ENG  Vol.3 No.10 , October 2011
Assessment of Medical Waste Incinerator Performance Based on Physical Characteristics of Ashes
Abstract
The aim of this study was to assess the performance of the combustion process during medical waste incineration by studying physical properties of the ashes produced. Combustion characteristics data including maximum temperatures, total weight of waste loaded, weight of ashes, weight reduction, sieve analysis and particle size distribution were determined experimentally. The test runs were conducted in a newly installed incinerator at Temeke district hospital. The average maximum temperatures achieved in the primary chamber was 397.8℃and 839℃ for secondary chamber with average incineration cycle time of 99 minutes. These temperatures were lower compared to the design temperatures of 650℃ and 950℃ as a result of loading wet waste. The ash samples were collected under the incinerator grate by randomly sampling the ashes for each run after weighing the total ash. The particle size distribution of ashes observed was not uniform due to presence of non-combustible materials in the sharps waste. However, the fineness modulus ranged between 2.0 and 4.0, which is in the acceptable range. From the above results it was concluded that, the incinerator performance was high in terms of the parameters assessed. To improve the incinerator performance further, it was recommended that the medical waste should be stored in a dry place away from rain.

Cite this paper
nullS. Manyele, I. Kagonji and J. Mrisho, "Assessment of Medical Waste Incinerator Performance Based on Physical Characteristics of Ashes," Engineering, Vol. 3 No. 10, 2011, pp. 1045-1053. doi: 10.4236/eng.2011.310130.
References

[1]   S. V. Manyele, “Medical Waste Management in Tanzania: Current Situation and the Way Forward,” African Journal of Environmental Assessment and Management, Vol. 8, No. 1, 2004, pp. 74-99.

[2]   T. Jeremy and A. Honor, “The Health Effects of Waste Incinerators,” The 4th Report of the British Society for Ecological Medicine, 2005.

[3]   S. V. Manyele, “The Role of Engineering in Solving Medical Waste Incineration Problems in Tanzania,” Institution of Engineers Tanzania (IET) Annual Conference, Arusha, 1-2 December 2005, pp. 53-67.

[4]   S. V. Manyele and H. Anicetus, “Management of Medical Waste in Tanzanian Hospitals,” Tanzania Health Research Bulletin, Vol. 8, No. 3, 2006, pp. 177-182.

[5]   S. V. Manyele and T. J. Lyasenga, “Factors Affecting Medical Waste Management in the Lower-Level Health Facilities,” African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, Vol. 4, No. 5, 2010, pp. 304-318.

[6]   F. Powell, “Air Pollutant Emissions from the Incineration of Hospital Wastes,” Journal of the Air Pollution Control Association, Vol. 37, No. 7, 1987, pp. 836-839.

[7]   J. J. Santoleri, “Design and Operating Problems of Ha- zardous Waste Incinerators,” Environmental Progress, Vol. 4, No. 4, 2009, pp. 246-251. doi:10.1002/ep.670040408

[8]   J. D. Brady, “Combustion Chemistry & Thermodynamics with Mass & Energy Balances,” 26th Annual International Conference on Incineration and Thermal Treatment Technologies (IT3), Phoenix, 10-14 May 2007.

[9]   IAEA, “Design and Operation of Radioactive Waste Incineration Facilities,” A Safety Guide, Safety Series No. 108, IAEA, Vienna, 1992.

[10]   R. Walter, “Combustion and Incineration Processes,” 3rd Edition, Marcel Dekker, New York, 2002.

[11]   V. J. Landrum, “Medical Waste Management and Disposal,” 2009. http://books.google.co.tz/books/

[12]   L. J. Zhao, F.-S. Zhang, M. J. Chen, Z. G. Liu and J. Z. Wu, “Typical Pollutants in Bottom Ashes from a Typical Medical Waste Incinerator,” Journal of Hazardous Materials, Vol. 173, No. 1-3, 2010, pp. 181-185.

[13]   R. R. Groner, “The Chemical Transformation of Solid Wastes,” AICHE Symposium Series, Vol. 68, No. 122, 1972, pp. 28-39.

[14]   J. R. McDougall and I. C. Pyrah, “Moisture Effects in a Biodegradation Model for Waste Refuse,” In: T. H. Christensen, R. Cossu and R. Stegmann, Eds., Proceedings of Sardinia’99 7th Waste Management and Landfill Symposium, CISA, Cagliari, Vol. 1, 1999, pp. 59-66..

[15]   E. Gidarakos, M. Petrantonaki, K. Anastasiadou and W. Schramm, “Characterization and Hazard Evaluation of Bottom Ash Produced from Incinerated Hospital Waste,” Journal of Hazardous Materials, Vol. 172; No. 2-3, 2009, pp. 935-942. doi:10.1016/j.jhazmat.2009.07.080

[16]   S. Singh and V. Prakash, “Toxic Environmental Releases from Medical Waste Incineration: A Review,” Environmental Monitoring, Vol. 132, 2007, pp. 67-81.

 
 
Top