Back
 IJCM  Vol.8 No.12 , December 2017
Correlation between Cognitive Aspects and Dysphagia in Patients with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: Preliminary Report
Abstract: Introduction: Cognitive impairment has been identified in 30% - 50% of the population with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS). Among these patients, dysphagia is not only a very common symptom but also one of the main bulbar symptoms. Objective: To correlate cognitive function and dysphagia in patients with ALS. Methods: a cross-sectional study. Criteria for inclusion were an ALS diagnosis and the signing of the consent form. Criteria for exclusion were patients who had undergone speech therapy, patients within sufficient oral language skills to participate in cognitive tests, patients receiving enteral feeding and patients who withdrew from the study before completing all the stages. Evaluations of cognition and dysphagia were performed. Results: The initial sample consisted of 86 participants, 69 of which fell under exclusion criteria. Seventeen patients were evaluated, with a mean age of 49.8 (±11.3) and a mean education period of 7.1 (±2.8) years. Disease evolution was analyzed in months, with a median of 24 (P25 = 10; P75 = 72) months. In this sample, 70.6% of patients were male (p = 0.019). Among the tests performed, those of executive functions were correlated with dysphagia: FAB (p = 0.019) and Trail Making Test A (p = 0.006). Conclusion: This pilot study suggests a correlation between executive functions and dysphagia.
Cite this paper: Olchik, M. , Ghisi, M. , Winckler, P. and Ayres, A. (2017) Correlation between Cognitive Aspects and Dysphagia in Patients with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: Preliminary Report. International Journal of Clinical Medicine, 8, 680-691. doi: 10.4236/ijcm.2017.812063.
References

[1]   Palermo, S., Lima, J.M.B. and Alvarenga, R.B. (2009) Epidemiology of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis—Europe/North America/South America/Asia. Discrepancies and similarities. Systematic Review of the Literature. Revista Brasileira de Neurologia, 45, 5-10.

[2]   Lima, S.R. and Gomes, K.B. (2010) Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Stem Cells Treatment. Revista Brasileira de Clínica Médica, 8, 531-537.

[3]   Murphy, J., Factor-Litvak, P., Goetz, R., Lomen-Hoerth, C., Nagy, P.L., Hupf, J. and et al. (2016) Cognitive-Behavioral Screening Reveals Prevalent Impairment in a Large Multicenter ALS Cohort. Neurology, 86, 813-820.
https://doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000002305

[4]   Fattori, B., Siciliano, G., Mancini, V., Bastiani, L., Bongioanni, P., Caldarazzo, I.E. and et al. (2017) Dysphagia in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: Relationships between Disease Progression and Fiberoptic Endoscopic Evaluation of Swallowing. Auris Nasus Larynx, 44, 306-312.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anl.2016.07.002

[5]   Jani, M.P. and Gore, G.B. (2016) Swallowing Characteristics in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis. NeuroRehabilitation, 39, 273-276.
https://doi.org/10.3233/NRE-161357

[6]   Erdem, N.S., Karaali, K., ünal, A., Kizilay, F., Ögüs, C. and Uysal, H. (2016) The Interaction between Breathing and Swallowing in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis. Acta Neurologica Belgica, 116, 549-556.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s13760-016-0643-0

[7]   Tabor, L., Gaziano, J., Watts, S., Robison, R. and Plowman, E.K. (2016) Defining Swallowing-Related Quality of Life Profiles in Individuals with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis. Dysphagia, 31, 376-382.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s00455-015-9686-2

[8]   Logemann, J.A., Veis, S. and Colangelo, L. (1999) A Screening Procedure for Oropharyngeal Dysphagia. Dysphagia, 14, 44-51.
https://doi.org/10.1007/PL00009583

[9]   Logemann, J.A. (2014) Critical Factors in the Oral Control Needed for Chewing and Swallowing. Journal of Texture Studies, 45, 173-179.
https://doi.org/10.1111/jtxs.12053

[10]   Paris, G., Martinaud, O., Petit, A., Cuvelie, R.A., Hannequin, D., Roppeneck, P. and et al. (2013) Oropharyngeal Dysphagia in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Alters Quality of Life. Journal of Oral Rehabilitation, 40, 199-204.
https://doi.org/10.1111/joor.12019

[11]   Ruoppolo, G., Schettino, I., Frasca, V., Giacomelli, E., Prosperini, L., Cambieri, C., and et al. (2013) Dysphagia in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: Prevalence and Clinical Findings. Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, 128, 397-401.
https://doi.org/10.1111/ane.12136

[12]   Simione, M., Wilson, E.M., Yunusova, Y. and Green, J.R. (2016) Validation of Clinical Observations of Mastication in Persons with ALS. Dysphagia, 31, 367-375.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s00455-015-9685-3

[13]   Kim, J.S., Youn, J., Suh, M.K., Kim, T.E., Chin, J., Parque, S. and Cho, J.W. (2015) Cognitive and Motor Aspects of Parkinson’s Disease Associated with Dysphagia. Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences, 42, 395-400.
https://doi.org/10.1017/cjn.2015.304

[14]   Kuzmickiene, J. and Kaubrys, G. (2016) Specific Features of Executive Dysfunction in Alzheimer-Type Mild Dementia Based on Computerized Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (Cantab) Test Results. Medical Science Monitor, 8, 22, 3605-3613.
https://doi.org/10.12659/MSM.900992

[15]   Braga-Neto, P., Pedroso, J.L., Alessi, H., Dutra, L.A., Felício, A.C., Minett, T., Weisman, P., Santos-Galduroz, R.F., Bertolucci, P.H., Gabbai, A.A. and Barsottini, O.G. (2012) Cerebellar Cognitive Affective Syndrome in Machado Joseph Disease: Core Clinical Features. Cerebellum, 11, 549-556.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s12311-011-0318-6

[16]   KhinKhin, E., Minor, D., Holloway, A. and Pelleg, A. (2015) Decisional Capacity in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis. Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law, 43, 210-217.

[17]   Hsieh, et al. (2016) Cognitive and Behavioral Symptoms in ALSFTD: Detection, Differentiation, and Progression. Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry and Neurology, 29, 3-10.
https://doi.org/10.1177/0891988715598232

[18]   Consonni, M., Catricalà, E., Dalla, Bella, E., Gessa, V.C., Lauria, G. and Cappa, S.F. (2016) Beyond the Consensus Criteria: Multiple Cognitive Profiles in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis? Cortex, 81, 162-167.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cortex.2016.04.014

[19]   Montuschi, A., Lazzolino, B., Calvo, A., Moglia, C., Lopiano, L. and Restagno, G. (2013) Cognitive Correlates in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: A Population-Based Study in Italy. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry, 86, 168-173.
https://doi.org/10.1136/jnnp-2013-307223

[20]   Papeop, L., Cecchetto, C., Mazzon, G., Granello, G., Cattaruzza, T., Verriello, L., et al. (2015) The Processing of Actions and Action-Words in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Patients. Cortex, 64, 136-147.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cortex.2014.10.007

[21]   Watermeyer, T.J., Brown, R.G., Sidle, K.C.L., Oliver, D.J., Allen, C., Karlsson, J., Ellis, K.M., Shaw, C.E., Al-Chalabi, A. and Goldstein, L.H. (2015) Executive Dysfunction Predicts social Cognition Impairment in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis. Journal of Neurology, 262, 1681-1690.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s00415-015-7761-0

[22]   Rippon, G.A., Scarmeas, N., Gordon, P.H., Murphy, P.L., Albert, S.M. and Mitsumoto, H. (2006) An Observational Study of Cognitive Impairment in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis. Archives of Neurology, 63, 345-352.
https://doi.org/10.1001/archneur.63.3.345

[23]   Burke, T., Pinto-Grau, M., Lonergan, K., Elamin, M., Bede, P. and Costello, E. (2016) Measurement of Social Cognition in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: A Population Based Study. PLoS ONE, 11, e0160850.
https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0160850

[24]   Prudlo, J., König, J., Schuster, C., Kasper, E., Büttner, A., Teipel, S. and Neumann, M. (2016) TDP-43 Pathology and Cognition in ALS: A Prospective Clinicopathologic Correlation Study. Neurology, 87, 1019-1023.
https://doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000003062

[25]   Irwin, D., Lippa, C.F. and Swearer, J.M. (2007) Cognition and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS). American Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease & Other Dementias, 22, 300-312.
https://doi.org/10.1177/1533317507301613

[26]   Branco, L.M., Zanao, T., De Rezende, T.J., Casseb, R.F., Balthazar, M.F., Woolley, S.C., et al. (2017) Transcultural Validation of the ALS-CBS Cognitive Section for the Brazilian Population. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Frontotemporal Degeneration, 18, 60-67.
https://doi.org/10.1080/21678421.2016.1211147

[27]   Niven, E., Newton, J., Foley, J., Colville, S., Swingler, R., Chandran, S., et al. (2015) Validation of the Edinburgh Cognitive and Behavioural Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Screen (ECAS): A Cognitive Tool for Motor Disorders. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Frontotemporal Degeneration, 16, 172-179.
https://doi.org/10.3109/21678421.2015.1030430

[28]   Phukan, J., Pender, N.P. and Hardiman, O. (2007) Cognitive Impairment in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis. The Lancet Neurology, 6, 994-1003.
https://doi.org/10.1016/S1474-4422(07)70265-X

[29]   Calvo, U., Moglia, C., Lunetta, C., Marinou, K., Ticozzi, N., Ferrante, G.D., et al. (2017) Factors Predicting Survival in ALS: A Multicenter Italian Study. Journal of Neurology, 264, 54-63.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s00415-016-8313-y

[30]   Brooks, B.R., Miller, R.G., Swash, M., et al. (2000) El Escorial Revisited: Revised Criteria for the Diagnosis of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Frontotemporal Degeneration, 1, 293-299.
https://doi.org/10.1080/146608200300079536

[31]   Bertolucci, P.H.F., Brucki, S.M.D., Campacci, S.R. and Juliano, Y. (1994) The Mini-Mental State Examination in an Outpatient Population: Influence of Literacy. Arquivos de Neuro-Psiquiatria, 52, 1-7.
https://doi.org/10.1590/S0004-282X1994000100001

[32]   Benton, A.L. and Hamsher, K. (1989) Multilingual Aphasia Examination. AJA Associates, Iowa City.

[33]   Brucki, S.M.D., Malheiros, S.M.F., Okamoto, I.H. and Bertolucci, P.H.F. (1997) Normative Data: Category Verbal Fluency. Arquivos de Neuro-Psiquiatria, 55, 56-61.
https://doi.org/10.1590/S0004-282X1997000100009

[34]   Sarmento, A.R.L. (2009) Presentation and Applicability of the Brazilian Version the MoCA (Montreal Cognitive Assessment) for Screening of Mild Cognitive Impairment. Dissertação, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo.

[35]   Beato, R.G., Nitrini, R., Formigoni, A.P. and Caramelli, P. (2007) Brazilian Version of the Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB): Preliminary Data on Administration to Healthy Elderly. Dementia & Neuropsychologia, 1, 59-65.
https://doi.org/10.1590/S1980-57642008DN10100010

[36]   Tombaugh, T.N. (2004) Trail Making Test A and B: Normative Data Stratified by Age and Education. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 19, 203-214.
https://doi.org/10.1016/S0887-6177(03)00039-8

[37]   Gomes-Oliveira, M.H., Gorenstein, C., Neto, F.L., Andrade, L.H. and Wang, Y.P. (2012) Validation of the Brazilian Portuguese Version of the Beck Depression Inventory II in a Community Sample. Revista Brasileira De Psiquiatria, 34, 389-394.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rbp.2012.03.005

[38]   Fabricio-Wehble, S.C.C. (2008) Cross-Cultural Adaptation and Validation of the Edmontn Frail Scale (FES) Elderly Frailty Assessment Scale. PhD Dissertação, São Paulo.

[39]   Belafsky, P.C., Mauadeb, D.A., Rees, C.J., Pryor, J.C., Postma, G.N., Allen, J., et al. (2008) Validity and Reliability of the Easting Assessment Tool (EAT-10). Annals of Otology, Rhinology & Laryngology, 117, 919-924.
https://doi.org/10.1177/000348940811701210

[40]   Gonçalves, M.I.R., Remaili, K.B. and Behlau, M. (2013) Cross-Cultural Adaptation of the Brazilian Version of the Eating Assessment Tool EAT-10. CoDAS, 25, 601-604.
https://doi.org/10.1590/S2317-17822013.05000012

[41]   Logemann, J.A. and Larsen, K. (2012) Oropharyngeal Dysphagia: Pathophysiology and Diagnosis for the Anniversary Issue of Diseases of the Esophagus. Diseases of the Esophagus, 25, 299-304.
https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1442-2050.2011.01210.x

[42]   Magalhaes Junior, H.V., et al. (2013) Translation and Cross-Cultural Adaptation of the Northwestern Dysphagia Patient Check Sheet to Brazilian Portuguese. CoDAS, 25, 369-374.
https://doi.org/10.1590/S2317-17822013000400012

[43]   Padovani, A.R. (2010) Oral Feeding Transition Protocolo (OFTP) MD. Dissertaçäo, Universidade de Säo Paulo, Säo Paulo.

[44]   Crary, M.A., Mann, G.D. and Groher, M.E. (2005) Initial Psychometric Assessment of a Functional Oral Intake Scale for Dysphagia in Stroke Patients. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 86, 1516-1520.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apmr.2004.11.049

[45]   Furkim, A.M. and Sacco, A.B.F. (2008) Efficacy of Speech Therapy in Neurogenic Dysphagia using Functional Oral Intake Scale (FOIS) as a Parameter. Revista CEFAC, 10, 503-512.
https://doi.org/10.1590/S1516-18462008000400010

[46]   Plowman, E.K., Tabor, I.C., Robison, R., Gaziano, J., Dion, C., Watts, S.A., Vu, T. and Gooch, C. (2016) Discriminant Ability of the Eating Assessment Tool-10 to Detect Aspiration in Individuals with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis. Neurogastroenterology & Motility, 28, 85-90.
https://doi.org/10.1111/nmo.12700

[47]   Munoro, S., et al. (2015) Evaluation of Dysphagia at the Initial Diagnosis of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis. Auris Nasus Larynx, 42, 213-217.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anl.2014.10.012

[48]   Solazzo, A., Del Vecchio, L., Reginelli, A., Monaco, L., Sagnelli, A., Monsorrò, M., et al. (2011) Search for Compensation Postures with Videofluoromanometric Investigation in Dysphagic Patients Affected by Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis. La Radiologia Medica, 116, 1083-1094.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11547-011-0698-1

[49]   Easterling, C., Antinoja, J., Cashin, S. and Barkhaus, P.E. (2013) Changes in Tongue Pressure, Pulmonary Function, and Salivary Flow in Patients with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis. Dysphagia, 28, 217-225.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s00455-012-9436-7

[50]   Ahmed, R.M., Caga, J., Devenney, E., Hsieh, S., Bartley, L., Highton-Williamson, E., et al. (2016) Cognition and Eating Behavior in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: Effect on Survival. Journal of Neurology, 263, 1593-1603.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s00415-016-8168-2

[51]   Mouräo-Junior, C.A. and Melo, L.B.R. (2011) Integration of Three Concepts: Executive Function, Working Memory and Learning. Psicologia: Teoria e Pesquisa, 27, 309-314.

[52]   Carluer, L., Mondou, A., Buhour, M.S., Laisney, M., Pelerin, A., Eustache, F., Viader, F. and Desgranges, B. (2015) Neural Substrate of Cognitive Theory of Mind Impairment in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis. Cortex, 65, 19-30.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cortex.2014.12.010

[53]   Van Groenestijn, A.C., Kruitwagen-Van, Reenen, E.T., Visser-Meily, J.M., Van den Berg, L.H. and Schröder, C.D. (2016) Associations between Psychological Factors and Health-Related Quality of Life and Global Quality of Life in Patients with ALS: A Systematic Review. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, 14, 107.
https://doi.org/10.1186/s12955-016-0507-6

[54]   Roos, E., Mariosa, D., Ingre, C., Lundholm, C., Wirdefeldt, K., Roos, P.M. and Fang, F. (2016) Depression in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis. Neurology, 86, 2271-2277.
https://doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000002671

[55]   McDonald, E., Wiedenfeld, S.A., Hillel, A., Carpenter, C.L. and Walter, R.A. (1994) Survival in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis. The Role of Psychological Factors. Archives of Neurology, 51, 17-23.
https://doi.org/10.1001/archneur.1994.00540130027010

[56]   Chio, A., Logroscino, G., Hardiman, O., Swingler, R., Mitchell, D. and EttoreBeghi, E. (2009) Prognostic Factors in ALS: A Critical Review. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, 10, 310-323.
https://doi.org/10.3109/17482960802566824

 
 
Top