AS  Vol.8 No.12 , December 2017
Competitiveness of Winter Rice Varieties against Weed under Dry Direct Seeded Conditions
Aerobic rice or dry direct seeded rice is highly vulnerable to weeds because of lack of “head start” over weeds and standing water layer to suppress weeds. The risks of chemical control and the huge cost involvement in mechanical control demand an eco-friendly and cost-effective integrated weed management. Weed competitive rice cultivar may be considered as a viable tool for integrated weed management. In these circumstances, an experiment was designed to evaluate weed competitiveness of some selected winter rice varieties under aerobic soil conditions. The study was conducted during dry season (February to June) 2016 at the Agronomy Field Laboratory and Weed Management Laboratory, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh. Fourteen rice varieties namely, BRRI dhan28, BRRI dhan29, BRRI dhan47, BRRI dhan50, BRRI dhan55, BRRI dhan58, BRRI dhan59, BRRI dhan67, Binadhan-5, Binadhan-6, Binadhan-8, Binadhan-10, BRRI hybrid dhan3 and Agrodhan-14 were grown under weedy and weed-free conditions. Plots with no rice were also maintained to observe the natural growth of weed in absence of rice. The experiment was conducted with split-plot design with three replications. Weeding regime was allocated in main plot and rice variety was allocated in sub-plot. Results showed that rice varieties varied widely in their yield performances and weed competitiveness. Among rice varieties, BRRI dhan59 allowed the minimum weed growth (19.2 g m-2) while Binadhan-5 allowed the maximum weed growth (62.8 g m-2). Grain yield ranged from 1.85 t ha-1 (BRRI dhan55) to 3.92 t ha-1 (Binadhan-5) under weed-free condition and between 0.41 t ha-1 (BRRI dhan55) and 2.06 t ha-1 (BRRI dhan59) under weedy condition. Weed inflicted relative yield loss ranged from 43.4% to 82.1% among the varieties. BRRI dhan59 allowed the least yield penalty (43.4%) while Binadhan-5 had the maximum yield penalty (82.1%) due to weed competition. Although Binadhan-5 is the most productive variety (3.92 t ha-1) for aerobic culture but its weed inflicted relative yield loss is higher (82.1%) than many other varieties with low yield potential. On the other hand, BRRI dhan59 appeared as the most weed competitive variety (only 43.4% relative yield loss) with productivity of 3.84 t ha-1. Therefore, weed competitive variety should be considered as a vital tool while designing integrated weed management system for aerobic rice.
Cite this paper: Rahman, A. , Islam, A. , Arefin, M. , Rahman, M. , Anwar, M. (2017) Competitiveness of Winter Rice Varieties against Weed under Dry Direct Seeded Conditions. Agricultural Sciences, 8, 1415-1438. doi: 10.4236/as.2017.812101.

[1]   Timmer, C.P. (2010) The Changing Role of Rice in Asia’s Food Security. ADB Sustainable Development Working Paper Series, No. 15, Asian Development Bank, Metro Manila.

[2]   FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization) (2014) FAO Statistical Databases. Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations, Rome.

[3]   Jabran, K. and Chauhan, B.S. (2015) Weed Management in Aerobic Rice Systems. Crop Protection, 78, 151-163.

[4]   Toriyama, K., Heong, K.L. and Hardy, B. (2005) Rice Is Life: Scientific Perspectives for the 21st Century. Proceedings of the World Rice Research Conference, Tokyo and Tsukuba, 4-7 November 2004, 590.

[5]   Farooq, M., Basra, S.M.A., Ahmad, N. and Murtaza, G. (2009) Enhancing the Performance of Transplanted Course Rice by Seed Priming. Paddy and Water Environment, 7, 55-63.

[6]   Tao, H., Brueck, H., Dittert, K., Kreye, C., Lin, S. and Sattelmacher, B. (2006) Growth and Yield Formation of Rice (Oryza sativa L.) in the Water Saving Ground Cover Rice Production System (GCRPS). Field Crops Research, 95, 1-12.

[7]   Bouman, B.A.M. and Tuong, T.P. (2000) Field Water Management to Save Water and Increase Its Productivity in Irrigated Lowland Rice. Agricultural Water Management, 16, 1-20.

[8]   Cantrell, R.P. and Hettel, G.P. (2005) Research Strategy for Rice in the 21st Century. Proceedings of the World Rice Research Conference, Tokyo and Tsukuba, 4-7 November 2004, 26-37.

[9]   Anwar, M.P., Juraimi, A.S., Man, A., Puteh, A., Selamat, A. and Begum, M. (2010) Weed Suppressive Ability of Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Germplasm under Aerobic Soil Conditions. Australian Journal of Crop Science, 4, 706-717.

[10]   Bouman, B.A.M. and Tuong, T.P. (2001) Field Water Management to Save Water and Increase Productivity in Irrigated Lowland Rice. Agricultural and Water Management, 49, 11-30.

[11]   Johnson, D.E. and Mortimer, A.M. (2005) Issues for Weed Management in Direct Seeded Rice and the Development of Decision-Support Frame-Works. In: Workshop on Direct Seeded Rice in the Rice-Wheat System of the Indo-Gangetic Plains, G B Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantanagar.

[12]   Anwar, M.P., Juraimi, A.S., Puteh, A., Selamat, A., Man, A. and Hakim, M.A. (2011) Seeding Method and Rate Influence on Weed Suppression in Aerobic Rice. African Journal of Biotechnology, 10, 259-271.

[13]   Belder, P., Bouman, B., Spiertz, J., Peng, S., Castaneda, A. and Visperas, R. (2005) Crop Performance, Nitrogen and Water Use in Flooded and Aerobic Rice. Plant and Soil, 273, 167-182.

[14]   Li, Y. (2001) Research and Practice of Water-Saving Irrigation for Rice in China. Proceedings of the International Workshop, Wuhan, 23-25 March 2001, 135-144.

[15]   Tabbal, D.F., Bouman, B.A.M., Bhuiyan, S.I., Sibayan, E.B. and Sattar, M.A. (2002) On-Farm Strategies for Reducing Water Input in Irrigated Rice: Case Studies in the Philippines. Agricultural and Water Management, 56, 93-112.

[16]   Stoop, W., Uphoff, N. and Kassam, A. (2002) A Review of Agricultural Research Issues Raised by System of Rice Intensification (SRI) from Madagascar: Opportunities for Improving Farming Systems for Resource-Poor Farmers. Agricultural Systems, 71, 249-274.

[17]   Sarkar, M.A.R., Hossain, M.Z. and Islam, A.K.M.M. (2007) Effect of Water and Fertilizer Management on the Yield and Yield Components of Boro Rice under SRI Method. Journal of Bangladesh Agricultural University, 5, 231-237.

[18]   Islam, A.K.M.M., Sarkar, M.A.R. and Islam, N. (2007) Effect of Spacing and Nutrient Management in SRI Method on the Yield Components and Yield of Transplant Aman Rice. Bangladesh Journal of Crop Science, 18, 1-6.

[19]   Yeasmin, S., Islam, A.K.M.M. and Sarkar, M.A.R. (2011) Integration of Fertilizer and Manure: Its Performance under the System of Rice Intensification. Lambert Academic Publisher, Saarbrücken, 1-88.

[20]   Borell, A., Garside, A. and Shu, F.K. (1997) Improving Efficiency of Water for Irrigated Rice in a Semi-Arid Tropical Environment. Field Crops Research, 52, 231-248.

[21]   Juraimi, A.S., Begum, M., Yusuf, M.N.M. and Mann, A. (2010) Efficacy of Herbicides on the Control Weeds and Productivity of Direct Seeded Rice under Minimal Water Conditions. Plant Protection Quarterly, 25, 19-25.

[22]   Jabran, K., Ullah, E., Hussain, M., Farooq, M., Zaman, U., Yaseen, M. and Chauhan, B.S. (2015) Mulching Improves Water Productivity, Yield and Quality of Fine Rice under Water-Saving Rice Production Systems. Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science, 201, 389-400.

[23]   Jabran, K., Ullah, E., Hussain, M., Farooq, M., Haider, N. and Chauhan, B.S. (2015) Water Saving, Water Productivity and Yield Outputs of Fine-Grain Rice Cultivars under Conventional and Water-Saving Rice Production Systems. Experimental Agriculture, 51, 567-581.

[24]   Bastiaans, L., Kropff, M.J., Goudriaan, J. and Laar, H.H. (1997) Design of Weed Management Systems with a Reduced Reliance on Herbicides Poses New Challenges and Prerequisites for Modeling Crop-Weed Interactions. Field Crops Research, 67, 161-179.

[25]   Oerke, E.C. and Dehne, H.W. (2004) Safe Guarding Production Losses in Major Crops and the Role of Crop Protection. Crop Protection, 23, 275-285.

[26]   Karim, S.M.R., Man, A.B. and Sahid, I.B. (2004) Weed Problems and Their Management in Rice Fields of Malaysia: An Overview. Weed Biology Management, 4, 177-186.

[27]   Mahajan, G. and Chauhan, B.S. (2011) Effects of Planting Pattern and Cultivar on Weed and Crop Growth in Aerobic Rice System. Weed Technology, 25, 521-525.

[28]   Rao, A.N., Johnson, D.E., Sivaprasad, B., Ladha, J.K. and Mortimer, A.M. (2007) Weed Management in Direct Seeded Rice. Advances in Agronomy, 93, 153-255.

[29]   Azmi, M. (1992) Competitive Ability of Barnyard Grass in Direct Seeded Rice. Teknologi Padi, 8, 19-25.

[30]   Balasubramanian, V. and Hill, J.E. (2002) Direct Seeding of Rice in Asia: Emerging Issues and Strategic Research Needs for the 21st Century. In: Pandey, et al., Eds., Direct Seeding: Research Strategies and Opportunities, IRRI, Los Banos, 15-39.

[31]   Jayadeva, H.M., Bhairappanavar, S.T., Hugar, A.Y., Rangaswamy, B.R., Mallikarjun, G.B., Malleshappa, C. and Naik, D.C. (2011) Integrated Weed Management in Aerobic Rice (Oryza sativa L.). Agricultural Science Digest, 31, 58-61.

[32]   Swanton, C.J. and Weise, S.F. (1991) Integrated Weed Management: The Rationale and Approach. Weed Technology, 5, 657-663.

[33]   O’Donovan, J.T., Harker, K.N., Clayton, G.W., Newman, J.C., Robinson, D. and Hall, L.M. (2001) Barley Seeding Rate Influence the Effects of Variable Herbicide Rates. Weed Science, 49, 746-754.[0746:BSRITE]2.0.CO;2

[34]   Grichar, W.J., Bessler, B.A. and Brewer, K.D. (2004) Effect of Row Spacing and Herbicide Dose on Weed Control and Grain Sorghum Yield. Crop Protection, 23, 263-267.

[35]   Dass, A., Shekhawat, K., Choudhary, A.K., Sepat, S., Rathore, S.S., Mahajan, G. and Chauhan, B.S. (2017) Weed Management in Rice using Crop Competition—A Review. Crop Protection, 95, 45-52.

[36]   Van der Meulen, A. and Chauhan, B.S. (2017) A Review of Weed Management in Wheat using Crop Competition. Crop Protection, 95, 38-44.

[37]   Heap, I. (2017) The International Survey of Herbicide Resistant Weeds.

[38]   Aktar, M.W., Sengupta, D. and Chowdhury, A. (2009) Impact of Pesticides Use in Agriculture: Their Benefits and Hazards. Interdisciplinary Toxicology, 2, 1-12.

[39]   Fischer, A.J., Ateh, C.M., Bayer, D.E. and Hill, J.E. (2000) Herbicide-Resistant (Echinochloa oryzoides) and (E. phyllopogon) in California Oryza sativa Fields. Weed Science, 48, 225-230.[0225:HREOAE]2.0.CO;2

[40]   Pell, M., Stenberg, B. and Torstensson, L. (1998) Potential Denitrification and Nitrification Tests for Evaluation of Pesticide Effects in Soil. Ambio, 27, 24-28.

[41]   Rahman, M.M., Sahid, I.B. and Juraimi, A.S. (2010) Study of Resistant Biotypes of Echinochloa crussgalli in Malaysia. Australian Journal of Crop Science, 4, 107-115.

[42]   Roder, W. (2001) Slash-and-Burn Rice Systems in the Hills of Northern Lao PDR. In: Description, Challenges, and Opportunities, IRRI, Los Banos, 201.

[43]   Jannink, J.L., Orf, J.H., Jordan, N.R. and Shaw, R.G. (2000) Index Selection for Weed Suppressive Ability in Soybean. Crop Science, 40, 1087-1094.

[44]   Dingkuhn, M., Johnson, D.E., Sow, A. and Audebert, A.Y. (1999) Relationships between Upland Rice Canopy Characteristics and Weed Competitiveness. Field Crops Research, 61, 79-95.

[45]   Fischer, A.J., Ramirez, H.V., Gibson, K.D. and Pinheiro, B.D.S. (2001) Competitiveness of Semi-Dwarf Upland Rice Cultivars against Palisade Grass (Brachiaria brizantha) and Signal Grass (B. decunmbens). Agronomy Journal, 93, 967-973.

[46]   Gibson, K.D. and Fischer, A.J. (2004) Competitiveness of Rice Cultivars as a Tool for Crop-Based Weed Management. In: Inderjit, Ed., Weed Biology and Management, Kulwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, 517-532.

[47]   Mahajan, G., Brar, L.S. and Sardana, V. (2004) Efficacy of Clodinafop against Isoproturon Resistant Phalaris Minor in Relation to Wheat Cultivars and Spacing. Indian Journal of Weed Science, 36, 166-170.

[48]   Zhao, D.L., Atlin, G.N., Bastiaans, L. and Spiertz, J.H.J. (2006) Comparing Rice Germplasm Groups for Growth, Grain Yield and Weed Suppressive Ability under Aerobic Soil Conditions. Weed Research, 46, 444-452.

[49]   Juraimi, A.S., Uddin, M.K., Anwar, M.P., Mohamed, M.T.M., Ismail, M.R. and Man, A. (2013) Sustainable Weed Management in Direct Seeded Rice Culture: A Review. Australian Journal of Crop Science, 7, 989-1002.

[50]   Caton, B.P., Cope, A.E. and Mortimer, M. (2003) Growth Traits of Diverse Rice Cultivars under Severe Competition: Implications for Screening for Competitiveness. Field Crops Research, 83, 157-172.

[51]   Anwar, M.P., Juraimi, A.S., Samedani, B., Mohamed, M.T.M., Uddin, M.K., Hasan, A.K. and Hossain, M.D. (2014) Integrating Cultural and Chemical Control Methods for Higher Weed Control Efficiency and Better Performance of Aerobic Rice. Research on Crops, 15, 1-13.

[52]   Chauhan, B.S. (2012) Weed Ecology and Weed Management Strategies for Dry-Seeded Rice in Asia. Weed Technology, 26, 1-13.

[53]   Anwar, M.P., Juraimi, A.S., Mohamed, M.T.M., Uddin, M.K., Samedani, B., Puthe, A. and Man, A. (2013) Integration of Agronomic Practices with Herbicides for Sustainable Weed Management in Aerobic Rice. The Scientific World Journal, 2013, 1-12.

[54]   FAO-UNDP (Food and Agriculture Organization-United Nations Development Programme) (1988) Land Resources Appraisal of Bangladesh for Agricultural Development. Agro-Ecological Regions of Bangladesh, BGD/81/035. Technical Report No. 2, FAO, Rome.

[55]   Islam, A.K.M.M., Meirvenne, M.V. and Islam, M.M. (2011) Proximal Soil Sensing System for Paddy Field Variability Mapping: The Potential of a Proximal Soil Sensor for Soil Properties Mapping. VDM Verlag Dr. Muller, Saarbrucken, 1-60.

[56]   BRRI (Bangladesh Rice Research Institute) (2017) Adhunik Dhaner Chash. 18th Edition, 8-10.

[57]   BINA (Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture) (2012) BINA Profile. 4th Edition, 24-26.

[58]   Janiya, J.D. and Moody, K. (1989) Weed Populations in Transplanted Wet-Seeded Rice as Affected by Weed Control Method. Tropical Pest Management, 35, 8-11.

[59]   Gomez, K.A. and Gomez, A.A. (1984) Statistical Procedures for Agricultural Research. John Wiley and Sons, New York, Chichesten, Brisbane, Toronto, 97-215.

[60]   Gibson, K.D., Hill, J.E., Foin, T.C., Caton, B.P. and Fischer, A.J. (2001) Water Seeded Rice Cultivars Differ in Ability to Interfere with Water Grass. Agronomy Journal, 93, 326-332.

[61]   Zhao, D.L., Atlin, N., Bastiaans, L. and Spiertz, J.H.J. (2006) Developing Selection Protocols for Weed Competitiveness in Aerobic Rice. Field Crops Research, 97, 272-285.

[62]   Bertholdsson, N.O. (2005) Early Vigour and Allelopathy—Two Useful Traits for Enhanced Barley and Wheat Competitiveness against Weeds. Weed Research, 45, 94-102.

[63]   Saito, K., Azoma, K. and Rodenburg, J. (2010) Plant Characteristics Associated with Weed Competitiveness of Rice under Upland and Lowland Conditions in West Africa. Field Crops Research, 116, 308-317.

[64]   Mahajan, G., Ramesha, M.S. and Chauhan, B.S. (2014) Response of Rice Genotypes to Weed Competition in Dry Direct-Seeded Rice in India. The Scientific World Journal, 2014, 1-8.

[65]   Zhao, D.L., Atlin, G.N., Bastiaans, L. and Spiertz, J.H.J. (2006) Cultivar Weeds Competitiveness in Aerobic Rice: Heritability, Correlated Traits, and the Potential for Indirect Selection in Weed-Free Environments. Crop Science, 46, 372-380.

[66]   Huel, D.G. and Hucl, P. (1996) Genotypic Variation for Competitive Ability in Spring Wheat. Plant Breeding, 115, 325-329.

[67]   McGregor, J.T., Roy, J.R., Smith, J.R. and Talbert, R.E. (1988) Broadleaf Signal Grass (Brachiaria platyphylla) Duration of Interference in Rice (Oryza sativa). Weed Science, 36, 747-750.