Back
 MSA  Vol.8 No.13 , December 2017
Study the Influence of UV-Irradiation on the Photo Stability of Pure and Plasticized Poly (4-Vinyl Biphenyl) in Solid Films
Abstract: The effect of UV irradiation and blending with phthalate and terephthalate plasticizers on the photo-stability of Poly (4-vinyl biphenyl) was studied at different intervals of irradiation time and in presence of air. The increase in irradiation time on the photodegradation of polymer thin films caused a change in the intensity and shape of the fluorescence band. It has been found that the stability of the polymer decreases with the increase of irradiation time, and to increases with the increase of the amount of added phthalate and terephthalate plasticizers, which is evidence of polymer photodegradation. The FT-IR spectra of irradiated pure and blended polymer with phthalate and terephthalate plasticizers showed a decrease in some absorption bands and increase in the other bands, this is also another factor for the occurrence of photo degradation of the irradiated polymer. The increase in the intensity of absorption of carbonyl and hydroxyl region, indicates a possible photogegradation of polymeric chains and the formation of alcohols, aliphatic ketones and to the increase in the number of (C=C) that resulted from hydrogen abstraction during chains-scission.
Cite this paper: Al Ani, K. , Ramadhan, A. and Khanfar, S. (2017) Study the Influence of UV-Irradiation on the Photo Stability of Pure and Plasticized Poly (4-Vinyl Biphenyl) in Solid Films. Materials Sciences and Applications, 8, 1027-1052. doi: 10.4236/msa.2017.813075.
References

[1]   Bertini, F., Audisio, G. and Kiji, J. (1995) Thermal Degradation of Chlorinated Polystyrenes. Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis, 28, 205-217.
https://doi.org/10.1016/0165-2370(93)00774-H

[2]   Lucas, P.C. and Porter, R.S. (1989) Auto Inhibition in Polystyrene Photo-Oxidtion. Polymer Degradation and Stability, 26, 203-208.
https://doi.org/10.1016/0141-3910(89)90073-6

[3]   Ranby, B. and Rabek, J.F. (1974) Studies on the Photo-Oxidation Mechanism of Polymers. I. Photolysis and Photo-Oxidation of Polystyrene. Journal of Polymer Science, Polymer, Chemistry Edition, 12, 273-294.
https://doi.org/10.1002/pol.1974.170120203

[4]   Torikai, A., Takeuchi, A. and Fueki, K. (1986) The Effect of Temperature on the Photodegradation of Polystyrene. Polymer Degradation and Stability, 14, 367-375.
https://doi.org/10.1016/0141-3910(86)90040-6

[5]   Weir, N.A. (1978) Reactions of Hydroxyl Radical with Polystyrene. European Polymer Journal, 14, 9-14.
https://doi.org/10.1016/0014-3057(78)90144-1

[6]   Stivala, S.S., Kimum, J. and Reich, L. (1983) Degradation and Stability of Polymers. In: Jellinek, H.G., Ed., Aspects of Degradation and Stabilization of Polymers, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1-66.

[7]   Bera, M., Rivaton, A., Gandon, G. and Gardette, J.L. (2000) Photo-Oxidation of Poly (P-Xylene). European Polymer Journal, 36, 1753-1764.
https://doi.org/10.1016/S0014-3057(99)00258-X

[8]   David, C., Baeyens-Volant, D., Delaunois, G., Lu-Vinh, Q., Piret, W. and Geuskens, G. (1978) Photo-Oxidation of Polymers-III Molecular Weight Changes in the Photolysis and Photooxidation of Polystyrene. European Polymer Journal, 14, 501-507.
https://doi.org/10.1016/0014-3057(78)90037-X

[9]   Al Ani, K.E. and Ramadhan, A.E. (2008) Photodegradation of Plasticized Poly (Para-Substituted Styrene) in Solution. Polymer Degradation and Stability, 93, 1590-1596.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.polymdegradstab.2008.04.010

[10]   Al Ani, K.E. and Ramadhan, A.E. (2010) Study of the Influence of UV-Irradiation on the Photodegradation of Plasticized Poly (Para-Tert-Butylstyrene) Films. International Journal of Material Research, 101, 1554-1562.
https://doi.org/10.3139/146.110434

[11]   White, K.R. and Shyichuk, A.V. (2007) Effect of Stabilization on Scission and Cross-Linking Rate Changes during Photo-oxidation of Polypropylene. Polymer Degradation and Stability, 92, 2095-2101.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.polymdegradstab.2007.07.013

[12]   Mailhot, B. and Gardette, J.L. (1992) Polystyrene Photo-Oxidation-1: Identification of the IR-Absorbing Photoproducts Formed at Short and Long Wavelength. Macromolecules, 25, 4119-4126.
https://doi.org/10.1021/ma00042a012

[13]   Allen, N.S. and Edge, M. (1992) Fundamentals of Polymer Degradation and Stability. Elsevier Applied Science Publishing LTD.

[14]   Tamai, T., Hashida, I., Ichinose, N., Kawanishi, S., Inoue, H. and Mizuno, K. (1996) UV-Irradiation of Thin Film of Polystyrene Derivatives: Formation of Carboxylic Group and Cross-Linking from 4-Trimethylsilylmethyl Substituent. Polymer, 37, 5525-5528.
https://doi.org/10.1016/S0032-3861(96)00438-7

[15]   Geuskens, G., Bastin, P., Lu-Vinh, Q. and Rens, M. (1981) Photo-Oxidation of Polymers: Part IV—Influence of the Processing Conditions on the Photo-Oxidation Stability of Polystyrene. Polymer Degradation and Stability, 3, 295-306.
https://doi.org/10.1016/0141-3910(81)90025-2

[16]   Geuskens, G., Baeyens-Volant, D., Delaunois, G., Lu-Vinh, Q., Piret, W. and David, C. (1978) Photo-Oxidation of Polymers—I: A Quantitative Study of the Chemical Reactions Resulting from Irradiation of Polystyrene at 253.7 nm in the Presence of Oxygen. European Polymer Journal, 14, 291-297.
https://doi.org/10.1016/0014-3057(78)90051-4

[17]   Tse, K.C., Ng, F.M. and Yu, K.N. (2006) Photo-Degradation of DAVC by UV-Radiation at Various Wavelengths. Polymer Degradation and Stability, 91, 2380-2388.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.polymdegradstab.2006.03.017

[18]   McNeill, C. and Coskun, M. (1987) Structure and Stability of Halogenated Polymers: Part 2-Chain-Chlorinated Polystyrene. Polymer Degradation and Stability, 18, 213-224.
https://doi.org/10.1016/0141-3910(87)90002-4

[19]   Al Ani, K.E. and Ramadhan, A.E. (2010) Plasticization Effect on the Photodegradation of Poly (4-Chlorostyrene) and Poly (4-Bromostyrene) Films. Materials Sciences and Applications, 1, 358-368. https://doi.org/10.4236/msa.2010.16052

[20]   Weir, N.A. and Milkie, T.H. (1979) Photochemistry of Ring-Substituted Polystyrenes. II. Photolysis of Poly (p-Fluoro, p-Chloro, and p-Bromostyrene). Journal of Polymer Science: Polymer Chemistry Edition, 17, 3735-3749.
https://doi.org/10.1002/pol.1979.170171129

[21]   Al Ani, K.E. and Anabtawi, M. (2012) UV-Irradiation Effect on the Photodegradation of Plasticized Poly (Ortho, Meta and Para-Fluorostyrene) Isomers in Solid Films. International Journal of Chemistry, 4, 62-84.
https://doi.org/10.5539/ijc.v4n5p62

[22]   Rosenberg, R.A., Simons, J.K., Chen, J.M. and Taylor, J.W. (1993) Fluorescence Studies of the Vacuum Ultraviolet, Synchrotron Radiation-Induced Photochemistry of Polystyrene. Macromolecules, 26, 3262-3266.
https://doi.org/10.1021/ma00065a003

[23]   Al Ani, K.E., Ramadhan, A.E. and Al Sieadi, W.N. (2015) Fourier-Transformation Inferred Spectroscopic Study of Plasticization Effects on the Photodegradation of Poly (Ortho, Meta, and Para-Fluorostyrene) Isomers Films. Journal of Vinyl and Additives Technology.

[24]   Al Ani, K.E., Ramadhan, A.E. and Anabtawi, M. (2014) Irradiation Effect on Stability of Plasticized Poly (Fluorostyrene) Isomers in Solution. International Journal of Photochemistry, 1, 1-12.
https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/536068

[25]   Weir, N.A., Kutok, P. and Whiting, K. (1989) Some Aspects of the Long-Wave Photo-Oxidation of Polystyrenes. Polymer Degradation and Stability, 24, 247-256.
https://doi.org/10.1016/0141-3910(89)90035-9

[26]   Wypych, G. (2012) Handbook of Plasticizers. 2nd Edition, Chapter 12, Chem Tec Publishing, Toronto.

[27]   Torikai, A., Takeuchi, T. and Fueki, K. (1983) Photodegradation of Polystyrene and Polystyrene Containing Benzophenone. Polymer Photochemistry, 3, 307-320.
https://doi.org/10.1016/0144-2880(83)90038-6

[28]   Kowal, J. and Nwakowska, M. (1982) Photo-Oxidation of Poly-styrene in Dichloromethane Solvent. Polymer, 23, 281-282.
https://doi.org/10.1016/0032-3861(82)90316-0

[29]   Subramanian, K. (2002) Photodecomposition of Poly (Styrene Peroxide). European Polymer Journal, 38, 1167-1173. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0014-3057(01)00297-X

[30]   Al Ani, K.E. and Hawi, M.A. (2009) Effect of Plasticization on the Photodegradation of Poly (Para-Methoxystyrene) Films. Journal of Material Science, 44, 2674-268.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10853-009-3350-x

[31]   Afrah, E.R. (2015) Effects of Added Phthalate Plasticizers on Photodegradation of Irradiated Poly (α-Methylstyrene) Films. Journal of Polymer Engineering, 35, 159-167.

[32]   Al Safi, S.A., Mouamin, M.T., Al Sieadi, W.N. and Al Ani, K.E. (2014) Irradiation Effect on Photodegradation of Pure and Plasticized Poly (4-Methylstyrene) in Solid Films. Materials Sciences and Applications, 1, 358-368.

[33]   Torikai, A., Kobatake, T., Okisaki, F. and Shuyama, H. (1995) Photodegradation of Polystyrene Containing Flame-Retardant Wavelength Sensitivity and Efficiency of Degradation. Polymer Degradation and Stability, 50, 261-267.
https://doi.org/10.1016/0141-3910(95)00143-3

[34]   Choi, W.M., Jung, I.D., Sik, C. and Cho, W. (1998) Syntheses and Properties of Photodegradable Polystyrene-Containing Carbonyl Group. Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 67, 1237-1242.
https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1097-4628(19980214)67:7<1237::AID-APP11>3.0.CO;2-Z

[35]   Kaczmarek, H. (1995) Photodegradation of Polystyrene and Poly (Vinyl Acetate) Blends—I. Irradiation of PS/PVAc Blends by Polychromatic Light. European Polymer Journal, 31, 1037-1042. https://doi.org/10.1016/0014-3057(95)00094-1

[36]   Tovborg Jensen, J.P. and Kops, J.J. (1981) Energy Transfer in Connection with the Photo-Oxidation of Polystyrene and Its Blends with Poly (2, 6-Dimethyl-1, 4-Phenylene Oxide). Journal of Polymer Science: Polymer Chemistry Edition, 19, 2765-2771.
https://doi.org/10.1002/pol.1981.170191112

[37]   Kaczmarek, H. (1995) Photodegradation of Polystyrene and Poly (Vinyl Acetate) Blends. II. Irradiation of PS/PVAc Blends by Fluorescent Lamp. European Polymer Journal, 31, 1175-1184.
https://doi.org/10.1016/0014-3057(95)00095-X

[38]   Kuzina, S.I. and Mikhailov, A.I. (2001) Photo-Oxidation of Polymers 4. The Dual Mechanism of Polystyrene Photo-Oxidation: A Hydroperoxide and a Photochain One. European Polymer Journal, 37, 2319-2325.
https://doi.org/10.1016/S0014-3057(01)00028-3

[39]   Weir, N.A. and Whiting, K. (1989) Initial Steps in the Photolysis and Photo-Oxidation of Polystyrene. European Polymer Journal, 25, 291-295.
https://doi.org/10.1016/0014-3057(89)90234-6

[40]   Kwon, J.H., Shin, S., Kim, K.H., Cho, M.J., Kim, K.N., Choi, D.H. and Ju, B.K. (2009) Organic Thin Film Transistors using 6, 13-bis (tri-isopropylsilylethynyl) Pentacene Embedded into Polymer Binders. Applied Physics Letters, 94, Article ID: 013506.

[41]   Al Ani, K.E. and Suleiman, A.M. (2007) Substituent Effect on Fluorescence Quenching of Polystyrene Derivatives by Polymeric Plasticizers. Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology, A, Chemistry, 188, 177-184.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jphotochem.2006.12.010

[42]   Al Ani, K.E. and Ramadhan, A.E. (2015) Kinetic Study of Photodegradation of Plasticized Polystyrene in Solid Films. Materials Sciences and Applications Journal, 6, 617-633.

[43]   La Mantia, F.P. (1986) Influence of Processing Conditions on the Photo-Oxidation of Polystyrene Films. Polymer Degradation and Stability, 15, 283-290.
https://doi.org/10.1016/0141-3910(86)90075-3

[44]   Zhang, Z.F., Hu, X.Z. and Luo, Z.B. (1996) Wavelength Sensitivity of Photo-Oxidation of Polypropylene. Polymer Degradation and Stability, 51, 93-97.
https://doi.org/10.1016/0141-3910(95)00210-3

[45]   Luengo, C., Allen, N.S., Edge, M., Wilkinson, A., Parellada, M., Barrio, J.A. and Santa, R. (2006) Photo-Oxidative Degradation Mechanisms in Styrene-Ethylene- Butadiene-Styrene (SEBS) Triblock Copolymer. Polymer Degradation and Stability, 91, 947-956.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.polymdegradstab.2005.06.017

[46]   Rabek, J.F. (1995) Polymer Photodegradation, Mechanisms and Experimental Methods. Chapman and Hall, London. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-011-1274-1

[47]   Millan, M.D., Locklin, J., Fulghum, T., Baba, A. and Advincula, R.C. (2003) Polymer Thin Film Photodegradation and Photochemical Cross-Linking FT-IR Imaging Evanescent Waveguide Spectroscopy, and QCM Investigation. Polymer, 46, 5556-5568.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.polymer.2005.05.050

[48]   Lactose, J., Carlson, D.J., Falicki, S. and Wiles, M.D. (1991) Poly-ethylene Hydroperoxide Decomposition Products. Polymer Degradation and Stability, 34, 309-323.
https://doi.org/10.1016/0141-3910(91)90125-B

[49]   Szarka, G., Domjan, A., Szakas, T. and Ivan, B. (2012) Oil from Poly (Vinyl Chloride): Unprecedented Degradative Chain Scission under Mild Thermooxidative Conditions. Polymer Degradation and Stability, 97, 1787-1793.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.polymdegradstab.2012.06.005

[50]   Szarka, G. and Ivan, B. (2013) Thermal Properties, Degradation and Stability of Poly (Vinyl Chloride) Predegraded Thermooxidative in the Presence of Dioctyl Phthalate Plasticizer. Journal of Macromolecular Science Part A Pure and Applied Chemistry, 50, 208-214.
https://doi.org/10.1080/10601325.2013.742804

 
 
Top