CUS  Vol.5 No.4 , December 2017
People’s Aspirations from Smart City Technologies: What Solutions They Have to Offer for the Crucial Challenges City of Jeddah Is Facing
Saudi Arabian urban society is faced with critical challenges such as environmental degradation, unsustainable resource consumption, inadequate public transportation, lack of walkable and bike friendly urban neighbourhoods that are hampering general conditions of liveability and wellbeing. In response to these challenges, legislators planned 6 economic cities that are metonym of smart cities, intended to economic diversification and transformation towards a knowledge based economy with the private sector partnership (PPP) and foreign direct investment (FDI). These “smart” or “economic” cities are anticipated to fascinate people to live and work in. This exploratory study was intended to understand people’s aspirations on smart city technologies that can solve urban challenges in Saudi Arabia. A total of 351 samples from the online survey, were analysed. We conclude that people in Saudi Arabia are optimistic about smart city benefits; they are also excitedly willing to contribute in smart city planning and management. We also suggest policymakers to adopt a collaborative planning mechanism based on people’s wisdom to tackle more wicked urban problems and added benefits of ICT (Information & communication technologies) and geospatial technologies.
Cite this paper: Aljoufie, M. and Tiwari, A. (2017) People’s Aspirations from Smart City Technologies: What Solutions They Have to Offer for the Crucial Challenges City of Jeddah Is Facing. Current Urban Studies, 5, 466-482. doi: 10.4236/cus.2017.54026.

[1]   Abdulaal, W. A. (1987). Land Subdivision and the Development Process in Medina, Analysis of the Landowner’s Role. Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis, Cardiff: University of Wales.

[2]   Al-Ankary, K. M., & El-Bushra, El-S. (1989) Urban and Rural Profiles in Saudi Arabia. Berlin: G. Borntraeger.

[3]   Alawadhi, S., Scholl, H. J. J. (2013). Aspirations and Realizations: The Smart City of Seattle. In: The 46th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, IEEE Proceedings (pp. 1695-1703). Maui, HI: Wailea.

[4]   Alcatel-Lucen. (2013). The Stakeholders, How Are Roles Evolving to Enable Smart Development?

[5]   Alkhedeiri, A. (1998). The Role of Secondary Cities in the National Development Process of Saudi Arabia. Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis, London: University College.

[6]   Angelidou, M. (2014). Smart City Policies: A Spatial Approach. Cities, 41, S3-S11.

[7]   Anttiroiko, A.-V., Valkama, P., & Bailey, S. (2013). Smart Cities in the New Service Economy: Building Platforms for Smart Services. Journal of AI and SOCIETY, 28, 1-12.

[8]   ASC Amsterdam Smart City (2015).

[9]   Bakici, T., Almirall, E., & Wareham, J. (2012). A Smart City Initiative: The Case Barcelona. Journal of the Knowledge Economy. Journal of the Knowledge Economy, 4, 135-148.

[10]   Burdett, R. (2014). Urban Planner: “Smart Cities” Are Problematic.

[11]   Capra, F. (2002). The Hidden Connections—A Science for Sustainable Living. London: Flamingo.

[12]   Caragliu, A., Del Bo, C., & Nijkamp, P. (2009). Smart Cities in Europe. Series Research Memoranda 0048. Amsterdam: VU University Amsterdam, Faculty of Economics, Business Administration and Business Administration and Econometrics.

[13]   Cardone, G., Foschini, L., Bellavista, P., & Corradi, A. (2013). Fostering Participation in Smart Cities: A Geo-Social Crowd sensing Platform. IEEE Communications Magazine, June 2013.

[14]   Castells, M. (1989). The Informational City: Information Technology, Economic Restructuring, and the Urban-Regional Process. New York, NY: Blackwell.

[15]   Castells, M. (2009). Communication Power. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

[16]   Citibank (2011). Saudi Arabia to Have 6th Highest per Capita GDP by 2050: Report.

[17]   Coe, A., Paquet, G., & Roy, J. (2001). E-Governance and Smart Communities: A Social Learning Challenge. Journal on Social Science Computer Review, 19, 80-93.

[18]   Desai, P., & Riddlestone, S. (2002). Bioregional Solutions for Living on One Planet. Foxhole: Green Books.

[19]   Diana, M. C. (2010). Urban and Regional Planning and Development Series: Discourse Dynamics in Participatory Planning. Farnham: Ashgate Publishing Group.

[20]   Dutton, W. H., Blumler, J. G., & Kraemer, K. L. (1987). Wired Cities: Shaping Future Communication. New York, NY: Macmillan.

[21]   EMMAR (2008). King Abdullah Economic City: A Smart Destination for Long-Term Growth. Sponsored Profile, Saudi Arabia Report 2008, Finance Asia.

[22]   Falconer, G., & Mitchell, S. (2012). Smart City Framework A Systematic Process for Enabling Smart + Connected Communities, CISCO.

[23]   Goodspeed, R. (2014). Smart Cities: Moving beyond Urban Cybernetics to Tackle Wicked Problems. Cambridge Journal of Regions, Economy and Society, 8, 79-92.

[24]   Graham, S., & Marvin, S. (1999). Planning Cyber Cities: Integrating Telecommunications into Urban Planning. Town Planning Review, 70, 89-114.

[25]   Greenfield, A. (2013). Against the Smart City. New York, NY: Do Publications.

[26]   Harvey, D. (1989). The Condition of Post Modernity: An Enquiry into the Origins of Cultural Change. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell.

[27]   Hollander, J. B. (2011). Approaching an Ideal: Using Technology to Apply Collaborative Rationality to Urban Planning Processes. Planning Practice & Research, 26, 587-596.

[28]   Hollands, R. (2008). Will the Real Smart City Please Stand Up? Creative, Progressive or Just Entrepreneurial? City: Analysis of Urban Trends, Culture, Theory, Policy, Action, 12, 303-320.

[29]   IBM (2009). A Vision of Smarter Cities.

[30]   Ishida, T., & Isbister, K. (2000). Digital Cities: Technologies, Experiences, and Future Perspectives. LNCS: Springer.

[31]   Jensen, M., Gutierrez, J., & Pedersen, J. (2014). Location Intelligence Application in Digital Data Activity Dimensioning in Smart Cities. Procedia Computer Science, 36, 418-424.

[32]   KAEC (2014). King Abdullah Economic City Official Website.

[33]   Kitchin, R. (2014). The Real-Time City? Big Data and Smart Urbanism. GeoJournal, 79, 1-14.

[34]   Komninos, N. (2002). Intelligent Cities: Innovation. Routledge: Knowledge Systems and Digital Spaces.

[35]   Kourtit, K., Nijkamp, P., & Arribas-Bel, D. (2012). Smart Cities Perspective—A Comparative European Study by Means of Self-Organizing Maps. Innovation, 25, 229-246.

[36]   Lahn, G., & Stevens, P. (2011). Burning Oil to Keep Cool: The Hidden Energy Crisis in Saudi Arabia, Chatham House. London: The Royal Institute of International Affairs.,%20

[37]   Lee, J. H., Hancock, M. G., & Hu, M. (2014). Towards an Effective Framework for Building Smart Cities: Lessons from Seoul and San Francisco. Technological Forecasting & Social Change, 89, 80-99.

[38]   Lind, D. (2012). Information and Communications Technologies Creating Livable, Equitable, Sustainable Cities. In L. Starke (Ed.), State of the World 2012: Moving toward Sustainable Prosperity. Island Press.

[39]   Maginn, P. J. (2007). Towards More Effective Community Participation in Urban Regeneration: The Potential of Collaborative Planning and Applied Ethnography. Qualitative Research, 7, 25-43.

[40]   Michael, M. (2010). Participatory Spatial Planning: Learning from Rural Ireland. Farnham: Ashgate Publishing Group.

[41]   MoEP Ministry of Economy and Planning (2009). Brief Report on the Ninth Development Plan. Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, 24.

[42]   MOF Ministry of Finance (2011). The Annual Budget of Saudi Arabia, Riyadh.

[43]   Moser, S. (2014). New Cities: Opportunities, Visions and Challenges—City Quest KAEC Forum 2013: Summary and Analysis Report. Paris: New Cities Foundation.

[44]   Moser, S., Swain, M., & Alkhabbaz, M. H. (2015). King Abdullah Economic City: Engineering Saudi Arabia’s Post-Oil Future. Cities, 45, 71-80.

[45]   Ng, S. W., Zaghloul, S., Ali, H. I., Harrison, G., & Popkin, B. M. (2011). The Prevalence and Trends of Overweight, Obesity and Nutrition-Related Non-Communicable Diseases in the Arabian Gulf States. Obesity Reviews, 12, 1-13.

[46]   Orendain De Obeso, A., LopezNeri, E., Dominquez, J., & Gutierrez Garcia, J. O. (2014). Smart People: Enhancing CCD Citizens’ Engagement through Data Utilization. IEEECCD Smart Cities White Paper.

[47]   Roche, S. (2014). Geographic Information Science I: Why Does a Smart City Need to Be Spatially Enabled? Progress in Human Geography, 38, 703-711.

[48]   Saint, A. (2014). The Rise and Rise of the Smart City. Engineering & Technology October 2014 Issue.

[49]   Shawly, H. H. (2008). Urban Water: Integrated Resource Planning to Meet Future Demand in Jeddah-Saudi Arabia. Unpublished PhD Thesis, University of Stuttgart.

[50]   Shin, D. H. (2009). Ubiquitous City: Urban Technologies, Urban Infrastructure and Urban Informatics. Journal of Information Science, 35, 515.

[51]   Streitz, N. (2011). Smart Cities, Ambient Intelligence and Universal Access. In C. Stephanidis (Ed.), Universal Access in HCI, Part III, HCII 2011, LNCS 6767. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag.

[52]   Tok, E., Al Mohammad, F., & Al Merekhi, M. (2014). Crafting Smart Cities in the Gulf Region. European Scientific Journal, 2.

[53]   Townsend, A. (2013). Smart Cities: Big Data, Civic Hackers, and the Quest for a New Utopia. New York, NY: W.W. Norton and Company.

[54]   UN-Habitat (2012). The State of Arab Cities 2012: Challenges of Urban Transition. United Nations Human Settlements Programme, Nairobi-Kenya: UN-Habitat.

[55]   Unsworth, K., Forte, A., & Dilworth, R. (2014). Urban Informatics: The Role of Citizen Participation in Policy Making. Journal of Urban Technology, 21, 1-5.

[56]   World Bank (2015). Country Data Saudi Arabia.