Back
 Health  Vol.10 No.1 , January 2018
Development of a Social Activities Scale for Community-Dwelling Older Men Requiring Support in Japan
Abstract: Aim: We developed a scale to measure the social activities of community-dwelling older men requiring support. Methods: The participants were a group of 134 men, ≥65 years old, who required support and were living in Hokkaido, Japan. An anonymous questionnaire was administered through individual interviews. Valid responses were obtained from 121/134 interviewees. The construct validity of the resulting scale was assessed by exploratory factor analysis (EFA). Criterion-related validity was tested with Spearman’s rank correlation test based on the Social Activities Index for Elderly People (SAI-E). Reliability was assessed by Cronbach’s alpha. Results: A Social Activities Scale for Community-dwelling Older Men Requiring Support (SASOMS) scale was created, comprised of the following three subscales: daily interactions with familiar people; intimate relationships with family members; and interactions with others through activity programs (e.g., exercise, games, recreation, etc.). The created SASOMS scale correlated with the SAI-E (r = 0.557), and its criterion-related validity was confirmed. The alpha coefficient of the new scale was 0.791, and its internal consistency was confirmed. Conclusions: The reliability and validity of the developed SASOMS scale was confirmed, demonstrating that it can be used to assess social activities specifically in older men requiring support. Our results suggest that the scale can be used effectively by care providers who support older men requiring care. The usability of the SASOMS should continue to be improved, and it is necessary to verify its validity in longitudinal studies.
Cite this paper: Hirano, M. , Saeki, K. and Ueda, I. (2018) Development of a Social Activities Scale for Community-Dwelling Older Men Requiring Support in Japan. Health, 10, 1-12. doi: 10.4236/health.2018.101001.
References

[1]   Cabinet Office, Government of Japan (2017) Annual Report on the Aging Society 2017.
http://www8.cao.go.jp/kourei/whitepaper/w-2017/zenbun/29pdf_index.html

[2]   Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (2017) Kaigoyobou-Nichijyouseikatsu- shiensougoujigyo.
http://www.mhlw.go.jp/file/06-Seisakujouhou-12300000-Roukenkyoku/0000088276.pdf

[3]   Saito, E., Takai, J., Kanazawa, K., Honda, A. and Saeki, K. (2004) Changes in Functional Capacity in Older Adults Living Alone: A Three-Year Longitudinal Study in a Rural Area of Japan. Japanese Journal of Public Health, 51, 958-968.

[4]   Demura, S. and Sato, S. (2003) Relationships between Depression, Lifestyle and Quality of Life in the Community Dwelling Elderly: A Comparison between Gender and Age Group. Journal of Physiological Anthropology and Applied Human Science, 22, 159-166.
https://doi.org/10.2114/jpa.22.159

[5]   Okamoto, H. (2008) Effects of Social Activities on Life Satisfaction among the Elderly: Four Aspects in Men and Women. Japanese Journal of Public Health, 55, 388-395. (In Japanese)

[6]   Hirano, M., Kawahara, K. and Saeki, K. (2014) Development of a Scale to Measure the Social Activities of Older Women Requiring Daily Support. Journal of Japan Academy of Community Health Nursing, 17, 19-27. (In Japanese)

[7]   Hirano, M., Saeki, K., Ueda, I., Honda, H. and Mizuno, Y. (2017) Social Activities of Older Men Who Require Daily Support and the Purpose of Such Activities. Japanese Journal of Public Health, 64, 14-24. (In Japanese)

[8]   Gagliardi, C., Spazzafumo, L., Marcellini, F., Mollenkopf, H., Ruoppila, I., Tacken, M. and Szemann, A. (2007) The Outdoor Mobility and Leisure Activities of Older People in Five European Countries. Ageing & Society, 27, 683-700.
https://doi.org/10.1017/S0144686X07006198

[9]   Sawaoka, S., Koyano, W. and Honda, A. (2012) Everyday Interactions with Others among the Old-Old Living Alone in an Urban Area. Japanese Journal of Gerontology, 34, 39-45. (In Japanese)

[10]   Kono, A. and Tadaka, E. (2012) Daitoshi ni kurasu dokkyodanseikoureisya no seikatsukadai to jiritsushien. Koushu Eisei, 76, 702-705. (In Japanese)

[11]   Hashimoto, S., Aoki, R., Tamakoshi, A., Shibazaki, S., Nagai, M., Kawakami, N., Ikari, A., Ojima, T. and Ohno, Y. (1997) Development of Index of Social Activities for the Elderly. Japanese Journal of Public Health, 44, 760-768. (In Japanese)

[12]   Hirano, M., Kawahara, K. and Saeki, K. (2015) Development of a Social Activities Scale for Community-Dwelling Older Women Requiring Support in Japan: A Preliminary Study. Public Health Nurse, 32, 508-516.
https://doi.org/10.1111/phn.12161

[13]   Department of Health and Welfare, Hokkaido (2015) Hokkaido no koureisyajinkou no jyoukyo.
http://www.pref.hokkaido.lg.jp/hf/khf/koureishajinkou.htm

[14]   Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (2016) Kaigohokenjigyou jyoukyouhoukok. http://www.mhlw.go.jp/topics/kaigo/osirase/jigyo/m16/1606.html

[15]   Hirano, M. (2011) “Social Activity of Elderly” in Japan: Concept Analysis. The Journal of Japan Academy of Health Sciences, 14, 121-128. (In Japanese)

[16]   Burns, N. and Grove, S.K. (2007) The Practice of Nursing Research: Conduct, Critique, and Utilization. Elsevier Japan Inc., Tokyo, 491.

[17]   Okamoto, H., Okada, S. and Shirasawa, M. (2006) Factors Associated with Social Activities among the Elderly in a Metropolitan Area: Physical, Psychological, and Socio-Environmental Parameters. Japanese Journal of Public Health, 53, 504-515. (In Japanese)

[18]   Levasseur, M., Richard, L., Gauvin, L. and Raymond, E. (2010) Inventory and Analysis of Definitions of Social Participation Found in the Aging Literature: Proposed Taxonomy of Social Activities. Social Science & Medicine, 71, 2141-2149.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2010.09.041

[19]   Willie-Tyndale, D., Holder-Nevins, D., Mitchell-Fearon, K. and Eldemire-Shearer, D. (2016) Participation in Social Activities and the Association with Socio-Demographic and Health-Related Factors among Community-Dwelling Older Adults in Jamaica. Journal of Cross-Cultural Gerontology, 31, 427-447.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10823-016-9297-x

[20]   Hong, S.I., Hasche, L. and Bowland, S. (2009) Structural Relationships between Social Activities and Longitudinal Trajectories of Depression among Older Adults. Gerontologist, 49, 1-11.
https://doi.org/10.1093/geront/gnp006

[21]   Cabinet Office, Government of Japan (2010) Results of Survey on the Senior Citizens Attitude toward Housing and the Living Environment 2010.
http://www8.cao.go.jp/kourei/ishiki/h22/sougou/zentai/pdf/2-1.pdf

[22]   Saito, T., Kondo, K., Murata, C., Jeong, S., Suzuki, K. and Kondo, N. (2015) Gender and Regional Differences in Going-Out, Social, and Leisure Activities among Older Adults. Findings from the JAGES Project. Japanese Journal of Public Health, 62, 596-608. (In Japanese)

[23]   Cabinet Office, Government of Japan (2015) Annual Report on the Aging Society 2015.
http://www8.cao.go.jp/kourei/whitepaper/w-2015/html/zenbun/s1_2_6.html

 
 
Top