Back
 Health  Vol.9 No.12 , November 2017
Food Intake Characteristics during Early Pregnancy in Women with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus
Abstract: To investigate the characteristic food intake during early pregnancy in women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in a rural city in Aomori Prefecture, Japan, one hundred and twenty-one women were recruited and queried about their habitual dietary intake. Food intake of patients was assessed using the model nutritional balance chart at 12 - 16, 24 - 28, and 34 - 36 weeks of gestation. Of the 121 pregnant women examined, 19 were obese. During early pregnancy, food intake ratios of the obese women were significantly lower than those of the non-obese women for the categories of milk (p < 0.001) and sugar (p < 0.05). GDM group was 7 women among 19 women in obesity group during mid-pregnancy. During early pregnancy, women with GDM had significantly higher sugar intake ratios than women without GDM (p < 0.05). These results suggested that obese pregnant women are able to prevent GDM by limiting their sugar intake during early pregnancy.
Cite this paper: Satoh, A. , Kishi, C. , Lee, S. , Saitoh, M. , Miura, M. , Ohnuma, Y. , Yamazaki, C. and Sasaki, H. (2017) Food Intake Characteristics during Early Pregnancy in Women with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus. Health, 9, 1711-1719. doi: 10.4236/health.2017.912125.
References

[1]   Chan, L., Magliano, D.J. and Zimmer, P.Z. (2012) The Worldwide Epidemiology of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus—Present and Future Perspectives. Nature Reviews Endocrinology, 8, 228-236.
https://doi.org/10.1038/nrendo.2011.183

[2]   (2004) WHO and IDF Diabetes Action Now: An Initiative of the World Health Organization and the International Diabetes Federation. WHO, Switzerland.

[3]   Weber, M.B. and Narayan, K.M. (2008) Diabetes Prevention Should Be a Public-Health Priority. Lancet, 371, 473-474.
https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(08)60233-0

[4]   Bellamy, L., Casas, J.P., Hingorani, A.D. and Williams, D. (2009) Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus after Gestational Diabetes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Lancet, 373, 1773-1779.
https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(09)60731-5

[5]   O’Sullivan, J.B. (1978) Gestational Diabetes: Factors Influencing Rate of Subsequent Diabetes. In: Sutherland, H.W. and Stowers, J.M., Eds., Carbohydrate Metabolism in Pregnancy and the Newborn, Springer-Verlag, New York, 429.

[6]   O’Sullivan, J.B. (1984) Subsequent Morbidity Gestational Diabetic Women. In: Sutherland, H.W. and Stowers, J.M., Eds., Carbohydrate Metabolism in Pregnancy and the Newborn, Churchill, Livingstone, 174.

[7]   International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups. (2010) Recommendations on the Diagnosis and Classification of Hyperglycemia in Pregnancy. Diabetes Care, 33, 676-682.
https://doi.org/10.2337/dc09-1848

[8]   Seino, Y., Nanjo, K., Tajima, N., Kadowaki, T., Kashiwagi, A., Araki, E., Ito, C., Inagaki, N., Iwamoto, Y., Kasuga, M., Hanafusa, T., Haneda, M. and Ueki, K. (2012) Report of the Committee on the Classification and Diagnostic Criteria of Diabetes Mellitus (Revision for International Harmonization of HbA1c in Japan). Journal of the Japan Diabetes Society, 55, 485-504.

[9]   Satoh, A., Menzawa, K., Lee, S., Hatakeyama, A. and Sasaki, H. (2007) Dietary Guidance for Obese Children and Their Families Using a Model Nutritional Balance Chart. Japan Journal of Nursing Science, 4, 95-102.
https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1742-7924.2007.00077.x

[10]   Japan Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare. (2015) Japanese Meal Intake Standard. 2015 Edition.

[11]   Japan Diabetes Society. (1998) Food Exchange Table for Diabetic Mellitus Diet Therapy. 5th Edition.

[12]   World Medical Association. The International Response to Helsinki: The WMA’s Declaration of Helsinki on Ethical Principles for Medical Research Involving Human Subjects, as Adopted by the 64th WMA General Assembly, Fortaleza, Brazil, October 2013.
https://www.wma.net/en/30publications/10policies/b3/index.html

[13]   Schoenaker, D.A., Mishra, G.D., Callaway, L.K. and Soedamah-Muthu, S.S. (2016) The Role of Energy, Nutrients, Foods, and Dietary Patterns in the Development of Gestational Mellitus: A Systematic Review of Observational Studies. Diabetes Care, 39, 16-23.
https://doi.org/10.2337/dc15-0540

[14]   Maureen, A.A., Charies, M., Venny, N. and Yeri, K. (2016) Retrospective Cohort Study on Risk Factors for Development of Gestational Diabetes among Mothers Attending Antenatal Clinics in Nairobi Country. Pan African Medical Journal, 24, 155.

[15]   Radesky, J.S., Oken, E., Rifas-Shiman, S.L., Kleinman, K.P., Rich-Edwards, J.W. and Gillman, M.W. (2008) Diet during Early Pregnancy and Development of Gestational Diabetes. Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology, 22, 47-59.
https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3016.2007.00899.x

[16]   Syngelaki, A., Pastides, A., Kotecha, R., Wright, A., Akolekar, R. and Nicolaides, K.H. (2015) First-Trimester Screening for Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Based on Maternal Characteristics and History. Fetal Diagnosis and Therapy, 38, 14-21.
https://doi.org/10.1159/000369970

[17]   Morisset, A.S., Tchermof, A., Dube, M.C., Veillette, J., Weisnagel, S.J. and Robitaille, J. (2011) Weight Gain Measures in Women with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus. L Womens Health (Larchmt), 20, 375-380.
https://doi.org/10.1089/jwh.2010.2252

[18]   Tobias, D.K., Zhang, C., van Dam, R.M., Bowers, K. and Hu, F.B. (2011) Physical Activity before and during Pregnancy and Risk of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: A Meta-Analysis. Diabetes Care, 34, 223-229.
https://doi.org/10.2337/dc10-1368

[19]   Chortatos, A., Haugen, M., Iversen, P.O., Vikanes, A., Manus, P. and Veierod, M.B. (2013) Nausea and Vomiting in Pregnancy: Associations with Maternal Gestational Diet and Lifestyle Factors in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study. BJOG, 120, 1642-1653.

[20]   Zhanc, C., Liu, S., Solomon, C.G. and Hu, F.B. (2006) Dietary Fiber Intake, Diatary Glycemic Load, and the Risk for Gestational Diabetes Mellites. Daubers Care, 29, 2223-2230.
https://doi.org/10.2337/dc06-0266

[21]   Moreno-Castilla, C., Mauricio, D. and Hermandez, M. (2016) Role of Medical Nutrition Therapy in the Management of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus. Current Diabetes Reports, 16, 22.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s11892-016-0717-7

[22]   Schwingshackl, L., Hoffmaa, G., Lampusi, A.M., Knippel, S., Iqbal, K., Schwedhelm, C., Bechthold, A., Schlesinger, S. and Boeing, H. (2017) Food Groups and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Prospective Studies. European Journal of Epidemiology, 32, 363-375.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10654-017-0246-y

[23]   Khan, T.A. and Sievenpiper, J.L. (2016) Controversies about Sugars: Result from Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses on Obesity, Cardiometabolic Disease and Diabetes. European Journal of Nutrition, 55, 25-43.

[24]   Thagaard, I.N., Krebs, L., Holm, J.C., Lange, T., Larsen, T. and Christiansen, M. (2017) Adiponectin and Leptin as First Trimester Markers for Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: A Cohort Study. Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, 55, 1805-1812.
https://doi.org/10.1515/cclm-2017-0427

[25]   Mullaney, L., O’Higgins, A.C., Cawley, S., Doolan, A., McCartney, D. and Turner, M.J. (2015) An Estimation of Periconceptional Under-Reporting of Dietary Energy Intake. Journal of Public Health, 37, 728-736.
https://doi.org/10.1093/pubmed/fdu086

[26]   Serci, I. (2008) Diabetes in Pregnancy-Dietary Management. The Practising Midwife, 11, 48-49.

 
 
Top