Back
 GM  Vol.1 No.3 , October 2011
Characterization of Clayey Soils from Congo and Physical Properties of Their Compressed Earth Blocks Reinforced with Post-Consumer Plastic Wastes
Abstract: Physical properties of compressed earth blocks reinforced with plastic wastes are compared to those of nonreinforced ones. These bricks are made with two clayey soils from two deposits of Congo located in Brazzaville and Yengola. Mineralogical and geotechnical analysis revealed that the soil of Brazzaville is mainly composed of kaolinite whereas that of Yengola is a mixture of kaolinite and illite. The amounts of clay (46 and 48%, respectively) are higher than those usually recommended for bricks’ production without stabilizers. Despite this difference of mineralogical compositions, the physical properties of these soils are quite similar. The compressive strength of the resulted bricks compacted with an energy of 2.8 MPa is about 1.5 MPa, which is the lower limit value allowed for adobes. Reinforcing with polyethylene waste nets increased the strength by about 20 to 30% and slightly enhanced resistance to water, Young’s modulus and strain to failure. However, the reinforcement had no significant effect either on bricks’ curing length or on their shrinkage.
Cite this paper: nullR. Elenga, B. Mabiala, L. Ahouet, J. Goma-Maniongui and G. Dirras, "Characterization of Clayey Soils from Congo and Physical Properties of Their Compressed Earth Blocks Reinforced with Post-Consumer Plastic Wastes," Geomaterials, Vol. 1 No. 3, 2011, pp. 88-94. doi: 10.4236/gm.2011.13013.
References

[1]   KA.Heathcote, “Durability of Earthwall Buildings”, Construction and Building Materials, vol. 9, no.3, June 1995, pp.185-189. doi:10.1016/0950-0618(95)00035-E

[2]   M.L. Parra-Saldivar and W. Batty, “ Thermal Behaviour of Adobe Constructions”, Building and Environment, vol. 41, no. 12, December 2006, pp. 1892-1904. doi:10.1016/j.buildenv.2005.07.021

[3]   J. Pineda-Pinón, J. T. Vega-Durán, A. Manzano-Ramí- rez, J. F. Pérez-Robles, H. Balmori-Ramírez and M. A. Hernández-Landaverde, “Enhancement of Mechanical and Hydrophobic Properties of Adobes for Building Industry by the Addition of Polymeric Agents”, Building and Environment, vol. 42, no. 2, February 2007, pp. 877- 883.

[4]   K. Hadjri, M. Osmani, B. Baiche and C. Chifunda, “Attitude towards Earth Building for Zambian Housing Provision”, Proceeding of the Institutions of Civil Engineers: Engineering sustainability, vol. 160, no. ES3, 2007, pp. 141-149. doi:10.1680/ensu.2007.160.3.141

[5]   M. C. J. Delgado and I. C. Guerrero, “Earth Building in Spain”, Construction and Building Materials, vol. 20, no. 9, November 2006, pp. 679-690. doi:10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2005.02.006

[6]   J. E. Oti, J. M. Kinuthia and J. Bai, “Engineering Properties of Unfired Clay Masonry Bricks”, Engineering Geology, Vol. 107, No. 3-4, August 2009, pp. 130-139. doi:10.1016/j.enggeo.2009.05.002

[7]   K. Ghavami, R.D. Toledo Filho and N.P.Barbosa, “ Behaviour of Composite Soil Reinforced with Natural Fibres”, Cement and Concrete Composites, Vol. 21, No.1, January 1999, pp. 39-48. doi:10.1016/S0958-9465(98)00033-X

[8]   S. Yetgin,O. O. CAvdar and A. ?avdar, “ The Effects of the Fiber Contents on the Mechanic Properties of the Adobes”, Construction and Building Materials, Vol. 22, No. 3, March 2008, pp. 222-227. doi:10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2006.08.022

[9]   J. Andersons, E. Sparnins, R. Joffe and L. Wallstrom, “Strength Distribution of Elementary Flax Fibers”, Composites Science and Technology, Vol. 65, No. 3-4, March 2005, pp. 693-702. doi:10.1016/j.compscitech.2004.10.001

[10]   R. G. Elenga, G. F. Dirras, J. Goma Maniongui, P. Djemia and M. P. Biget, “On the Microstructure and Physical Properties of Untreated Raffia Textilis Fiber”, Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Vol. 40, No. 4, April 2009, pp. 418-422. doi.org/10.1016/j.compositesa.2009.01.001

[11]   H. Binici, O. Aksogan and T. Shah, “Investigation of Reinforced Mud Brick as Building Material”, Construction and Building Materials, vol. 19, no. 4, May 2005, pp. 313-318. doi:10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2004.07.013

[12]   A. Kumar, B. S. Walia and J. Mohan, “Compressive Strength of Fiber Reinforced Highly Compressible Clay”, Construction and Building Materials, Vol. 20, No. 10, December 2006, pp. 1063–1068.

[13]   Yi Cai, Bin Shi, C.W.W. Ng and Chao-sheng Tang, “Effect Of Polypropylene Fibre and Lime Admixture on Engineering Properties Of Clayey Soil”, Engineering Geology, Vol. 87, No. 3-4, November 2006, pp. 230–240.

[14]   S. Akbulut, S. Arasan and E. Kalkan, “Modification of Clayey Soils Using Scrap Tire Rubber and Synthetic Fibers”, Applied Clay Science, Vol. 38, No. 1-2, December 2007, pp. 23-32. doi: 10.1016/j.clay.2007.02.001

[15]   L. Mbumbia, A. Mertens de Wilmars and J. Tirlocq,” Performance Characteristics of Lateritic Soil Bricks Fired at Low Temperatures: a Case Study of Cameroon”, Construction and Building Materials, Vol. 14, No. 3, April 2000, pp. 121-131. doi:10.1016/S0950-0618(00)00024-6

[16]   M. C. J. Delgado and I. C. Guerrero,” The Selection of Soils for Unstabilised Earth Building: a Normative Review”, Construction and Building Materials, vol. 21, no. 2, February 2007, pp. 237-251. doi: 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2005.08.006

[17]   H. Houben and H. Guillaud, “Earth Construction: a Comprehensive Guide”, Intermediate Technology Publications, 1994.

[18]   J. A. Bain and D. E. Highly, “Regional Appraisal of Clay Resources Challenge to the Clay Mineralogist”, International Clay Conference, Amsterdam, Elsevier, 1978, pp. 437-446.

[19]   J. P. Walker, “Strength, Durability and Shrinkage Characteristics of Cement Stabilised Soil Blocks”, Cemenf & Concrete Composites, Vol. 17, No. 4, 1995, pp. 301-310. doi:10.1016/0958-9465(95)00019-9

[20]   F. G. Bell, “Lime Stabilization of Clay Minerals and Soils”, Engineering Geology, Vol. 42, No. 4, July 1996, pp. 223-237. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0013-7952(96)00028-2

[21]   G. W. Brindley and G. Brown, “Crystal Structures of Clay Minerals and their X-Ray Identification”, Mineralogical society, 1980.

[22]   S. Caillère, S. Hénin and M.Rautureau, “Minéralogie des Argiles. Structure et Propriétés Physico-Chimiques ”, Masson, 1982, pp. 184.

[23]   D. Yeskis, A.F.K. Groos and S. Guggenheim, “The Dehydroxylation of Kaolinite”, American Mineralogist, Vol. 70, No.1-2 , 1985, pp. 159–164.

[24]   J. A. Bain and D. J. Morgan, “The Role of Thermal Ana- lysis in the Evaluation of Impure Clay Deposits as Mineral Raw Materials”, Clay minerals, vol. 8, 1969, pp. 171-192.

[25]   A. Peled and A.Bentur, “Fabric Structure and its Reinforcing Efficiency in Textile Reinforced Cement Composites” Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Vol. 34, No. 2, February 2003, pp. 107-118. doi:10.1016/S1359-835X(03)00003-4

[26]   ciency of Textile Fabrics for Reinforcing Cement Composites”, Cement and Concrete Research, Vol. 30, No. 5, May 2000, pp. 781-790. doi:10.1016/S0008-8846(00)00239-8

[27]   R. Bahar, M. Benazzoug and S. Kenai, “Performance of Compacted Cement-Stabilised Soil”, Cemenf & Concrete Composites, Vol. 26, No. 7, October 2004, pp. 811–820.

[28]   J.C. Morel, A. Pkla and P. Walker, “Compressive Strength Testing of Compressed Earth Blocks”, Construction and Building Materials, Vol. 21, No. 2, February 2007, pp. 303-309. doi:10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2005.08.021

 
 
Top