JWARP  Vol.9 No.12 , November 2017
Water-Energy Prototype Model for the NEMS Modeling Platform: Thermoelectric Water Demand and Its Implications on Regional Electricity Market
Abstract: A simplified energy-water prototype model has been developed at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) as a part of a larger effort to comprehensively model energy-water interactions. The NETL Water-Energy Model (NWEM) prototype passively couples a variety of data on water supply, water availability, and power plant water use with the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) power generation forecasts. NWEM operates at a watershed level and its efficacy in resolving local water supply and water-use trade-offs was demonstrated using data from Sandia National Laboratory along with a water supply scenario projected by the World Resources Institute (WRI). The prototype model only passively utilized a forecast of power generation from an existing forecast; the model’s choices were limited to purchases or retrofitting to meet future water supply constraints. NETL is continuing to integrate the water sub-module into the NEMS framework, which will allow active interaction between the water market and power markets, extending the industry’s ability to re-dispatch its generating units with the price of water as one of the variable costs.
Cite this paper: Shuster, E. , Iyengar, A. , Goudarzi, L. , Keairns, D. , Court, C. and Zelek, C. (2017) Water-Energy Prototype Model for the NEMS Modeling Platform: Thermoelectric Water Demand and Its Implications on Regional Electricity Market. Journal of Water Resource and Protection, 9, 1449-1468. doi: 10.4236/jwarp.2017.912093.

[1]   Goldstein, R. and Smith, W. (2002) Water and Sustainability: U.S. Electricity Consumption for Water Supply and Treatment. EPRI.

[2]   Pate, R., Hightower, M., Cameron, C. and Einfeld, W. (2007) Overview of Energy-Water Interdependencies and the Emerging Demands on Water Resources. Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque.

[3]   Feeley, T.J., Skone, T.J., Stiegel, G., McNemar, A., Nemeth, M., Schimmoller, B., Murphy, J. and Manfredo, L. (2008) Water: A Critical Resource in the Thermoelectric Power Industry. Energy, 33, 1-11.

[4]   NETL National Energy Technology Laboratory (2010) Water Vulnerabilities for Existing Coal-Fired Power Plants. NETL.

[5]   Elcock, D. (2010) Future U.S. Water Consumption: The Role of Energy Production. Journal of the American Water Resources Association, 46, 447-460.

[6]   Sovacool, B.K. and Sovacool, K.E. (2009) Identifying Future Electricity—Water Tradeoffs in the United States. Energy Policy, 37, 2763-2773.

[7]   Dodder, R.S. (2014) A Review of Water Use in the U.S. Electric Power Sector: Insights from System Level Perspectives. U.S. Environmental Energy Science Papers.

[8]   Davies, E.G.R., Kyle, P. and Edmonds, J.A. (2013) An Integrated Assessment of Global and Regional Water Demands for Electricity Generation to 2095. Advances in Water Resources, 52, 296-313.

[9]   Kyle, P., Davies, E.G.R., Dooley, J.J., Smitha, S.J., Clarke, L.E., Edmonds, J.A. and Hejazi, M. (2013) Influence of Climate Change Mitigation Technology on Global Demands of Water for Electricity Generation. International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, 13, 112-123.

[10]   Dooley, J.J., Kyle, P. and Davies, E.G.R. (2013) Climate Mitigation’s Impact on Global and Regional Electric Power Sector Water Use in the 21st Century. Energy Procedia, 37, 2470-2478.

[11]   Hejazi, M., Edmonds, J., Clarke, L., Kyle, P., Davies E., Chaturvedi, V., Wise, M., Patel, P., Eom, J., Calvin, K., Moss, R. and Kim, S. (2014) Long-Term Global Water Projections using Six Socioeconomic Scenarios in an Integrated Assessment Modeling Framework. Technological Forecasting & Social Change, 81, 205-226.

[12]   Liu, L., Hejazi, M., Patel, P., Kyle, P., Davies, E., Zhou, Y., Clarke, L. and Edmonds, J. (2015) Water Demands for Electricity Generation in the U.S.: Modeling Different Scenarios for the Water-Energy Nexus. Technological Forecasting & Social Change, 94, 318-334.

[13]   Chandel, M.K., Pratson, L.F. and Jackson, R.B. (2011) The Potential Impacts of Climate-Change Policy on Freshwater Use in Thermoelectric Power Generation. Energy Policy, 39, 6234-6242.

[14]   Ackerman, F. and Fisher, J. (2013) Is There a Water-Energy Nexus in Electricity Generation? Long-Term Scenarios for the Western United States. Energy Policy, 59, 235-241.

[15]   Roy, S.B., Chen, L., Girvetz, E.H., Maurer, E.P., Mills, W.B. and Grieb, T.M. (2012) Projecting Water Withdrawal and Supply for Future Decades in the U.S. under Climate Change Scenarios. Environmental Science & Technology, 46, 2545-2556.

[16]   Akhtar, M.K.A., Wibe, J., Simonovic, S.P. and MacGee, J. (2013) Integrated Assessment Model of Society-Biosphere-Climate-Economy-Energy System. Environmental Modelling & Software, 49, 1-21.

[17]   Lubega, W.N. and Farid, A.M. (2013) An Engineering Systems Model for the Quantitative Analysis of the Energy-Water Nexus. Complex Systems Design & Management, 219-231.

[18]   Lubega, W.N. and Farid, A.M. (2014) Quantitative Engineering Systems Modeling and Analysis of the Energy-Water Nexus. Applied Energy, 135, 142-157.

[19]   Tidwell, V. and Moreland, B. (2011) Energy and Water in the Great Lakes. Sandia National Laboratories.

[20]   Nanduri, V. and Otieno, W. (2011) A New Water and Carbon Conscious Electricity Market Model for the Electricity-Water-Climate Change Nexus. The Electricity Journal, 24, 64-74.

[21]   Nanduri, V. and Saavedra-Antolínez, I. (2013) A Competitive Markov Decision Process Model for the Energy-Water-Climate Change Nexus. Applied Energy, 111, 186-198.

[22]   Yates, D., Averyt, K., Flores-Lopez, F., Meldrum, J., Sattler, S., Sieber, J. and Young, C. (2013) A Water Resources Model to Explore the Implications of Energy Alternatives in the Southwestern US. Environmental Research Letters, 8, 4.

[23]   Yates, D., Meldrum, J., Flores-Lopez, F. and Davis, M. (2013) Integrated Impacts of Future Electricity Mix Scenarios on Select Southeastern US Water Resources. Environmental Research Letters, 8, 3.

[24]   Yates, D., Meldrum, J. and Averyt, K. (2013) The Influence of Future Electricity Mix Alternatives on Southwestern US Water Resources. Environmental Research Letters, 8, 4.

[25]   Stillwell, A.S. (2013) Water Impacts on Thermoelectric Power Generation. Dissertation, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin.

[26]   Sattler, S., Macknick, J., Yates, D., Flores-Lopez, F., Lopez, A. and Rogers, J. (2012) Linking Electricity and Water Models to Assess Electricity Choices at Relevant Scales. Environmental Research Letters, 7, 4.

[27]   Cohen, S.C., Macknick, J., Averyt, K. and Meldrum, J. (2014) Modeling Climate-Water Impacts on Electricity Sector Capacity Expansion. ASME Power 2014 Conference.

[28]   Macknick, J., Sattler, S., Averyt, K., Clemmer, S. and Rogers, J. (2012) The Water Implications of Generating Electricity: Water Use across the United States Based on Different Electricity Pathways through 2050. Environmental Research Letters, 7, 4.

[29]   Macknick, J., Cohen, S., Newmark, R., Martinez, A., Sullivan, P. and Tidwell, V.C. (2015) Water Constraints in an Electric Sector Capacity Expansion Model. NREL.

[30]   Blanc, E., Strzepek, K., Schlosser, A., Jacoby, H., Gueneau, A., Fant, C., Rausch, S. and Reilly, J. (2014) Modeling U.S. Water Resources under Climate Change. Earth’s Future, 2, 197-244.

[31]   NETL National Energy Technology Laboratory. NETL Water Energy Prototype Model Methodology. NETL.

[32]   Averyt, K., Fisher, J., Huber-Lee, A., Lewis, A., Macknick, J., Madden, N., Rogers, J. and Tellinghuisen, S. (2011) Freshwater Use by U.S. Power Plants: Electricity’s Thirst for a Precious Resource. A Report of the Energy and Water in a Warming World Initiative. Union of Concerned Scientists, Cambridge.

[33]   Water in the West (2013) Water and Energy Nexus: A Literature Review. Water in the West, Stanford University, Stanford.

[34]   Forster, H. and Lilliestam, J. (2010) Modeling Thermoelectric Power Generation in view of Climate Change. Regional Environmental Change, 10, 327-338.

[35]   Loew, A., Jaramillo, P. and Zhai, H. (2016) Marginal Costs of Water Savings from Cooling System Retrofits: A Case Study for Texas Power Plants. Environmental Research Letters, 11, 10.

[36]   Zhai, H., Rubin, E.S. and Versteeg, P.L. (2011) Water Use at Pulverized Coal Power Plants with Post-Combustion Carbon Capture and Storage. Environmental Science & Technology, 45, 2479-2485.