1. Research Background
The increasingly severe employment pressure poses a challenge to the employment guidance work pattern in the traditional colleges and universities. Employment guidance changes are affected by many factors. In recent years the number of university graduates has gradually increased. The number of university graduates in North Henan province (Yubei) is expected to exceed 30,000 in 2018. The employment situation is very grim.
On one hand the restructuring and upgrading of the economic structure failed to absorb the large unemployed population in time. Under the severe and complicated domestic and international economic situations and the unfavorable environment in which the downward pressure generally increased, the restructuring of the economic structure in Yubei encountered some resistance. The change from labor-intensive industries to high-tech industries has a certain impact on the employment of college graduates in some areas. Some enterprises are in need of diversified personnel rather than traditional simple technical personnel, which indicate employers’ personnel needs diversify.
On the other hand, cities in northern Henan promulgated the “Opinions on Implementation of All-round Innovation Work for All-round Pushing Entrepreneurship” and other related documents. The government has actively promoted the new wave of “public entrepreneurship innovation” and “Internet +”, derived diversified new employment situations and rich employment methods such as making customers such as Anyang Teachers College “An Shizhong Chuang” (which has been successful Settled in 19 venture projects). However, most graduates’ employment concepts do not change accordingly. Some graduates still adhere to the traditional concept of “iron rice bowl” and are unable to shift from the single passive employment pattern to a diverse and active one. Employment guidance work in universities in Yubei is good, but there are still some problems.
2. Literature Review
Chen Lu proposed the construction of college employment guidance model under the new economic normal (Chen, 2017) . Some scholars also analyzed the transformation of traditional employment guidance in universities in the mobile Internet era (Li, 2017) . Wu Xuebing believes that in the context of the popularization of higher education, we should break through the traditional “seasonal promotion” mode and carry out employment guidance for college graduates with “career counseling model” (Zhao, 2010) . Jin Guoxiong studies and explores the academic planning education and career education mode for college students and put forward five practical models (Sun, 2008) . Zhai Bo proposed the selection and implementation of “full-time” employment guidance model for colleges and universities throughout the entire process (Zhai, 2011) . Tan Ying studies this problem from the perspective of graduates (Tan, 2014) .
In order to effectively display the status quo and problems of employment guidance under the situation of double-wounding, the author conducted a field survey on the employment guidance in universities in Yubei. Based on the survey data, this paper studies the problems existing in employment guidance in colleges and universities with the aim to find out the weakness and problems as well as the corresponding solutions. Based on the survey data, this paper studies the problems existing in employment guidance in colleges and universities with the aim to find out the weakness and problems as well as the corresponding solutions.
3. The Present Situation and Predicament of Employment Guidance Work in Universities in Yubei
In this study, the author conducted a field survey on the employment guidance of colleges and universities in Yubei, including Anyang Institute of Technology, Anyang Normal University, Henan Vocational College of Nursing, Anyang Vocational and Technical College. There are 400 students, 80 teachers, involving different majors, gender and grades. Questionnaire includes students’ basic information and the information of employment guidance, and covers the employment guidance form, content, effect, staff, mechanism and so on, including 30 choice questions. Recycling effective questionnaire 468, effective questionnaire recovery was 97.5%. Through the investigation we found the following questions:
1) Lack of personality and non-systematic content employment guidance
Employment guidance content focuses on career planning, employment concept education, employment information, employment policy, job search skills, entrepreneurial counseling and other content, less involved psychological adjustment, evaluation of the quality of college students and other content. Lack of special counseling and effective guidance on the individual characteristics of students and the specialties of local college students, the development of potential, the cultivation of entrepreneurial innovation ability, the guidance of employment concept and value orientation and the career planning, the guidance is not so effective. The content of most employment guidance is relatively simple. This simple and narrow guidance ignores the potential development of individual and limits interaction (Figure 1).
In order to change this backward state of work, many colleges and universities have delivered career guidance lectures and some related courses. But this kind of collective teaching ignores the individual development of students. Take Anyang Teachers College for the first semester of the 2016-2017 academic year as an example. Among total 26 classes there are only 3 in which the numbers of the students are from 100 to 200, and 7 are more than 200 people, including a giant class with total number 499 people. In the survey, 100% of the students chose to have taken the career guidance course―“College Students Career Planning”, career guidance courses coverage has reached full coverage. According to the data, 75% of students think the course is very important, 11% think it is not important, and 14% think it is generally important. However, interview shows that the employment guidance class is boring and boring. Most of the students are forced to go to class only after they have been named. Few people attended the class seriously and graduated from the contents of the employment guidance course. At
Figure 1. Content of employment guidance.
the same time, 98% of students think that the employment guidance course is the best one to help themselves only find a good job without further instruction.
2) A single way of employment guidance
Employment guidance is a long-term and systematic work, the employment guidance agencies in colleges and universities need continuous innovation and development with the help of various forms of employment guidance. There are a variety of employment guidance methods, including lectures, employment seminars, career planning, employment counseling, job fairs, entrepreneurship training, employment talks, etc., but 62.3% focus on job fairs, entrepreneurship practice training. The employment guidance work basically takes the form of “job information release” and “two-way choice” promotion and job fairs, etc. (two bi-annual meetings). Most of the channels are also limited to the release of employment information, preaching employment policies and job skills training (Figure 2).
3) Lack of employment guidance team and low quality of personnel
In conclusion, although in these colleges and universities there are special employment guidance agencies to provide graduates with employment guidance and popularize social experience, the employment guidance work has been developing slowly. Faced with a large number of graduates, the employment force appears very weak, the number of staff and graduates than the imbalance, it is difficult to carry out professional and personalized employment guidance services, full attention to the atmosphere of employment has not yet formed. The survey finds that in these four colleges and universities for each department there is only one part-time employment guidance teacher whose main job is ideological and political guidance. The ratio of employed mentors to students is 1:700.
Employment guidance is a highly specialized job. Teachers engaged in this
Figure 2. Ways of employment guidance.
work need to acquire knowledge concerning employment, career guidance, career planning, psychology, pedagogy, human resources development and management, and law. The truth is that there are dozens of majors in each department. This one teacher has to provide these students from different majors professional career guidance. Another truth is that most of these career guidance teachers haven’t received a complete and systematic training of career guidance, so that their personal qualities and working abilities are doubted. Only 10% of them have senior titles (Figure 3).
4) One-sided entrepreneurship ideas
Entrepreneurship education has become an important content of employment guidance education in colleges and universities. In all four schools, innovative and entrepreneurial curriculums have been set up, while professional skills competitions have been used to expand student entrepreneurship. However, the survey finds that only 23% of students are aware of the procedures and conditions needed to start their own businesses. 73% of graduates consider themselves as “willing or very willing” to start their own businesses, but 53% of graduates the risks of starting a business are not known.
5) Unsatisfied effect
The survey found that the general evaluation of students’ employment guidance in their schools generally reflected as “general” is 57%, 22% “satisfactory” and 21% “unsatisfactory”. This set of data more clearly shows the role of school employment guidance. Among the surveyed graduates, only 16% of the students think that the employment guidance of the school is more helpful or helpful to their employment, while 76% of the students think that the general or the help is small, and 8% of the students think it is not helpful (Figure 4).
4. To Innovate Employment Guidance Mechanism in Universities in Yubei
1) To rich employment guidance contents and methods
We could use a variety of ways to enrich the employment guidance form and
Figure 3. Career guidance staff professional distribution.
Figure 4. The general evaluation of students’ employment guidance.
offer personalized guidance to the student groups of different characteristics. While employment guidance helps students to find a job, it is more important for students to understand themselves correctly, help them to understand themselves, understand their own interests, personalities and abilities, analyze themselves from the perspective of professional needs, and make students be more rational in choosing a career so that they become talents who could truly adapt to social development.
The full employment guidance requires opening employment guidance courses at the very beginning. The employment guidance should be combined with their majors and school activities to guide and educate the students. University career guidance runs through college life, and a new concept of “full career guidance” should be established. It means the career guidance work should not only focus on the work of college seniors. More importantly, from the day the freshmen enter into the school it will be four-year guidance of according to their own characteristics. We should help them to find direction and position in future employment with different focuses on different stages so that full implementation of college career planning could be realized by self-design and self-shaping.
By visiting important employers, sending e-mail, telephone communication and employment of graduates return visit graduates and employers and other forms we could conduct follow-up quality survey of graduates. Professional relevance in the employment of graduates, job satisfaction and employer satisfaction with graduates and other aspects could be scientifically evaluated. Through feedback, we can find out the deficiencies and carry out better employment guidance work based on the original work. Emphasis should also be given to employment information collection and publishing through means of invitation, website promotion, telephone and e-mail and other forms to publish and collect a variety of recruitment information. Universities in north Henan have “double election” job market to provide students a broader career path. Bad business operations should be prohibited.
2) To build a diversified employment guidance platform under mobile Internet era
Career guidance should not only be conducted in a teaching mode, but also be integrated with the Internet to establish interactive platforms for students such as QQ, WeChat and Weibo to increase the opportunities for teachers and students to exchange ideas. Leading students to participate in VBSE training, Challenge Cup and other projects is helpful to increase their social practice opportunities knowledge about their future work environment. We should strengthen the application of employment and entrepreneurship information system to guide students to serve the community and demand-oriented market. We should create a full range of three-dimensional public employment information service platform to form online and offline all-day employment consulting services network so that informatization of employment management and services could be achieved. College employment guidance should be combined with public employment and entrepreneurship services.
3) To establish high-quality part-time vocational guidance team system with professionals and experts as the core
We should attach importance to employment guidance in colleges and universities and establish a perfect employment guidance system by building a professional and responsible guidance team and decrease the number of part-time teachers and non-professionals in the employment guidance team. We should also regularly train these instructors and change the training content along with the development and changes of social policies. We should optimize career guidance curriculum system to adapt to changes in the times to meet the changing needs of society. We should also strengthen information sharing and promote the timeliness of employment. The aim is to establish high-quality part-time vocational guidance team system with professionals and experts as the core.
4) To promote college students to start their own businesses and to pay attention to the guidance of entrepreneurial philosophy
The new form of mass entrepreneurship in Yubei and the new form of “Internet +” injected more entrepreneurial vitality into this area and provided more employment channels and development platforms. This requires that the orientation and direction of employment guidance in colleges and universities also change accordingly. The new policy has brought new employment conditions and provided ample job opportunities. Employment guidance in universities in north Henan should be further linked with the government’s policies and make full use of the various advantages allowed by policies such as policy advantages and resource advantages to guide students in employment and entrepreneurship. Employment guidance in colleges and universities can be developed toward innovation, guidance of students’ innovative ideas, their awareness and ability to conduct innovative and pioneering education in professional education and employment guidance courses. Meanwhile we should popularize the knowledge and experience of innovation and entrepreneurship so that blind entrepreneurship could be avoided.
In these respects, Anyang Teachers College provides more experience for employment guidance. Anyang Teachers College has successfully settled 19 business projects in June 2016. Chong Chuang Space is committed to create a business platform for the vast number of entrepreneurs in north Henan. In order to create more space for creativity, we should give full play to the role of social forces and make effective use of the favorable conditions of independent innovation demonstration zones, hi-tech zones, apply innovation parks, technological incubators, universities and research institutes to achieve a combination of innovation and entrepreneurship, both online and offline. The combination of incubation and investment provides entrepreneurs with a good work space, cyberspace, social space and resources.
In 2015 the School of Entrepreneurship was established to provide employment and entrepreneurial development for students. It also conducts quality assessment, capacity development, simulation training and practical operation of employment and entrepreneurship, and provides entrepreneurial office space and guidance. At the same time it actively carries out innovation and entrepreneurship contest, VBSE training, Challenge Cup and other projects to enhance students’ practical experience with personalized service. Anyang Teachers College has successfully settled 19 business projects in June 2016.
Through the above analysis, the survey finds that there are some common problems in four colleges and universities. They are the single content and form of college employment guidance, unscientific curriculum, low level of personalization of career guidance and the imperfect employment guidance team. Thus some measures are put forward such as changing the students’ employment concept, building a diversified employment guidance platform, broadening employment channels, setting up a scientific and rational employment guidance courses, establishing a systematic employment guidance, promoting the concept of entrepreneurship and so on.
Philosophy and Social Sciences Planning Project of Henan Province in 2014 (2014BJJ084); Research and Cultivation Fund Project of Anyang Normal University in 2016 (AKNU-KP-B13), 2017 Henan Science and Technology Department Soft Science Project (172400410045).