, approximately 15 km east of downtown of Bantaeng, is part of development of coastal cluster throughout 22 km coastal line that define southern area of Bantaeng city from borderline with Jeneponto district to borderline with Bululumba district.
Limited supporting facilities and infrastructures such as hotel or inn are also significant in the number of visiting tourists. Bantaeng regency, until 2015, doesn’t have any star-rated hotel, but there are 6 other accommodations under standard of star-rated. In 2014, in average, domestic and international tourists stay for 3 days. There was no increasing in number of restaurants or dining houses in Bantaeng regency in 2015, i.e. 34 places (Table 4). Access to tourism objects is poor since many infrastructures are in bad condition such as damaged road. And number of both domestic and international tourists keeps decreasing each year. See Table 5.
Table 2. Number of international tourists visiting through Makassar by country.
Source: Statistics Indonesia of South Sulawesi Province 2016.
Table 3. Number of visitors to tourism objects in Bantaeng regency (2012-2016).
Source: Tourism Office 2016  .
Table 4. Number of hotels and other types of accommodation in Bantaeng regency by classification 2011-2015.
Source: Statistics Indonesia of Bantaeng Regency 2016  .
Table 5. Number of restaurants/dining houses in Bantaeng regency by district 2015-2016.
Source: Statistics Indonesia of Bantaeng Regency 2016.
Just like hotel and inn, existence of restaurant and dining house is also significant to the number of tourists, since tourists need to eat or merely want to find unique culinary while there is only 1 restaurant/dining house around Marina beach, Pajukukang district.
From Table 6, rate of staying in hotel and other types of accommodation decreased from 50.87% in 2012 to 44.95% in 2013. And it decreased again significantly in 2014 and 2015.
From Table 7, it can be seen that average staying day of both domestic and foreign tourists in Bantaeng regency decreased from 3.13% in 2013 to 3.05% in 2015.
From Table 8, it can be seen that average number of international tourists from various countries visiting Bantaeng regency decreased in 2015. As reported in official website, according to Head of Tourism Office, it is necessary
Table 6. Rate of staying in hotel and other types of accommodation in Bantaeng regency 2012-2015.
Source: Statistics Indonesia of Bantaeng Regency.
Table 7. Average of staying day of domestic and foreign tourists in Bantaeng regency (in days) 2011-2015.
Source: Statistics Indonesia of Bantaeng Regency.
Table 8. Foreign tourists who visit Bantaeng regency by original country in 2011.
Source: Statistics Indonesia of Bantaeng Regency 2016.
to be prepared in order to face year 2016 by completing facilities and infrastructures at tourist destinations to make visitors more comfortable, such as toilet and gazebo at several locations  .
As reported in website pojoksulsel.com, according to Head of Tourism Office, Tourism Office of Bantaeng Regency shall maximally attempt to increase number of tourists, of both local and international, visiting Butta Toa in 2016. Bantaeng Culture and Tourism Office is optimistic that, in 2016, number of tourists shall increase by 20 percent  .
In this globalization era, competent human resources has become one of primary needs and one of determinant in supporting every organization, including local government agencies. In relation with this research is that tourism sector also needs to be supported with availability of competent human resources in its management. As stated in the official website, Bantaeng now has been considered well-known, not only by people of South Sulawesi, but also by people outside that want to visit and enjoy its cool situation, variety of culinary experience, beautiful scenes, and other achievement of development. Therefore, improvement of human resources of actors in tourism is urgently significant  .
As seen in Table 9, it is clear that there is insufficient human resource with educational background of tourism, either bachelor or diploma-III, that shall provide innovation and ideas on development of tourism in Bantaeng regency in the future.
In line with previous explanation, it is stated in the website pojoksulser.com that Head of Tourism Office is optimistic that number of tourists shall increase compared to two last years. Bantaeng now has many alternative tourist destinations, consisting of beach, mountain, and culture tourism. Those potentials shall be optimized. Furthermore, increasing of the number of tourists can only be achieved with the improvement of the quality of human resources, from hotel to traditional culinary sector. The goal is none other than to maximize the services and to make visitors comfortable so that they will return to Bantaeng regency.
With so many obstacles faced, Bantaeng regency government needs to think
Table 9. Staff of tourism office of Bantaeng regency.
Source: Tourism Office 2017.
quick and smart to find the way to overcome them. Bantaeng regency government should also attempt to develop tourism object integrated with active public participation to accelerate the achievement of development.
Tourism development heavily depends on the development of other sectors, government, private parties, and community. Development planning of tourism requires integrated approach to other related sectors. Therefore, development planning of tourism in a region should be under coordination of local physical planning as a whole.
Public participation is also needed to improve the development of tourism sector. Yet, in fact, this is not running well as expected due to lack of promotion by local government to community on the importance of protecting and preserving tourism objects. Therefore, to attract more tourists, both domestic and international, to visit Bantaeng regency, public participation in protecting, preserving and also restoring tourism objects is a must. This includes increasing attractiveness of tourism objects, improving management and facilities of tourism objects, and implementing better tourism management to attract more tourists to visit and enjoy the uniqueness and variety of the tourism objects.
Tourism is considered as great potential to develop. Tourism can also bring other positive impacts. For example, increased number of tourism shall create more vacancies. For that reason, almost all provinces in Indonesia altogether attempt to improve their tourism sector, including Bantaeng regency which is considered of having so many potential in terms of tourism object. In particular, its coastal or maritime tourism is consistently being developed. Bantaeng regency finds that domestic and international tourists are more interested to visit coastal or maritime tourism objects, such as Marina beach.
Considering the condition of tourism development in Bantaeng regency by Culture and Tourism Office of Bantaeng regency, it is very interesting to study more on strategy of and affecting factors in tourism development under responsibility of local government. Thus, this research shall be titled “Strategy of Local Government in the Development of Marina Beach Tourism in Bantaeng Regency, South Sulawesi Province”.
2. Problem Statement
Regarding to explanation above, then problem statement in this research can be suggested as follow:
1) What are strategies of local government in development of tourism potential of Marina beach in Bantaeng regency, South Sulawesi province?
2) What are factors that affect the strategies of local government in development of tourism potential of Marina beach in Bantaeng regency, South Sulawesi province?
3) What are efforts to overcome factors faced in the strategies of local government in development of tourism potential of Marina beach in Bantaeng regency, South Sulawesi province?
3. Theoretical Framework
Conceptual framework (Figure 1) is basis of reference to develop theories, concepts and normative principles applied for solving the problem as stated above.
Tourism development refers to Law No. 23 of 2014 on Local Government, Law No. 10 on Tourism, Regional Regulation No. 24 on Administrative Affairs of Bantaeng Regency, Regent Regulation of Bantaeng Regency No. 56 of 2016 on Position, Organizational Structure, Duties and Functions, and Working Procedures for Culture and Tourism Office of Bantaeng Regency.
Tourism development employs Bryson’s concept of strategy using SWOT analysis; Strengths (organizational capacity, tourism access, tourism amenity, tourism ancillary, tourism attraction, and preserved native culture); Weaknesses (low competence of human resources, poor management, lack of promotion, limited facilities and infrastructures, less optimal using of technology, limited budget); Opportunities (geographical condition, regulation, increased economy, competitiveness, support from government); Threats (low public awareness, acculturation, functional shift of tourism, security in tourism area, competition between tourism objects); with S-O strategy (strengths and opportunities), W-O
Source: elaborated by researcher, 2017.
Figure 1. Framework.
strategy (weakness and opportunities), S-T strategy (strengths and threats) and W-T strategy (weakness and threats)  ; and then finding strategic issues by using Litmus test.
Intenal and external supporting factors are according to concept by Sutarto  and integrated with concept by David  , internal and external inhibiting factors are according to concept by Wasistiono and Tahir, and efforts to overcome the internal and external inhibiting factors are according to concept by Wasistiono and Tahir  with elaborated accordingly.
Achievement of strategy in tourism development is expected to optimize tourism potentials in Bantaeng regency in continuous manner.
4. Work Hypothesis
Research on the strategy of tourism development of Marina beach, Bantaeng regency, South Sulawesi province―using Rangkuti’s concept on SWOT analysis: strengths, weakness, opportunities, and threats, with SO (strengths and opportunities), WO (weakness and opportunities), ST (strengths and threats), WT (weaknesses and threats) strategies, identification of supporting and inhibiting factors by Sutarto’s concept integrated with David’s concept for internal and external supporting factors and Wasistiono-Tahir’s concept for internal and external inhibiting factors, and identification of efforts to overcome the inhibiting factors deliberated by us referring to Wasistiono and Tahir’s concept―is aimed to find the most appropriate strategy from strategic issues and then tested by Litmus test with Bryson’s concept.
5. Research Method
Design used in this research is descriptive with qualitative approach which is closely related with inductive approach. As explained in Baswori and Suwandi, qualitative research prioritizes inductive analysis on specific data obtained from field to propose proposition or theory that can be generalized extensively. This inductive analysis is used for several reasons. First, inductive process is considered more capable to find multiple facts as obtained in data. Second, inductive analysis is capable to make relationship between researcher-respondents more explicit, recognizable, and accountable. Third, this analysis is more capable to describe in more complete and to decide whether or not we could move onto other background. Fourth, inductive analysis is more capable to find collective influence that sharpens the relationships. Lastly, this analysis is capable to consider values explicitly as part of analytic structure  .
Therefore, data collected can be processed into a report in form of citation consisting of description that can be provided more systematically, factually and accurately on strategic issues from Litmus test. Argumentative explanation consists of a reasoning process with interpretative system under logical framework. Condition of the strategy of tourism development in Bantaeng regency encourages researcher to carry out a qualitative research with descriptive-inductive approach through SWOT analysis, and then use Litmus test to find the most strategic issues to be applied. Important aspects in designing research procedure with mixed method, according to Cresswell, are:
Researcher should consider timing in collecting the qualitative and quantitative data. Here in this research, data is collected congruently or all at once.
It means weight or priority given to between quantitative and qualitative methods. Here in this research, qualitative method is more dominant.
Mixing the methods in this research is carried out at stages of data collection, data analysis, and data interpretation.
Concept used here is SWOT analysis by Rangkuti and Litmus test by Bryson.
Conceptual framework is step in a research in which researcher elaborate variables as concept, which is then called as theme, and is derived into more detailed subthemes, sub-subthemes or indicators, which then become interview and observation guide to facilitate researcher to analyze problem and to find solution for the problem (Table 10).
Table 10. Conceptual framework of the research.
Source: Elaborated by researcher 2017.
In this research, person as source of data is local government and tourism office who are the actors in tourism development. Source of data in terms of place is region of Bantaeng regency, South Sulawesi province. Related agency is: Tourism Office. Source of data interns of paper is: documents and regulations related to strategy of local government in tourism development in Bantaeng regency, South Sulawesi province. Informants in data collection in this research are:
1) Head of Tourism Office of Bantaeng regency as Informant 1.
2) Coordinator of Development of Tourist Destination of Tourism Office of Bantaeng regency as Informant 2.
3) Coordinator of Human Resources Development of Tourism Office of Bantaeng regency as Informant 3.
4) Coordinator of Marketing of Tourism Office of Bantaeng regency as Informant 4.
5) Head of Subdivision of Program and Reporting of Tourism Office of Bantaeng regency as Informant 5.
6) Head of UPTD (Regional Technical Unit) of Marina Beach as Informant 6.
7) Head of Section of Promotion of Tourism Office of Bantaeng regency as Informant 7.
8) Head of Section of Public Participation of Tourism Office of Bantaeng regency as Informant 8.
9) Head of Section of Public Coaching of Tourism Office of Bantaeng regency as Informant 9.
10) Head of Section of Tourism Object and Attraction of Tourism Office of Bantaeng regency as Informant 10.
11) Citizen of Bantaeng regency and tourist as Informant 11 (Snowball sampling).
12) Public figures/customary leader as Informant 12 (Snowball sampling).
Field techniques were used to collect data relevant to focus of the research. Techniques user were:
2) Document study.
Documents that were studied were:
a) Papers, namely: Profile of Bantaeng Regency, Strategic Planning of related agencies, LAKIP (Performance Accountability Report) of related agencies, Bantaeng in Numbers, RPJMD (Regional Mid-Term Development Planning), RPJP (Long Term Development Planning).
b) Regulations, namely: Law No. 23 of 2014 on Local Government, Law No. 10 of 2009 on Tourism, Regional Regulation of Bantaeng Regency No. 5 of 2016 on Establishment and Structure of Local Agency, Regent Regulation of Bantaeng Regency No. 56 of 2016 on Position, Organizational Structure, Duties and Functions, and Working Procedures for Culture and Tourism Office of Bantaeng Regency.
c) Minutes (record of meeting) and any sources related to data.
In this research, observation was carried out in relation with strategy of local government in tourism development in Bantaeng regency, South Sulawesi province to observe activities of the sources of data. Litmus test was also used to help as guide in the observation. This is due to researcher observes the object without participating as actor in the activities.
As for further analysis to formulate the strategy for tourism development, SWOT analysis (Table 11) was then used. SWOT analysis is a tool to determine the mapping of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats of the organization in order to define which determinant factors and effective strategy of interaction are appropriate and applicable to achieve better result. With SWOT analysis, effective strategy can be found, and then can be improved to build the strengths, to benefit from opportunities, to minimize weaknesses, and to avoid threats. SWOT analysis is commonly used to make strategic planning of government in order to establish long term strategies, so that direction and goal can be achieved clearly and appropriate decision can be made immediately.
Next step is to match internal strengths to external opportunities, to match internal weaknesses to external threats, so that SO, ST, WO, and WT strategies are generated:
a) SO strategy
This is strategy that employs strengths to exploit opportunities.
b) ST strategy
This is strategy that employs strengths to overcome threats.
c) WO strategy
This is strategy that minimizes weaknesses to exploit opportunities.
d) WT strategy
This is strategy that minimizes weaknesses to avoid threats.
List of questions of Litmus test can be described in Table 12.
Scoring based on table above is meant to rate how strategic the issues are. Classification of the score are:
1) 0.01 - 1.00: class of non-strategic/operational issues;
Table 11. SWOT matrix.
Source: Rangkuti, Freddy. 1997. Analisis SWOT: Teknik Membedah Kasus Bisnis (SWOT Analysis: Technique to Dissect Business Cases). Jakarta: Gramedia.
2) 1.00 - 2.00: class of strategic issues;
3) 2.00 - 3.00: class of very strategic issues.
Based on elaboration on strategic issues and SWOT analysis above, several strategic issues were chosen and determined to be evaluated in order to find the most strategic ones. To facilitate arranging the priority scale for strategic issues, see Table 13.
Table 12. List of questions and scores of litmus test operational ß−−−−à strategic.
Table 13. Priority order of strategic issues of local government in tourism development in Bantaeng regency, south Sulawesi province.
*Relative, according to the score.
Final step in process of formulating strategic management is to formulate strategic plans, alternative policies considered to be able to respond to the strategic issues identified and evaluated in the previous phase. The approach used to plan strategic steps is by five step process:
1) Inventorying available alternative policies in directing and responding to the identified strategic issues;
2) Looking for possible obstacles faced in order to implement the alternative policies;
3) Formulating suggestions of program and action to be taken in order to implement the alternative policies and eliminate the obstacles;
4) Formulating actions to be taken within next one or two years in order to implement the suggested policies;
5) Formulating specific steps to be taken within next six months in order to implement the suggested policies and to determine the person in charge in the implementation.
SWOT analysis can be observed through changes in the environment and by adapting to the change of public needs and interests as one of the featured abilities of organization to achieve more. Through SWOT analysis, the vision, mission and objectives of organization can be adjusted according to changes and public expectation. Result of the research verifies that the ability to have and to integrate key internal and external success factors shall enable the synergy in organization to achieve its success.
Based on result of research on strategy of local government in tourism development of Marina beach in Bantaeng regency, South Sulawesi province, it can be concluded that:
1. Strategies by local government in tourism development of Marina beach are as follow:
a) Strengths: 1) Organizational capacity of Tourism Office trough regulation is given with authority to manage tourist destinations according to Regent Regulation of Bantaeng; 2) Good access to tourism potentials in Bantaeng regency is an asset in development and management of tourism asset; 3) There is considerable degree of amenity that support Tourism Office in management of tourism asset of Marina beach; 4) Ancillary, in form of public organization, that support tourism development of Marina beach in management of tourism asset is available and active; 5) There are considerable number of tourism attractions as developable potential to be presented, such as traditional customary dance; 6) Culture of the community as cultural asset become added value in tourism development of Marina beach in Bantaeng regency.
b) Weaknesses: 1) Low competence of staff in Tourism Office, since only 1 staff with educational background of bachelor in tourism, while it is urgently necessary to have sufficient human resources with innovation on tourism development in the future; 2) Weak management in development of tourism potential; 3) Lack of promotion on latest regulations and program which brings to limited information on principles and concept of tourism development to manage tourism asset as source of economic growth; 4) Limited facilities and infrastructures in terms of insufficient budget, thus Tourism Office is still unable to manage tourism asset optimally; 5) Using of technology in tourism development is not yet optimal, indicated by infrequent update of information in the website of Tourism Office; 6) Limited budget to support the program of tourism development in order to enable the development or expansion of tourism area of Marina beach.
c) Opportunities: 1) Strategic geographical condition of Bantaeng regency, specifically Marina beach, can be seen as opportunity for tourism development in Bantaeng regency; 2) Legal support from regulation on tourism development as stated in regent regulation of Bantaeng regency; 3) Increased economic growth of Bantaeng community around Marina beach, indicated by many business opportunities due to many visitors, and many new job vacancies for community around Marina beach; 4) Competitiveness of many tourism potentials in Bantaeng regency that are developable to increase regional income through tourism sector; 5) Intersectoral cooperation, between local agencies (SKPD) or between agencies and private parties, can be more effective to have better development in tourism sector.
d) Threats: 1) Low public awareness on the importance of preserving tourism assets, indicated by many visitors who litter and smoke in public places, etc.; 2) Acculturation due to influence of foreign culture that threaten the existence of local customary culture as cultural asset that support tourism development; 3) Functional shift of tourism for other purposes that threaten tourism development; 4) Security in tourism area, by which thefts, robberies, and fightsshall threaten the efforts of tourism development of Marina beach; 5) Competition of tourism objects and economy with other regions shall threaten tourism development. Instead, they should cooperate with other regions.
e) Based on matrix of SWOT analysis, there are several alternative strategies for tourism development of Marina beach in Bantaeng regency, South Sulawesi province through classification of strategy as follow:
1) S-O strategies:
a) Empowering the community around tourism object to establish small and medium enterprises so that it will increase their economy and create new vacancies;
b) Improving promotion through using of technology of both electronic media, such as website, and printed media, such as tabloid, brochure, and magazine.
2) W-O strategies:
a) Improving the quality of competent human resources, in terms of organizing periodic training for staff of tourism office;
b) Reevaluating tourism development programs by providing better supporting facilities and infrastructures.
3) S-T strategies:
a) Improving and enhancing characteristic of tourism object to feature distinctive quality;
b) Building intersectoral cooperation, both between governmental agencies, and between government and private parties to develop tourism in Marina beach.
4) W-T strategies:
a) Providing periodic and continuous promotion on the importance of maintaining and preserving tourism potential;
b) Preserving unity and integrity to reduce individuality in community and to prevent acculturation and negative influence of foreign culture.
2. Supporting and inhibiting factors of the strategy of local government in tourism development of Marina Beach are as follow:
a) Internal supporting factors: 1) Bantaeng regency has large number of tourism objects, such as Marina beach, that can be developed and maximized to increase local income of Bantaeng regency, to create new vacancies and increase economic growth of the local community for their welfare; 2) Strategic location is an opportunity, by which Marina beach is accessible from province road to Bulukumba regency without ever having traffic jam; 3) Preserved cultural values in Bantaeng regency is one of important selling value, by which Marina beach as tourist destination also offers cultural attraction in every cultural event, such as traditional customary dance and local culinary festival organized by Tourism Office that can please tourists since, in addition to enjoying natural scenes, they can also know about customary culture of local community and taste its foods.
b) External supporting factors: 1) Cultural power in the community as asset that support tourism development of Marina beach; 2) Legal power that regulate and protect the management of tourist destination; 3) Increased economic potential of Bantaeng community around Marina beach, indicated by many business opportunities due to many visitors, and many new job vacancies for community around Marina beach; 4) Administrative power of government as source of policy and regulation that support the tourism development; 5) Technological power that should be exploited to support tourism development of Marina beach in terms of management and promotion of tourism object of Marina beach and cultural objects in Bantaeng regency.
c) Internal inhibiting factors: 1) Low quality of staff in Tourism Office, since only 1 staff with educational background of tourism, while it is urgently necessary to have sufficient human resources with innovation on tourism development in the future; 2) Limited budget to support the program of tourism development become the main obstacles in the promotion of tourist destination; 3) Limited facilities and infrastructures is also an obstacle in tourism development in terms of management and promotion of tourism and cultural objects and other tourism potentials in Bantaeng regency; 4) Low public awareness to preserve tourism objects, indicated by litter, many graffiti at gazebo or other resting places, people smoking at public places, etc.
d) External inhibiting factors: 1) Dynamics of political interests, with change of leader brings change of policy affecting the tourism development that has been planned; 2) Dynamics in public taste, by which change of public preference affects the interest of visiting tourist destinations, thus it is necessary for Tourism Office to continuously observe tourist preference so that Marina beach will be likely to survive and become icon of tourism of Bantaeng regency; 3) Lack of synergy between local government agencies (SKPD) in tourism development. Tourism Office should not be alone in tourism development. It is necessary for Tourism Office to cooperate with other local government agencies, such as with Office of Public Works in construction of road for access to tourist destination, with Office of Industry and Commerce for the shopping center, with Regional Sport Committee for sport center, with Regional Development Planning Agency for installation of street lights, with Fishery and Maritime Office for fish pond; 4) Low awareness of tourists to preserve facilities, by which they still litter around tourism objects.
3. Efforts to overcome internal and external inhibiting factors of the strategy of local government in tourism development of Marina beach are as follow:
a) Efforts to overcome internal inhibiting factors are:
1) To improve human resources quality (of staff) so that tourism development of Marina beach can be successfully achieved, by organizing trainings for staff of Tourism Office and by prioritizing recruitment of tourism bachelor.
2) To increase budget for optimization of tourism development, since it is required for providing facilities and infrastructures, and for promotion of Marina beach as tourism object.
3) To complete the supporting facilities and infrastructures in order to achieve expected condition of tourism.
4) To improve the planning skill of staff through training so that they will have sufficient competence to provide innovation and ideas in development of tourism sector in the future.
b) Efforts to overcome external inhibiting factors are:
1) To implement regulations on tourism development as legal umbrella for management and preservation of tourism assets in Bantaeng regency.
2) To carry out political communication with higher level of policy-maker, in this terms is Regent and DPRD (Regional House of People’s Representative), so that they shall support the needs of tourism development of Marina beach.
3) To increase responsiveness to public taste by responding quickly to suggestions and complaints from community, who are the object and subject of development, as evaluation in tourism development of Marina beach and other tourism objects in Bantaeng regency.
4) To improve intersectoral coordination and synergy gradually and routinely to be effective so that tourism development of Marina beach can be optimal.
Based on conclusion above, suggestions are provided below with expectation that they can be used as consideration for strategy of local government in tourism development of Marina beach in Bantaeng regency, South Sulawesi province:
1. Government needs to apply management of strategy by using SWOT analysis technique in every policy and decision making so that planned program can be implemented successfully and tourism potential of Marina beach can be developed and improved. Below are conclusions from SWOT analysis:
a) Strength that should be prioritized to be exploited is tourism potential in Bantaeng regency, especially Marina beach and cultural objects. Tourism Office should have ideas and innovation for continuous tourism development.
b) Weakness that should be minimized in advance is the limited budget and the need of political coordination with higher level of policy maker so that tourism development can be implemented as it should be.
c) Opportunity that should be exploited is strategic condition of tourism object in terms of accessibility, and support from regulation for Tourism Office in tourism management and development of Marina beach.
d) Threats that should be responded in advance are the low awareness of local people and tourists to preserve tourism object of Marina beach to prevent the damage of ecosystem and contamination of the beach.
e) Based on strategy of government in tourism development of Marina beach obtained from matrix of SWOT analysis, the strategies formulated should be used as suggestion and consideration to implement the strategy, and to complement the strategy, it is recommended:
1) For government
To increase the amount of Regional Budget (APBD) for Tourism Office, to improve the quality of human resources through education and training to the staff as the implement or of policy, to provide legal umbrella that regulate on preservation of tourism objects, retribution, and cultural heritage. As for actors of tourism, it is necessary to provide them with education and training on professionalism in tourism sector. And it is also necessary for government to continuously promote tourism objects both in printed and electronic media.
2) For community around tourism object of Marina beach
It is expected for community to preserve tourism objects, in this term is Marina beach, by not making graffiti on gazebo and other resting places, by not making trouble that bring conflict between local community and tourists.
3) For tourists
It is expected for tourists to preserve tourism object of Marina beach, to respect local custom and tradition, to restrain from littering that can contaminate tourism area and damage the ecosystem, and to restrain from smoking in public places.
2. Based on (internal and external) supporting and inhibiting factors of the strategy by local government in tourism development of Marina beach, Bantaeng regency, South Sulawesi province:
a) The most significant internal supporting factor to be exploited in tourism development is the large number of tourism objects that can be developed and maximized, which one of them is Marina beach, and that can be used to increase local income of Bantaeng regency, to create new vacancies and to increase economic growth of local community for their welfare.
b) The most significant external supporting factor to be exploited in tourism development is the power of deep-rooted and preserved cultural values as an asset to support tourism development of Marina beach.
c) The internal inhibiting factor to be minimized first is the low quality of human resources of Tourism Office, since only 1 staff with educational background of tourism, while it is urgently necessary to have sufficient human resources with innovation on tourism development in the future.
d) The external inhibiting factor to be responded first is the low awareness of tourists to preserve tourism objects, which is indicated by graffiti on gazebo and other resting places, littering, and smoking in at public places, etc.
3. Based on efforts to overcome (internal and external) inhibiting factors of the strategy by local government in tourism development of Marina beach, Bantaeng regency, South Sulawesi province:
a) Efforts to overcome internal inhibiting factors should be carried out orderly step-by-step, first is to improve quality of human resources (the staff) with expectation to be able to make planning on financial optimization, providing better facilities and infrastructures so that tourism development can be achieved optimally for the welfare of the region and community of Bantaeng regency.
b) Efforts to overcome external inhibiting factors are to provide legal umbrella or regulation on preservation of tourism objects and cultural heritage, to give strict sanction to tourists who disregard the regulations, and to make tourists understand on the importance of preserving the tourism objects.