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 JWARP  Vol.9 No.13 , December 2017
Suitability of Drinking Water Sources from Nyaruzinga Wetland for Domestic Use in Bushenyi Municipality, Uganda
Abstract: This study determined the physico-chemical and bacterial quality of raw (bore-hole, springs, wells) and tap water sources from Nyaruzinga wetland for domestic use in Bushenyi Municipality. Forty samples of raw water were randomly collected from Kacuncu, Kyeitembe and Kikuba tributaries of the wetland and 40 samples of tap water generated from the same wetland were randomly drawn from Ishaka, Nyakabirizi and Central divisions of the Municipality. The samples were analyzed for apparent colour (AC), turbidity, electrical conductivity (EC), total hardness, pH, total iron, residual alum, free residual chlorine and faecal coliforms using standard methods and their values compared with standard local UNBS (2008) and international WHO (2011) drinking water quality guidelines. The results showed that the mean pH of the protected spring below Kikuba Hill (5.21); the AC (Pt/Co) of the borehole below Bweranyangi Junior School (17.28) and the surface well below Nyandozo Primary School (157.58) both situated in Kacuncu as well as the free residual chlorine (mg/L) in tap water at Kanyamabona Trading Centre, Ishaka division (0.192) were below the standard values of WHO (pH, 6.0 - 8.0; free residual chlorine, 0.2 - 0.5) and UNBS (AC, <15). The electrical conductivity, EC (μS/cm) and total hardness (mg/L) of all the selected water sources were within the WHO standards (EC, <1500 (raw water), 0 - 300 (tap water); total hardness, <1500 (raw water), <100 (tap water)). The residual alum (mg/L) in all the tap water sources was also within the WHO guideline (<0.2). On the other hand, the turbidity (27.38 NTUs) and total iron content (0.32 mg/L) of the surface well below Nyandozo Primary School were above WHO guidelines of <15 and <0.3 respectively. Furthermore, the mean faecal coliform counts (CFU/100 ml) in the surface well below Nyandozo Primary School (6.90) and the borehole below Bweranyangi Junior School (16.83) including the surface well below Kyeitembe Trading Centre (9.25) were above the WHO standard faecal coliform count (≤3 TCUs). Only the tap water at Kanyamabona Trading Centre recorded mean faecal coliform counts (0.25 TCUs) beyond the WHO standard (0 TCU). Hence the quality of tap water within the municipality tapped from Nyaruzinga wetland was generally better than the raw drinking water sources (borehole, springs, wells) from the same wetland. Thus the use of piped tap water by the urban inhabitants as opposed to raw water sources needs to be promoted to increase access to safe water.
Cite this paper: Muhangane, L. , Nkurunungi, J. , Yatuha, J. and Andama, M. (2017) Suitability of Drinking Water Sources from Nyaruzinga Wetland for Domestic Use in Bushenyi Municipality, Uganda. Journal of Water Resource and Protection, 9, 1587-1611. doi: 10.4236/jwarp.2017.913100.
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