In the fifth Plenary Session of the 18th CPC Central Committee, the Chinese Communist Party put forward five concepts of innovation, coordination, green, openness and sharing. Under this background, the concept of the whole region tourism came into being  . The whole region tourism refers to taking tourism as the dominant industry in a certain area, through systematic optimizing and upgrading the economic and social resources in the region, especially tourism resources, related industries, ecological environment, public services, institutional mechanisms, policies and regulations, civilization quality and so on, to realize the organic integration of regional resources, the integrated development of industrial and the social co-construction and sharing, and form a new concept and model of regional coordinated development-promoting coordinated development of economic and social by tourism  . The whole region tourism of rural area is based on rural environment, takes rural residents as the main body, and all sectors and departments participate in the development of rural tourism  . The whole region tourism will experience the stages of overall development, the implementation of the public welfare supply, the overall planning of tourism and leisure development, and the construction of tourism functional areas across the region   . The governance of whole region tourism includes not only the governance of tourism industry, but also the related aspects of tourism resources governance, social governance, ecological governance, urban construction, rural reconstruction, poverty alleviation and development   . The whole region tourism has specific requirements for rural tourism products  , and the continuous promotion of regional economic development and rural poverty alleviation; it will also play an important role in reducing the gap between urban and rural areas, and poverty alleviation and poverty reduction  .
The essential requirement of socialism is to improve the people’s livelihood and gradually realize common prosperity  . The poverty alleviation led by the Chinese government has entered a new stage of precision poverty alleviation      . Different from the foreign countries taking payments to support the poor, China adopts the strategy of multiple paths in poverty alleviation and the development of production poverty alleviation as the main path after aiming at the poor population  , and industry poverty alleviation has become the most important way to precise poverty alleviation  .
At the same time, the academic circles summarize the rich experience of precision poverty alleviation in the areas of mountain    , ethnic minority areas      , concentrated contiguous poverty-stricken areas  , and other different types of areas in the country, and study the plight and solution measures of precision poverty alleviation in specific industries in specific areas    . They studied in the theoretical orientation  , function mechanism  , path selection   , implementation method  , policy simulation  , policy evolution  , policy differentiation and other aspects of the industry precision poverty alleviation, and put forward a series of unique insights  , and discussed the relationship between the environmental protection and industry precision poverty alleviation  , supply-side structural reform and precision poverty alleviation  , the application of big data in industry precision poverty alleviation  , and other aspects of the precise poverty alleviation. And research the specific industries in poverty alleviation, such as how to play the important role of agricultural  , characteristic industry in the precision poverty alleviation  , put forward the relationships should be deal with in characteristic industry precision poverty  , as well as financial services and characteristics of the industry precision poverty coupling relationship  .
Based on the above analysis, the academic circles discuss the concept, connotation, development stage, development path and development model of the whole region tourism, through the practice of regional tourism in a particular region, analysis of the natural, economic and social factors involved in the whole region tourism governance, It also recognizes the positive role of the whole region tourism in reducing the gap between urban and rural areas and supporting the poverty alleviation and opening up in rural areas. However, the study about how to play the positive role of the whole region tourism in reducing the difference between urban and rural areas and the precision poverty alleviation has not been involved. At the same time, domestic and foreign scholars have done a lot of research on the evolution of China’s poverty alleviation policy, the connotation of precise poverty alleviation and the precise poverty alleviation, and the practice of precision poverty alleviation in specific areas. So far, it has not yet seen the published literature of precision poverty alleviation through the whole region tourism development.
According to the practice of precise poverty alleviation and the whole region tourism in Danfeng County, this paper analyzes the quantitative characteristics, structural features and employment status of poverty-stricken population in Danfeng County, and studies the location, composition and spatial distribution of tourism resources in Danfeng County, put forward the development strategy of the whole regional tourism based on the guidance of precise poverty alleviation in Danfeng county.
Danfeng County is located in the Qinling Mountains, the higher terrain, rugged surface, higher forest cover, lower level of industrialization, small proportion of planting industry in the first industry, fresh air and beautiful environment have become the important condition for the development of whole region tourism and precise poverty alleviation. The poor counties in central and western regions in China usually have similar characteristics in the natural environment, the industrial structure and economic conditions with Danfeng County. This study can be extended to other poverty-stricken areas, enrich the theory of the whole region tourism and precise poverty alleviation, contributions to guide the practice of regional tourism and precision poverty alleviation in different regions.
2. The Characteristics of the Poor People in Danfeng County
Danfeng County located in the eastern section of the Qin-ling Mountains in southeastern Shaanxi province, which is a national poverty-stricken county. The spatial distribution and employment status of the poor people in the county is an important basis for formulating the industry precision poverty alleviation strategy.
2.1. The Quantitative Characteristics of the Poor People
In 2016, there were 6124 people in Danfeng county, making up 19.65 of the total population of 311,722 (see Table 1). The number of poor people in each town and its proportion of the total population are different. The number of people living in poverty in each town is between 3008 and 13,299. Among them, the number of poor people in the Longjuzhai Street is the most, reaching 13,299. The number of poor people in the Huapingzi town is the lowest, with a total of 3008 people. The proportion of the total population of poor people in the whole county is 19.65 percent, and the proportion of poor people in each town is 14.00% to 32.46%. Among them, the proportion of poor people in Huapingzi town is the highest, reaching 32.64%. The proportion of poor people in Longjuzhai Street is lowest, about 14%. In the 12 towns (streets) of the county, the poor population in Longjuzhai Street and Shang towns is less than the average of the whole county (see Table 1).
2.2. The Labor Structure of the Poor People
According to the ability of labor, the poor people can be divided into three categories: the poor with the ability of labor and the poor people who are not working age, etc. From the county scope, the poverty of the poor in Danfeng County has reached 39,599, accounting for 64.66 of the entire poor population. The number of poor people who have lost their working capacity is 1811, accounting for 2.96% of the total poverty. The number of people living in poverty in the non-working age was 19,834, accounting for 32.39 of the poor.
In the composition of the working poor population, the proportion of ordinary labor force is up to 99.51% and the number reaches 39,405. The proportion of skilled labor was 0.49 percent, with 194 people in total (see Table 1).
Table 1. Population and poverty of each town (street) in Danfeng County in 2016.
Data source: Poverty statistics of Danfeng County (internal data), Danfeng County poverty alleviation bureau, December 2016.
2.3. Employment Status of the Poor People
The labor force in poverty employment has important effects on precision poverty alleviation strategy. From the point of employment, in 2016 the Danfeng county’s poor labor employment for 16,736 people, accounting for 42.26% of the total labor force in poverty. The numbers of the employment working outside the province, in the province outside the county, in the county outside the town and in the town are 1588, 5664, 3452 and 6032 respectively (see Table 2).
From the time of employment, the labor force of the poor people in Danfeng County in 2016 can be divided into four types: work outside the province, work in the province outside the county, work in the county outside the town and in the town. Among them, the average annual working time is 5.501 months, 4.814 months, 4.584 months and 3.307 months respectively (see Table 2).
3. The Conditions of the Whole Region Tourism Development of Danfeng County
Danfeng County is located in the eastern part of Qinling Mountains which is in southeastern Shaanxi Province. The characteristics of the location, the quantity, the grade, the structure and the spatial distribution of the tourism resources, as well as regional traffic conditions and tourist sources, are the important conditions for the development of whole region tourism.
Table 2. Labor employment situation of poor people in Danfeng County in 2016.
Data source: Poverty statistics of Danfeng County (internal data), Danfeng County poverty alleviation bureau, December 2016.
3.1. The Location of Tourism Resources in Danfeng County
Danfeng County is located in the southeastern of Shaanxi Province which is in the south eastern section of Qinling Mountains. It is in the middle area of the three major regions of Northwest China, North China, Southwest China and Central South China, and it combines Shaanxi, Shanxi, Hubei and Henan provinces. It can accept the radiation of tourism in Xi’an, Wuhan, Chongqing and other large cities. The Xi’an-Nanjing Railway, Shanghai-Shaanxi Expressway and the 312 National Road have become rampant in the diagonal of the tourist highways connecting the east and west. They are the hub of the northwestern and southeastern coastal areas (see Figure 1). The development of tourism in Danfeng County takes Xi’an, Wuhan and Chongqing areas as the most important tourist destinations, and at the same time, it has a great attraction to tourists in the coastal areas of North China, Central China, Southwest China and even the East China.
3.2. The Composition Type of Tourism Resources in Danfeng County
Danfeng County is rich in natural tourism resources. Because it is located in the Qin-ling Mountains, the summer temperature is significantly lower than Guanzhong Plain, Jianghan Plain and the middle reaches of the Yellow River plains nearby. The eastern part of Qin-ling Mountain where Danfeng County is located has higher forest coverage and good air quality all the year round, which is called natural oxygen bar. The eastern part of the Qinling Mountains is characterized by complex geological structures and diverse topography types, rich in tourism resources. Shangyun Stone Geopark in Siping town, the southwest of the county is approved Geological Park as a provincial geopark. The specific location of the south slope of the Qin-ling Mountains makes the county an important water supply area in the Yangtze River basin. The important tributary of the Yangtze River, Danjiang River, flows through the county to form a rich hydrological tourism landscape. Complex topographic and unique climatic conditions develop special plant communities. The county has the Wuguan River rare animal nature reserve, which has the raw forest of Jinsi Gorge and the Laolingou Primeval Forest and other plant communities (see Table 3).
Danfeng County is rich in humanistic tourism resources. Because it is located in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River plain into the Guanzhong Plain fortress, Shangyu Ancient Road through the county. There are many kinds of ruins heritage sites tourist resources, such as Qin-guan ancient road and Qin-chu dividing wall. Danfeng County has a long history. Mankind has a long history of breeding and forming unique cultural landscapes. They are the concentration areas of Shangyang culture, Sihao culture, post station culture, ancient road culture, ancient architectural culture, drama culture, such as Longju Old Street, the Zhulinguan Ancient Theater and so on. Because of its location in Qin-ling Mountains, Danfeng County is an important place for the Chinese revolutionary area, and the red tourism resources are abundant, such as the Red Twenty-five Military Battle Sites, commercial Feng Ditch Hubei, Henan and Shaanxi border area convention site. Danfeng people transform nature, economic development, and gradually formed a variety of industrial tourism resources, such as walnut garden, chestnut garden, yew planting, airspace afforestation, big farms, second-generation wild boar farms, wineries, etc. (see Table 3).
3.3. The Spatial Differences of Tourism Resources in Danfeng County
The Dan-jiang River valley is sloping from northwest to southeast of Danfeng County. From north to south, there are three branches of Qin-ling Mountains, such as Mang Ridge, Liu Ridge and Hu Ridge. There are Danjiang River and its three major tributaries: Yinhua River, Wuguan River and Laojun River. Danfeng County is divided into three major units: the Dan-jiang River Valley, the North
Table 3. Main tourist resources in Danfeng County.
Source: natural tourism resources and some humanities tourism resources from Danfeng County Natural Landscape Directory (internal data), Danfeng County Tourism Bureau, December 2016; part of the humanities tourism resources from the field research.
Mountain Area and the South Mountain Area. The spatial difference of geomorphic type results in the spatial difference of the natural tourism resource. And the spatial difference of human tourism resources is caused by the influence of human activities. According to the combination of tourism resources, there are three different types of regions: the North Mountain Area, the Central Valley Area and the South Mountain Area.
The North Mountain Area is dominated by ecological tourism resources. This area lies in the south of the Yellow River and the Yangtze River watershed, high altitude and low degree of the influence of human activity, relatively preserved natural ecological environment, ecological tourism resources for the special tourism resources. The Wu-guan River Rare Animal Nature Reserve and Laolingou Primeval Forest are representative. And there are Wen-gou Gorge, Luosi Grand Canyon and other land landscape, as well as the Andrias Davidianus Breeding, Yew Cultivation and other special species of aquaculture tourism resources and Red Tourism Resources such as Red Twenty-two Conference sites and Red Twenty-two Army Battle Sites in the region.
The Central Valley area is dominated by cultural tourism resources. The Dan-jiang River in Danfeng County is the gateway from the Jiang-han Plain to the Guanzhong Plain. It is the only way for the ancient Southeast to connect with the Guanzhong region, the national political center. Human activities formed the ancient road culture, ancient buildings and other cultural tourism resources as the core of the region’s tourism resources. And there are remains ruins tourist resources such as Wuguan Ancient City, Chuanbang Hall, as well as hydrological tourism resources such as Dan-Jiang River rafting in the south area (Figure 2).
The South Mountain Area is dominated by terrain landscape. The main landform units in the South Mountain Area are Liu Ridge, Hu Ridge and the ridge valley. The tourism resources of the terrain landscape are the typical tourism resources in the South Mountain Area, such as the Shangyun Stone Provincial Geopark. In addition, the ridge valley in the South Mountain Area is an important channel for contacting the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River. In history, it has become the ruins heritage sites tourist resources, such as Zhulinguan Pass and Qinguan Ancient Road. During the revolutionary war, the red army was in this activity, and the Red Army Headquarters was a red tourism resource.
4. The Development Strategy of Whole Region Tourism in Danfeng County Oriented by Precision Poverty Alleviation
The development of tourism in Danfeng County from attractions to Whole Region tourism needs to accelerate the development of tourism resources within the county. The strategy of Whole Region tourism development oriented by precision poverty alleviation has certain characteristics in promoting the time and space of tourism resources development, industrial relations and poverty alleviation.
4.1. The Image of Global Tourism Positioning in Danfeng County
According to the characteristics of tourism resources and their comparative advantages, Danfeng County’s tourism will be built into a health center in Northwest China, and its tourism image will be defined as “the capital of healthy culture and the sunrise of Danfeng”. Danfeng County has unique advantages in the climatic conditions, drinking water quality, green food, climbing, landscapes, customs and other aspects from the characteristics of resources. Danfeng County is located on the southern slope of the Qinling Mountains, with a forest coverage rate of 68%. It is lightly contaminated by industries and cities. Its overall environmental quality is excellent and attractive to the tourists in large and medium-sized cities. Danfeng County is located at the south of the Yangtze River and the Yellow River watershed. It is a water source of the Hanjiang River, a tributary of the Yangtze River. Its surface water has not been polluted by the industry and has good drinking water quality. Danfeng County is rich in the kinds of crops, such as walnuts, chestnuts, kiwi and other fruits in resources. With less environmental pollution and a large number of original green food resources, it has great benefit to tourist health care. In addition, Danfeng County has beautiful and rich cultural tourism resources, which allows tourists to feel comfortable and conducive to health.
The global tourism in Danfeng County for the health and wellness for the development direction has a strong competitive edge from the view of comparative advantage. Qinling area where Danfeng County is located, has dense forests, gurgling streams and is cool in summer and a good place for summer vacation; due to the high forest coverage, low level of industrialization and the good air quality, it is regarded as a natural oxygen bar. This is lacking in the surrounding Guanzhong Plain, the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River Plain, and Xi’an, Wuhan, Chongqing and other cities, so the comparative advantages of climate tourism resources are obvious. Danfeng County is near Guanzhong area. Compared with Xi’an and Xianyang, the advantages of tourism resources in the ruins of the site are not obvious. The tourism in the whole area is based on the concept of health and wellness and has obvious comparative advantages. In terms of location, Danfeng is located in the eastern part of the Qinling Mountains and is closer to the major tourist destinations in the eastern coastal areas of China. Danfeng County is also the hub of traffic links between the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River and the Guanzhong Plain. Relative to other areas in the Qinling Mountains, health tourism development in Danfeng County has obvious geographical advantages.
4.2. The Promotion Stages of the Whole Region Tourism of Danfeng County
The whole region tourism is considered as the scale expansion and quality improvement of scenic spots tourism. Therefore, whole region tourism usually needs to be driven gradually by the development of scenic spots. The status of the whole region tourism and the situation of tourism development in Danfeng County determine the stages of the whole region tourism. According to the changes of tourists as Danfeng tourism destination and the actual consumption in the area, the whole region tourism Danfeng County is divided into three stages.
The first stage is the attachment style health tourism. The characteristic of this stage is that the health tourism resources and facilities are not the main reason for the tourist taking Danfeng as destination, but they enjoy the health tourism consumption after arriving. In reality, the resources that make tourists taking Danfeng as tourism destination are the Scenic Area of Di-hua culture area, Shang-yu culture area and Phoenix Crown Mountain, scenic spots of Danjiang River Rafting, Peach Valley mainly. At this stage, the focus of whole region tourism development is to improve the attractiveness of historical and cultural tourism resources in the Central Valley, improve tourism supporting facilities, guide tourists to increase consumption of health tourism, and gradually enhance the popularity and attractiveness of health preservation tourism resources in Danfeng County.
The second stage is the independent health tourism. The characteristic of this stage is health tourism resources and facilities are the main attraction for the tourists making Danfeng as tourism destination. The tourists take healthy tourism as the main purpose, and enjoy sightseeing, experience participation and other tourism consumption at the same time. In this stage, tourism resources development focus on developing new health tourism resources, constructing more supporting facilities, such as Wu-guan climbing project, Zhulinguan Ancient Road exploration project, Wu Guan RiverDrift project will be developed gradually, and their supporting facilities will be constructed. Meanwhile, and develop regional characteristic industries and construct distinctive industrial tourism projects.
The third stage is the expended health tourism. The characteristic of this stage is that the leisure and health tourism resources or facilities are the main attraction for the tourists taking Danfeng as destination. The variety of leisure and health tourism resources is enriching. In this stage, regional tourism development will focus on expending and strengthening the specialty industry the leisure and health related, relying on a series of major tourism projects to drive the development of the specialty industry, such as strengthening and expanding the existing grape planting and wine brewing and other related tourism projects, establishing tourism projects related to walnut industry, Chinese herbal medicine industry, special aquaculture and others.
4.3. The Effect of the Whole Tourism on Poverty Alleviation in Danfeng County
The effect of whole region tourism on the precise poverty alleviation based industrial association. As the image of the positioning in Danfeng County’s whole tourism is health and well-being, the development of global tourism will inevitably require the compression of existing cement, steel, mining industry, resource-intensive, capital-intensive, or large pollutant discharge of the industrial sector. Tourism-related service industries such as restaurants, hotels, transport and special crop farming, special breeding and agro-products process industries will be rapidly developed. These industries are labor-intensive industries with low requirements on the quality of the labor force and can attract a large amount of labor force. The development of global tourism is conducive to the employment of the labor force among the poor in Danfeng County. Because the poor labor force in Danfeng County has a small workforce of 194, accounting for only 0.49%, while the average workforce is huge, with 39,405 employees, accounting for 99.51% of the total labor force. The labor force employment rate of the poor population is only 42.26%. The average annual employment time in the county is only 4.584 months, and the average employment time in the town is as low as 3.307 months (see Table 3). Obviously, the development of global tourism can absorb more ordinary labor force, increase the employment in and outside of the county and the average employment time of employment in the town, and help to improve the effect of precision poverty alleviation.
The effect of the whole region tourism on the precise poverty alleviation based the promotion stage of the whole region tourism. The first phase of global tourism development will curb the development of secondary industries such as cement and steelmaking, which will have a negative impact on the employment of the poor. However, the development of global tourism will led to the development of service industries such as hotels, restaurants, transportation and so on, which can absorb more ordinary labor force. When the development of tourism in Danfeng County develops to the autonomous health tourism phase, the tourism industry will increase the size and absorb more ordinary labor force. When the development of global tourism expands to the type of health tourism phase and the scale of the characteristics of farming, specialty farming, agricultural products processing industry gets expanded, the absorb to general labor force will be more obvious. In other words, with the continuous development of global tourism, its poverty alleviation effect continues to increase.
The effect of the whole region tourism on the precise poverty alleviation based the spatial structure of whole region tourism. The development of global tourism in Danfeng County makes service facilities, tourism and passenger flow gathered in the county. The county tourism service industry proliferates to central town when gathered to a certain scale. The county, town center tourism service industry gather in general township and village after a certain extent. Population agglomeration will led to scale effect. People’s consumption needs will be better met, new jobs will be created and more poor laborers will be employed.
This paper analyzes the characteristics of the poverty-stricken population in Danfeng County, and the status of tourism resources in Danfeng County. Then it put forward the development strategy of the whole regional tourism based on the guidance of precise poverty alleviation in the County, and drew the following conclusions.
First, the whole region tourism and precise poverty alleviation can achieve good compatibility, and improve the effect of the precise poverty alleviation. The whole region tourism decision-making in poor areas should be based on the precise poverty oriented, and must be scientific planning, reasonable arrangement to make the precise poverty in full positive role.
Second, during the process of the whole region tourism development, the relationship of tourism industry and other industries must be dealt, to avoid the huge impact for other industries and affect the precise poverty alleviation effect. We should strengthen the technological transformation of the industries with higher resource consumption and more pollutant emissions and speed up the development of the green low-carbon industries related to tourism, so as to improve the effectiveness of precision poverty alleviation.
Third, in the implementation of the whole region tourism strategy, we should formulate relevant policies and measures, to absorb more labor force from the poor people to participate in it, so that the poor people can share the development dividends brought by the whole region tourism and improve the effect of precise poverty alleviation.
This research is supported by the project of philosophy and social science research in colleges and universities in Jiangsu province (No. 2016SJB840022).