JHRSS  Vol.5 No.4 , December 2017
Does Fishing Restructuring Provide Reliability to Food Security? The European Union-Morocco Case
ABSTRACT
The aim of this article is to show a comparative between the European Union and Morocco about to link the foreign fishing policies in the domestic policies of each government. These policies must follow the international restructuring guidelines of the fishing industry with the intention to preserve and respect the marine natural resources. In this perspective, it is necessary to visualize in which way governments will attend such initiatives as well as the results derived from its application. The results found refers that governments had implemented some programs, projects, strategies and instances to comply with fishing restructuring.

1. Introduction

The International Community (IC) nowadays faces an issue which encompasses the points about economic interdependence-environment-natural resources; a triad which afflicts humanity, which for was raised in a variety of Multilateral Conferences (MC) in the searching of the options to ensure the environment, food and life.

Sea’s pollution has confronted States and Intergovernmental Organizations (IO) in the dilemma to create necessary spaces to debate as well as to process strategies needed for their contention. This controversial international scenario, the most catastrophic of recent times, is marking earth’s production and sea’s life.

The European Union and Morocco have assumed their environmental commitment through the Kioto Protocol (KP), interacting with projects like: Clean Development Mechanism (CDMs) and Certified Emission Reductions (CERs), furthermore they attend the Doha Round’s strategies regarding natural resource preservation. For what, both the European Union and Morocco assume their responsibility to the International Community as well as to their own populations offering alternatives in foreign and domestic policies as a sign of effective governance against food, job and health insecurity.

Derived from these established policies, States devise fishing restructuration in an imperative action that entails the decision making on legislation, trends and commitment as well as on strategies that encourage the marine environment preservation, and consequently, food security. For that reason, each action must have an impact on programs or projects that attend the readjustment on topics such as: port infrastructure, amount of fishing, Veda respect, coastal monitoring regarding illegal fishing as well as protection for endangered species.

According to these guidelines, the analysis of the European Union and Morocco takes place regarding to their implemented policies on the industry, considering that States have the availability and commitment to achieve results though, because of other circumstances, the applicable strategies are unable to consolidate the marine resource rescue due to the: geographical, political, economic and social environment that involves the fishing industry.

2. Fishing Reordering: Comparative between the European Union and Morocco

Fishing reordering goes to take actions in balance, regulate, educate in processing and procedures to fish in order to keep food security.

The environment and natural resource improvement is strengthened and decreed through a legal platform based on Public International Law, Law of the Sea, Environmental International Law and the Code of Conduct. From this, a range of actions emerges to balance, regulate, educate and raise awareness the economic international reordering in relation to the environment.

Additional to this regulatory basis, the Regional Fisheries Management Organizations (RFMO) are contemplated and established around the world with the aim to support States with statistic data so they can make decisions regarding fishing activity; each State interacts with the RFMO that concern to it.

Furthermore is of vital importance to consider the supply-demand presented in each State, since the fish and seafood consumption determines the State’s strategies to respect, about to exploit or take care of their coastline.

2.1. European Union Reordering

For the EU the fishing activity means a vulnerable sector since the environmental conditions until the supply-demand. Then the European Union has to obtain the necessary strategies to achieve a balance and two essential objectives: contribute to the environmental improvement and at the same time to obtain the natural product that it community demands.

With these parameters, the EU drives, involves and attends the requirements that are manifested on the diverse Multilateral Conferences dedicated to fishing reordering, such as the meetings of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Seas (UNCLOS), the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) as well as the Regional Fisheries Management Organizations (RFMO). Once the foreign policies are reconciled, the EU attaches the responsibility of their implementation to their agencies or mechanisms of fishing policy, creating, in this way, the Integrated Maritime Policy (IMP), the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) which established the Common Fisheries Policy (CFP), the Fisheries Management Programs (FMP) and the corresponding financial instances which provides the financing for the programs adaptation.

For its effectiveness, programs and projects are applicable to all the Member States, therefore, is detected that the changes as well as the restructuring provoke alterations on their fishing normative and administration. The European Union Fishing Policy is based on important lines such as: Regional Fisheries Management Organizations1, globally instituted since the seventies, as well as by the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Seas (UNCLOS) on 1982 and the Code of Conduct and Fishing on 1995 by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), implementing the EU their reordering policy through the Green and White Books arisen from the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Seas (UNCLOS)2.

According to Europe (2014) [1] the Intervention of the EU on Regional Fisheries Management Organizations is detected on guarantee the sustainable management of fishing resources of the countries with a fishing agreement with them, as well as the interests representing of the EU in the topic. The EU mainly contributes in six tuna RFMO (IATTC, ICCAT, WCPFC, and IOTC) which corresponds to its region, another eleven in other items and spaces. The European Commission (2014) [2] indicates that, all of them have made the EU to be present in the control and management of the resources at the global level.

From another perspective, the EU strengthen their fishing policies subscribing two International Agreements related with the fishing; the first one is the World Summit on Sustainable Development (2002) which leads to reduce fishing by 20153, to set a maximum sustainable yield as well as apply a criteria based on the environment and the fishing management. The EU participates in multilateral agreements such as; Convention on Biological Diversity and the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES).

Furthermore, according to the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD 2013) [3] , Europe launches their Integrated Maritime Policy (IMP) establishing an optimum sustainable development of maritime activities. The IMP integrates marine knowledge, management, and space surveillance of the Mediterranean, Baltic and Atlantic areas. The principle actions are destined to maximize the resources of oceans and seas, innovation, quality and new technologies, seeking to promote the European competitiveness and leadership on marine issues, both domestic and international.

This European fishing position, according to the Green Book (2001) [4] , has prompted the region to invest on deep-sea fishing but also has prompted the review and the provision of a reform to the Common Fisheries Policy (CFP) 2001-2012 to face how to solve structural problems of the sector such as: overexploited fish stocks, fleet fragility, non-attractive remuneration employments and the precarious situation of many communities depending on fishing. In that case, Gallastegui, MC et al. (1999) [5] points out that the Common Fisheries Policy (CFP) establishes fishing quota for each Member State and manages the International Agreements in the fisheries field.

According to European Legislation, the Common Fisheries Policy’s implementation, which share the same legal basis with the Common Agricultural Policy, starts from the principle that Member States count with waters under their sovereignty, benefit from the possibility of the limit of the twelve marine miles, have to adapt their fishing capacity to set up a balance between capacity and fishing possibilities, through the non-replacement of vessels with public grants. Similarly the Rule 2371/2002 lays the foundation of the Common Fisheries Policy (CFP) with the aim to guarantee a sustainable exploitation of living aquatic resources at an economic, environmental and social level. The measures refers to the conservation and protection of the: fish stock, marine ecosystem, water access, resources, fleet, control of activities, decision making structure and the stakeholders participation in the whole political process.

Alongside, the European Legislation (2006) [6] strengthens all of this structure with the Rule 1198/2006, a financial platform to support all the adjustments, the European Fisheries Fund (EFF). This organization has proportioned economic support to facilitate the reform and restructuring that the Common Fisheries Policy needed during the period 2007/2013. In agreement, the Official Journey of the European Union (2005) [7] establish that this fund replace the Financial Instrument for Fisheries Guidance (FIFG) and the European Agricultural Fund for Rural Development (EAFRD).

The European Fisheries Fund’s actions, following the precedent of the Financial Instrument for Fisheries Guidance and the European Agricultural Fund for Rural Development, are destined to guarantee; fishing activities, resource’s sustainable exploitation, balance the fleet’s capacity, promote domestic fishing, prioritize rural development in transformation, marketing, reinforce fishing companies, benefit the environment’s protection, conserve marine resources and to improve quality of life in the fishing areas. All of this in the framework of the priority policies of adaptation of the common fishing fleet, aquaculture, domestic fish, transformation, marketing, fishing sustainable development and technical assistance.

The European Legislation indicates that, the common vessels benefits from the same free access to waters than to the other resources, except from the twelve coastal miles from which the Member States have their sovereignty. It also indicates that, a European regime of control exists to guarantee the respect of the Common Fisheries Policy’s rules among the whole production chain; this is, from the ship to the retailer.

This procedure from the Common Fisheries Policy, the European Commission (2014) [8] inserts it in two fundamental pillars: the system of the Total Allowable Catches (TACs) and the Fisheries Management Programs (FMP). The Council of Fisheries Ministers set annually the Total Allowable Catches applying a relative stability refereed to country/population percentages that are distributed among the European Union members in form of quota, which are divided transparently among fishmongers. The Commission’s strategy is that the member States of the EU count with the advantage of trade this quota among them, with the restriction of suspend the fishing when they have spent the available quota of a specie.

Similarly the Commission (2014) [9] confirms that multiannual plans have the aim to adjust the capacity-quota, natural resource, tonnage and to enhance the fleet as well as to provide structural assistance for investment projects selection, market policies for fishing and aquaculture on aspects like: pricing and price stabilization and control of fishing licenses.

Villasante, S. (2009) [10] argues that in the Fisheries Management Programs mechanism exist four programs: fleet modernization, control system, scientific sustenance about reductions and progress reports. However, the implementation and results of the Fisheries Management Programs are considered precarious because of factors that exist since its inception. In this respect, García, M. (2008) [11] adduces that this defects are: territorial (because of the exclusion of some territories), instrumental (not comparable objectives), material (productive subsector’s guard), structural (assistance for the fishing fleet adaptation), methodological (continuous reviews and modifications) and temporal (delay in the adoption and reviews of the programs).

Ortega, M. et al. (2011) [12] infers that the weaknesses of the Fisheries Management Programs implemented were the result of an inadequate use, distribution, sustainable and/or balanced benefit of the resources. In addition, the Fisheries Management Programs have been not enough to control the catch, since there is no consistency between the objectives that were declared to the proposed mechanisms.

This recent critique about the Fisheries Managements Programs failure is also attributed to the lack of willingness from the States to face the weaknesses: to facilitate complete information, to implement common decisions, the objectives determination and the lack of sanctions for States failure; all of this make that some does not feel obligated to implement the fishing policy’s normativity (European Parliament 2001) [13] .

In the same way the Parliament supports the mentioned above, with the Fisheries Management IV inform, last of its kind, that reports the anomalies founded along all the FMP. This reflection has enabled to generate proposals of improvement to adopt clear and precise criteria about fleet capacity and categories. Similarly are defined; criteria, tonnage measures and propulsive power to be harmonized with the capacity, the use of instruments to compel the States to respect the dispositions of fleet reduction, reinforce the instruments to achieve the objectives marked on the Green Book and to challenge the States when they are not subject to the provisions by the Fishing Commission.

While it is true that according to the Parliament, the Fisheries Managements Programs have had discrepancies on their implementation and operability, must be taken into account that the European Union Fishing Policy itself understand these programs as an element to develop in the long-term. However, the main contradiction emerges when this long-term vision needs to be developed with a short-term policy of managed and awarded support.

Villafante argues that to give veracity to the managing of information and the implementation of control to the stated objectives, the EU had the need to substitute this program for a less complex system; the now called reference levels. For which the FAO (1988) [14] reconfirm that the information and processed statistics must be based on reliable scientific data available for States, through which must be provide, set the boundaries for each fish stock and choose to safe and appropriate measures to avoid the level’s excess, with the purpose to take care of the natural resources stocks.

Within the stock’s item, the FAO indicates that, the consumption trends in the EU show that the tuna, salmon, cod and shrimp are the most consume species. These products are considered by importation, for what its increase makes the EU dependent from outsourcing. In regard to another species, the EU’s production covers the domestic demand.

With these indicatives and with the firm purpose to promote the sustainable development, the EU is in the need to execute the fishing restructuring, facing the supply-demand tension and the redesign of the projects that help to promote the resource safety.

The EU continues to intensify the strategies to achieve sustainable development through the reassessment processes of the Common Fisheries Policy (CFP). Fishing grounds are object of analysis from a new and wider marine and environmental perspective, working for; ecologic sustainability of extra-European fishing grounds, management and the responsible exploitation of resources.

To this respect, the European Environment Agency (EEA 2010) [15] exposes that it is important to analyze how this new approach fit to ensure the European fishing grounds on the actual international regime. Furthermore the European Market Observatory for Fisheries and Aquaculture Products (EUMOFA 2014) [16] contributes with indicatives, showed on Table 1, in which is observed the actual position of the EU on global production, compared with the other producer countries.

According to this data, is reconfirmed that, by 2011, China, Indonesia, India and Peru occupy the first places on fishing productivity. The EU position is worldwide considerable, although is far from the main producers. Therefore, the

Table 1. The EU in the world: Worldwide production on 2011 (1000 tons).

Source: EUMOFA: The EU in the world.-World production in 2011.

short-term issue of the EU is determined in; continue with their programs on sustainable development attached to the Common Fisheries Policy, keep their worldwide position of leadership and continue to cover their fishing demand.

These conditions lead the EU to reinforce their aquaculture activities. In the table above is observed that China bases their productivity on aquaculture and not in extraction, whereas the EU’s strengthen is derived from extraction. Therefore, according to the EU need of cover the community demand, the aquaculture sector is the one that can give an answer to the Community.

In the same way, the EU has to have special care in the international fishing producer regions since the fish stocks depend on them. Therefore the management of the sector must be shared, to ensure the fishing the environmental measures must be implemented and define the fishing partnerships needed to cover the foreign and domestic demand.

According to the statistics of EUMOFA, Europe continues to be an important consumer market of sea products. Just in 2011, 12.3 million of tons were consumed, with a value of 52.2 billion of euros; it is considered the first importer since it achieve a worldwide 24% as well as it per capita consume that was of 24.5 kg.

Similarly, there are various differences in the consumption preferences of Member States, but the population’s spending preference is still the fish. Aquaculture decrease a 5% in 2011, correlated with the increase of the 3% of the product’s import between 2011-2012, coming principally from Norway and China.

The case of Morocco will be analyzed in the next subparagraph, its objectives in fishing policy, the actions and the mechanisms that the Moroccan government has considered to achieve the enforcement of the fishing international law.

2.2. Fishing Reordering in Morocco

As well as it is important to know the dynamics of the Developed Countries it is too to know the strategies of the Developing Countries in the fishing subject, mainly considering that are highly producers. In this section is analyzed the Moroccan international position in the topic, their participation in the Regional Fisheries Management Organizations corresponding to their geographic area, it relation with the specialized Intergovernmental Organizations such as; the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as it participation in other organisms that link it to countries of the African Continent.

In same way, is indicated the modernization level reached by Morocco, in consequence, the domestic reforms elaborated with the aim of be equipped of infrastructure adequate to its economic internationalization. This process has been determinant to it domestic policies, having an impact on the creation of programs and projects linked with the foreign fishing policies; relating itself in the international fishing care, restructuring and productivity.

Like the EU, Morocco forms part of the UNCLOS normativity and the FA0’s Responsible Fishing Code of Conduct (1995 as well as belongs to the General Fisheries Commission for the Mediterranean (GFCM). The FAO (2006) [17] indicates that Morocco is a member of the Regional Fisheries Organizations denominated as: the Fishery Committee for the Eastern Central Atlantic (CECAF), the Ministerial Conference on Fisheries Cooperation among African States bordering the Atlantic Ocean, alongside the International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas (ICCAT).

The Moroccan participation in the international fishing normativity places it among the countries that practice the environmental responsibility as well as the care of the resource. Escribano, G. et al. (2007) [18] , express that the Moroccan commitment must be coordinated with its economic liberalization policy that, since the eighties, has implemented economic and administrative reforms with the aim to enter into a phase of sustained acceleration of growth.

In the same way indicates that, the Moroccan investments on restructuring, institutional modernization as well as on public services have been relevant, since the country is looking for the opportunity to be part of the European market. However, as a Developing Country, continues to show weakness on productivity, high transaction costs and fiscal instability.

Ouabouch, H. (2013) [19] situate Morocco, in the internationalization context, as a State that access to the GATT in 1987, reinforcing its Structural Adjustment Plan (SAP), subsequently endorsed on the Marrakesh Agreements and in the WTO in 1994. To give achievement to its adhesion into the international trade policies, Morocco has adequate its legislation in 1997 through a tariff policy reform attached to the Doha agreements (Escribano, G., et al. 2004) [18] .

Regarding this precepts, the liberalization has taken Morocco into an administrative, costume processes and port infrastructure modernization. This has caused a business reorientation that has brought to Morocco development, internal growth additional to the creation of competitive projects on the external market.

Moreover, the OECD (2011) [20] establish that, derived from all this restructuring, the Moroccan trade policy has been benefit by the liberalization initiatives on the road transportation services of goods, shipments, longshoremen, air transport, telecommunication and the control of custom processes under a computer system in Automated System for Customs Data.

Furthermore, the port infrastructure reform has supported the fishing sector, taking into account that the efficient infrastructure is a decisive factor to achieve a sustainable economic growth; as well as, edge technology along with the advances, have contributed in the improvement of the Moroccan growth.

Within this perspective of support to the improvement and restructuring of the fishing sector, Morocco establishes state monopolies on the transport sector, like the Office of Exploitation of the Ports (ODEP) that manages port operations, the Moroccan Shipping Company of Maritime Transport (COMANAV), the National Transport Organization (ONT) on the road transport, the National Railway Office (ONCF) and the Airport National Organization (ONDA) (Escribano, G., et al. 2007) [18] .

To Said, M. (2004) [21] means that the liberalization, modernization and reform of the Moroccan public sector, following the global economic model, has the purpose to link into the internationalization, contribute to the regional development through the public capital transfers as well as the improvement of its coastlines and ports.

Although these projects have been gestated, since the nineties, and are key to a long-term modernization. The infrastructure modernization takes relevance considering the Moroccan geography, constituted by a coastline of 3500 km, a marine surface of 1.1 million km2 that count with: 22 fishing ports, 11 business of fishing activity, 22 of disembarkation and 4 villages; on its Mediterranean and Atlantic coastlines4. Derived from these characteristics, for the WTO (2009) [22] , Morocco is considered as a principal African fishing producer, established on the 25th. Place worldwide.

To manage the whole restructuring fishing process, the Moroccan government is supported by diverse institutions such as: the Ministry of Agriculture and Maritime Fisheries (MAPMA), the National Institute of Fishery Research (INIP) and the Fishery National Office (ONP)5.

These agencies have as main objectives: organization, trade and development of the artisanal and inshore fishing. It responsibility also covers the formulation and execution of the governmental policy on the fishing and aquaculture field.

In the same way, they are also in charge of the following programs: fleet modernization, promote the domestic consumption, to administrate, to organize the wholesale market according to health rules, product’s quality, treatment of industrial fish for land uses and scientific research (ONP 2006) [23] .

For this purpose, the ONP has created projects such as: the follow-up of artisanal fishing, new retail sales or wholesale markets, management of port fishing and the update and modernization program of the fleet. These actions allow it to value the product, manage financial resources, generate jobs, improve the quality of life, social welfare, to assess the grant of bank credits, continuous vocational training, skills development on matter such as the implementation of IT, custom and meteorology aspects, and the reinforcement of the aquaculture sector.

Likewise it is up to them to develop the main Moroccan markets such as: Marrakesh, Rabat, Tetuan, Beni, Mellal and Taza, Casablanca, Oujda, Tangier and Fez; the construction of spaces for professionals, technical services and to stimulate the ship-owners to modernize their production tools.

Among the advances that have been obtained from such projects, it is the Emergency Program for the development of the transformation’s industry; which has planned to create in Agadir a regional center for the same purpose, as well as the reform of the Fishing Code which substitutes the one of 1919.

On the other hand, the WTO (2009) [22] argues that, the investment of 2008- 2012 of 4000 million dirhams, was adjudicated to trade, development, modernization as well as the follow-up of the auctions ISO 9001 certification. In this last item, it was achieved the distinction of 18 auctions duly certified. In the same vein, the fishing fiscal incentives, through the authorization of the Financial Law No. 40-08 project, have promote scientific research, fleet modernization, reinforced the fight against illegal fishing, supported the management programs, the fisheries management and the quality promotion.

The WTO indicatives, refers that the previous infrastructure allows Morocco to display a relevant fishing production. The alive product species that are caught on its coastlines are under the characteristics of the pelagic, white and cephalopod fish family; to which the crustaceans, shells, seaweed and urchin join them. According to this data, is relevant to present the ONP data respect to the fishing production in the period of 2011-2012, which is showed in the following Table 2.

According to this information is observed that the coastal and artisanal fishing tonnage in the two coastlines experienced an important caught increase valued at 201,710 tons, which throw a monetary increase of 90,120 million dirhams. Both figures represent the 2% and 2% respectively. It can be concluded that the year 2012 has been productive and all the strategies, projects and resources implemented on the fishing sector have worked.

On the other hand, is also relevant to know the Moroccan purpose on it fishing production. The following Table 3 indicates that the production is mainly destined for consumption, followed by; frozen foods, flour and fish oil, in the last place; canned, seasoning and lures.

Morocco has increased its fishing production but also has provided equally for its domestic consumption. In the last years, the Alaui Kingdom has redoubled its efforts to improve its international position pushing its production system, di-

Table 2. Disembarkation of the coastal and artisanal fishing product by area-coastlines Morocco 2011-2012.

Source: own elaboration and translation with data of the Fishery National Office of Morocco.

Table 3. Destination of the coastal and artisanal fishing products by 2011-2012 in Morocco.

Source: Own elaboration and translation with data of the Moroccan ONP.-

versifying its economy, reforming its fiscal policy, legal and institutional frameworks, promoting new investments, making the customs more efficient and improving the healthcare, plant-health and quality control (OECD 2011) [20] .

All this macro-project that the Moroccan government proposes tends to modernization, but it continue to be vulnerable to the international events, mainly in the fields of: environment (CO2 emissions and waste treatment) and production (high technology, production quality and human capital). According to the OECD, further of the domestic adjustments for environmental reasons combined with the natural resource care, Morocco has a great mid and long term strategic vision, facing markets with competitiveness and the capacity of economic and social development.

The aspects that hobble the Moroccan modernization are the lack of infrastructure and financial resources. Despite of its implication in economic liberalization, Morocco depends on foreign investments; the country has to diversify its business as well as the requirement of time to start yielding benefits from the fishing programs applied in long-term. It should be noted that its productivity is vital for international markets, which stimulate to raise new reforms and to get and invest financial resources.

3. Conclusions

The current international scenario presents two strands: el constant increase of the environmental deterioration and the respect to the normativity for the environmental control, in consequence, the natural resource. These two lines place the States in a situation to prove their capacity to promote, within their domestic policies, the convenient strategies in attention to such scenario.

This analysis gives us the pillars as well as the normativity scopes in parallel to the improvement of the international issues, at the same time that position us on a reality generated by the economic accelerated movement, which go beyond both the rule and the States. In such a way that, the State’s commitment is in consider the normativity, in consequence to create and generate pertinent actions for, in any case, to obtain ideal results in the short-term.

To verify that the States are in the right way, it has carried out the EU-Morocco analysis, thus has attempted to demonstrate that both entities has attend the normativity, making it extensive in their domestic policies in a way that respond to the fishing issue, its restructuring and the design of strategies-guidelines in the fulfillment with the international agenda of sustainable development and food security.

Therefore and according to the observation of the comparative analysis, is perceived that, the domestic policies of the EU have contributed just to reform its established programs, such as: CAP and CFP, the reforms of this last one conduce to the Fisheries Management Programs which has the mission to establish platforms and initiatives with the aim to attend the care and restructuring of the resource in community waters.

On the other hand, the EU foreign policies guidelines remain in consolidate its fishing policies according to the determinations of the Intergovernmental Organizations, the Fisheries Management Programs as well as the main international producers with the purpose to cover their market demand. This EU strategy has allowed it to be closer of the organizations decisions as well as to monitor the worldwide fishing policy, which is convenient to determine the movements about its restructuring and attention to the community consume.

These strategies have directed the EU to exercise projects attached to Fisheries Managements Programs applicable to the whole community, schemas that pretend to give tangible results immediately. In the first instance, is only realized the operative irregularities that such schemas present, circumstances that give the opportunity to be reformed or to create new designs; but this do not confirm that they can give optimum results nor that be in the short-term.

While these processes are reinforced, the supply-demand balance tends to detrimental variations for the production and care of the fishing stocks, situation that obligate the EU to depend on the Developing Countries, which are leading the global fishing. However, the EU perseveration is forceful and determinant respect to the gained strategies; will bear fruit only if the rule is followed with discipline and constancy.

Therefore, is contemplated, for the EU, that the establishment of the CFP, the Fisheries Management Programs and the reference levels are projects that underpin the fishing restructuring; and if they are applicable with discipline, can achieve advances in the environmental improvement and in the community food security.

On the other hand, in the indicatives provided from Morocco is observed that the fishing sector faces gaps of regulation, infrastructure and technology to achieve effectiveness on its economic development, reach the environmental care targets and the care of the natural resource in the short-term.

The Moroccan government, in contrast with the EU, begins its restructuring process with changes on its domestic normativity and management and then set up the fishing policy. That is, to create the legal basis and governmental instances in order to introduce the restructuring regarding to the international guidelines. Once established such regulation, it set up programs and intensified its participation with the RFMO, from these last ones obtain important information to design a planning according to the movements of global fishing.

Regarding all these movements, it can be concluded that the platform planned by the Moroccan government starts to generate results, just that, everything require time and financial resources which, for Developing Countries, are as limited as vital. To this respect, Morocco also has implemented programs on port infrastructure, transport and sea contamination. Despite the implementation of programs in these topics, there is still infrastructure that needs to be renovated to reach a full modernization.

In the same line is observed that the constant items, where there are no differences for both entities, are: the importance of the fishing production and consume as well as the time factor; both categories promote, on each entity, to adequate the pertinent tactics and conditions to be executed on their territories. Recognizing that always exist tension between the implementation of actions designed in the short-term, that due to management policies, are transferred to the long-term.

While it is true that, the International Community’s aspiration is to face the environmental issues, which requires a fishing reordering with the purpose to safeguard the food for future generations. However, the effectiveness of the normativity and of the agreements depends on such factors as: modernization, time factor, international draughts conditions, resources respect, society’s consciousness about consume sustainable development and the intensification of new practices such as aquaculture; all of these, form a challenge for the States.

NOTES

1The Regional Fisheries Organizations (RFO)―International Organizations conformed by interested countries on the fishing sector in a determined area and in an area where fish are established. Some RFO are just for consult but others are engaged to establish caught limits and technical and control measures. The EU belongs to two consult RFMO which are: the Western Central Atlantic Fisheries Commission (WCAFC) and the Fishery Committee for the Eastern Central Atlantic (FCECA). It also participates in other organizations mainly because of the highly migratory species such as tuna, these organizations are: the International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tuna (ICCAT), the Indian Ocean Tuna Commission (IOTC), the Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Commission (WCPFC), the Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission (IATTC), the Agreement on the International Dolphin Conservation Program (AIDCP), the North-East Atlantic Fisheries Commission (NEAFC),the Northwest Atlantic Fisheries Organization (NAFO), the South-East Atlantic Fisheries Organization (SEAFO), the North Atlantic Salmon Conservation Organization (NASCO), the Southern Indian Ocean Fisheries Agreement (SIOFA), the South Pacific Regional Fisheries Management Organization (SPRFMO), the Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR) and the Convention on the Conservation and Management of

2Pollock Resources in the Central Bering Sea (CCBSP).

The Green and White Books are documents published by the EU since the eighties and their objective is to reflect about a concrete topic. The Green Book compiles information about the topic of study and compiles opinions about government, international organizations and civil society; while the White Book defines a proposal or action program in the area in question, which can reach the topic’s legislation.

3To the date of elaboration of this work, there are not available the results data of the fishing reduction by the Sustainable Development.

4Moroccan Ports: in the Mediterranean: Ras Kebdana, Sidi h’saine, Nador, Al hoceima, Chmaala, Nouaren, Cala Iris, Jebha, M’diq, Martil, Oued Laou y Fnideq. In the Atlantic: Ksar Sghir, Tanger, Asilah, Larache, Moulay Bousselha, Mehdia, Skhirat,Mohammedia, Casablanca, El Jadida, Lahdida, Sidi Abed, Jorf Lasfar, Safi, Souiria Kdima, Essaouira, Imessouane, Taghazout, Agadir, Tifnit,, Imi Ouaddar, Sidi Ifni, Aglou, Sidi Boulfdail, Rkounte, Tan Tan, Laayoune, Tarfaya, Amegriou, Boujdour, Sid Elghazi.

5ONP.-Created in 1969, redefined in 1996, modernized and structured, situated at the heart of the sector of the national policy; promotes the development of the inshore and artisanal fishing with the aim of participate on the first sale markets of sea products.

Cite this paper
Gallardo, A. , Gallardo, R. , Romo, A. and Hidalgo, S. (2017) Does Fishing Restructuring Provide Reliability to Food Security? The European Union-Morocco Case. Journal of Human Resource and Sustainability Studies, 5, 223-237. doi: 10.4236/jhrss.2017.54020.
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[7]   Official Journal of the European Union (2005) Council Regulation (EC) No. 1698/ 2005 of 20 September 2005 on Support for Rural Development by the European Agricultural Fund for Rural Development (EAFRD).
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[8]   European Commission (2014) Multilateral Agreements: The Law of the Sea and International Fisheries Law.
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[10]   Villasante, S. (2009) Magnitude and Implications of the CommonFisheries Policy: Application of Sustainable Indicators on the Marine System Metabolism. University of Santiago de Compostela, 65-70.

[11]   García, M. (2008) The Common Fisheries Policy (CFP): Some Construction Cases of Its Exceptional Nature. Galician Journal of Economy, 17, 7-11.

[12]   Ortega, M. and Chaparro, L. (2011) The Common Fisheries Policy Reform. The Environmentalist Journal, No. 71.
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[13]   European Parliament (2001) Annual Inform from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament on the Results of the Multi-Annual Guidance Programs for the Fishing Fleets at the End of 1999. Fisheries Commission, 1-9.
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[14]   FAO (1998) Technical Guidelines for Responsible Fisheries. Inland Fisheries, No. 6, FAO, Rome, 49.
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[16]   EUMOFA (2014) The EU Fish Market. 2014 Edition. https://www.eumofa.eu/the-eu-fish-market

[17]   FAO (2006) Fisheries & Aquaculture FI Search. Fisheries Competence Areas Morocco RFO.
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[18]   Escribano, G. and Lorca, A. (2007) Economic Reform in the Maghreb: from Stabilization to Modernization. Real Instituto Elcano, Working Paper, 1-19.

[19]   Ouabouch, H. (2013) The Moroccan Agro-Alimentary Sector and Trade Liberalization. Doctoral Thesis, Technical University of Valencia, València, 11-34.

[20]   OECD (2011) Competitiveness and Development of the Private Sector: Morocco 2010: Strategies of Development on Environmental Affairs. OECD Editions, 1-114

[21]   Said, M. (2004) Dynamics of Privatization in Morocco. ICE Journal, No. 819, 51-57.

[22]   OMC (2009) Trade Policy Reviews: Morocco 2009. Further Trade Reforms Would Sustain Economic Growth. https://www.wto.org/english/tratop_e/tpr_e/tp317_e.htm

[23]   ONP (2006) Mission and Strategies of Fisheries. Ibhar-Mapm and Filets Maillantes Drift (FMD) Programs. Technical Support to the Fishmongers in the Application of the Law of the Fishing Trade. https://www.linkedin.com/company/onp-office-national-des-p-ches

 
 
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