MSA  Vol.8 No.13 , December 2017
Visualizing the Effect of Extrusion Velocity on the Spatial Variation of Porosity in a Titanium Dioxide/Binder System
Abstract: Extrusion is a common process technique used to fabricate porous materials such as catalysts and membranes. The performance and efficiency of such materials are governed by porosity and pore distribution. The spatial variation of porosity within the catalyst structure can be linked to process variables in the extrusion processes such as extrusion velocity. A change in extrusion velocity can lead to a change in extrusion pressure. The extrusion pressure effect is a combination of die entry deformation and frictional die land shear. In this work, the effect of extrusion velocity on the spatial variation of porosity in a titania-binder extrudate has been studied. Capillary rheometer analysis was done to investigate the effect of extrusion velocity. A segmentation approach was developed to study the spatial variation of porosity at the die wall (sheared region) compared to the unsheared (center) region of the extrudate. The results show that the extrusion pressure effect increases as the velocity increases. The extrusion conditions affect the spatial variation of porosity.
Cite this paper: Alazzawi, M. , Murali, S. and Haber, R. (2017) Visualizing the Effect of Extrusion Velocity on the Spatial Variation of Porosity in a Titanium Dioxide/Binder System. Materials Sciences and Applications, 8, 933-947. doi: 10.4236/msa.2017.813068.

[1]   Matyssek, R., Clarke, N., Cudlín, P., Mikkelsen, T.N., Tuovinen, J.-P., Wieser, G. and Paoletti, E. (2013) Climate Change, Air Pollution and Global Challenges: Understanding and Perspectives from Forest Research. Developments in Environmental Science, 13, 3-16.

[2]   Karl, T.R. and Trenberth, K.E. (2003) Modern Global Climate Change. Science, 302, 1719-1723.

[3]   Japan, T.C.S.O. and Kyōkai, N.S. (2012) Advanced Ceramic Technologies & Products. Springer Science & Business Media, Tokyo.

[4]   Heck, R.M., Farrauto, R.J. and Gulati, S.T. (2009) Catalytic Air Pollution Control: Commercial Technology. John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken.

[5]   Benbow, J. and Bridgwater, J. (1993) Paste Flow and Extrusion. Oxford University Press, UK.

[6]   Bagheri, S., Muhd Julkapli, N. and Bee Abd Hamid, S. (2014) Titanium Dioxide as a Catalyst Support in Heterogeneous Catalysis. The Scientific World Journal, 2014, Article ID: 727496.

[7]   Yu, A., Bridgwater, J., Burbidge, A. and Saracevic, Z. (1999) Liquid Maldistribution in Particulate Paste Extrusion. Powder Technology, 103, 103-109.

[8]   Lapszewicz, J.A., Loeh, H.J. and Chipperfield, J.R. (1993) The Effect of Catalyst Porosity on Methane Selectivity in the Fischer–Tropsch Reaction. Journal of the Chemical Society, Chemical Communications, Issue 11, 913-914.

[9]   Vannice, M.A. and Joyce, W.H. (2005) Kinetics of Catalytic Reactions. Springer.

[10]   Lee, Y., Kim, T. and Choi, Y. (2013) Effect of Porosity in Catalyst Layers on Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Performances. Fuel Cells, 13, 173-180.

[11]   Fischer, A., Jindra, J. and Wendt, H. (1998) Porosity and Catalyst Utilization of Thin Layer Cathodes in Air Operated PEM-Fuel Cells. Journal of Applied Electrochemistry, 28, 277-282.

[12]   Rough, S., Wilson, D. and Bridgwater, J. (2002) A Model Describing Liquid Phase Migration within an Extruding Microcrystalline Cellulose Paste. Chemical Engineering Research and Design, 80, 701-714.

[13]   Rough, S., Bridgwater, J. and Wilson, D. (2000) Effects of liquid phase migration on extrusion of microcrystalline cellulose pastes. International journal of pharmaceutics, 204, 117-126.

[14]   Gotz, J., Müller, D., Buggisch, H. and Tasche-Lara, C. (1994) NMR Flow Imaging of Pastes in Steady-State Flows. Chemical Engineering and Processing: Process Intensification, 33, 385-392.

[15]   Gotz, J., Kreibich, W. and Peciar, M. (2002) Extrusion of Pastes with a Piston Extruder for the Determination of the Local Solid and Fluid Concentration, the Local Porosity and Saturation and Displacement Profiles by Means of NMR Imaging. Rheologica Acta, 41, 134-143.

[16]   Horrobin, D. and Nedderman, R. (1998) Die Entry Pressure Drops in Paste Extrusion. Chemical Engineering Science, 53, 3215-3225.

[17]   Das, R.N., Madhusoodana, C. and Okada, K. (2002) Rheological Studies on Cordierite Honeycomb Extrusion. Journal of the European Ceramic Society, 22, 2893-2900.

[18]   Benbow, J., Blackburn, S. and Mills, H. (1998) The Effects of Liquid-Phase Rheology on the Extrusion Behaviour of Paste. Journal of Materials Science, 33, 5827-5833.

[19]   Gotz, J., Buggisch, H. and Peciar, M. (1993) NMR Imaging of Pastes in a Ram Extruder. Journal of Non-Newtonian Fluid Mechanics, 49, 251-275.

[20]   Chen, Y., Burbidge, A. and Bridgwater, J. (1997) Effect of Carbohydrate on the Rheological Parameters of Paste Extrusion. Journal of the American Ceramic Society, 80, 1841-1850.

[21]   Rajagopalan, S., Lu, L., Yaszemski, M.J. and Robb, R.A. (2005) Optimal Segmentation of Microcomputed Tomographic Images of Porous Tissue-Engineering Scaffolds. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A, 75A, 877-887.

[22]   Guarino, V., Guaccio, A., Netti, P.A. and Ambrosio, L. (2010) Image Processing and Fractal Box Counting: User-Assisted Method for Multi-Scale Porous Scaffold Characterization. Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Medicine, 21, 3109-3118.

[23]   Jensen, E.C. (2013) Quantitative Analysis of Histological Staining and Fluorescence Using ImageJ. The Anatomical Record, 296, 378-381.

[24]   Ku, N. (2015) Evaluation of the Behavior of Ceramic Powders under Mechanical Vi-bration and Its Effect on the Mechanics of Auto-Granulation. Ph.D. Thesis, Rutgers University, New Brunswick.

[25]   Grove, C. and Jerram, D.A. (2011) jPOR: An ImageJ Macro to Quantify Total Optical Porosity from Blue-Stained Thin Sections. Computers & Geosciences, 37, 1850-1859.

[26]   Li, C.-T. (2003) Multiresolution Image Segmentation Integrating Gibbs Sampler and Region Merging Algorithm. Signal Processing, 83, 67-78.

[27]   Andriani, G. and Walsh, N. (2002) Physical Properties and Textural Parameters of Calcarenitic Rocks: Qualitative and Quantitative Evaluations. Engineering Geology, 67, 5-15.

[28]   Martin, W.D., Putman, B.J. and Kaye, N.B. (2013) Using Image Analysis to Measure the Porosity Distribution of a Porous Pavement. Construction and Building Materials, 48, 210-217.

[29]   (2014) Standard Test Methods for Determining Area Percentage Porosity in Thermal Sprayed Coatings. ASTM International.

[30]   Pérez, J.M.M. and Pascau, J. (2013) Image Processing with ImageJ. Packt Publishing Ltd., Birmingham.

[31]   Osorio, J.G. and Muzzio, F.J. (2015) Evaluation of Resonant Acoustic Mixing Performance. Powder Technology, 278, 46-56.

[32]   Alazzawi, M. and Haber, R. (2017) The Effect of Paste Water Content on the Green Microstructure of Extruded Titanium Dioxide. Processing, Properties, and Design of Advanced Ceramics and Composites: Ceramic Transactions, 261, 3-13.

[33]   Powell, J., Assabumrungrat, S. and Blackburn, S. (2013) Design of Ceramic Paste Formulations for Co-Extrusion. Powder Technology, 245, 21-27.

[34]   (2012) Standard Guide for Interpreting Images of Polymeric Tissue Scaffolds. ASTM International.

[35]   Gotz, J. and Zimehl, R. (2002) Shear and NMR Experiments of Materials with Flow Behaviour Depending on the Deformation History. Colloid and Polymer Science, 280, 389-397.