EPE  Vol.9 No.12 , November 2017
Organic Rankine Cycle Based Geothermal Energy for Power Generation in Egypt
Abstract: Low temperature geothermal resources are located in many areas and represent a high potential energy resource. One of the most common technologies, efficient and to exploit this type of resource is the binary cycle technology. Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) is one of the main types of binary cycles. Electricity generation from low enthalpy geothermal energy using ORC is a talented technology. This paper addresses the design of binary cycle power plant utilizing one of the low temperature geothermal resource of temperature 92°C using four alternative working fluids: Butane, Isobutane, Pentane and 1,1,1,3,3-Pentafluoropropan (R245fa). Bir Nabi is the well under consideration which located in the Eastern desert, Egypt. Three operation parameters: geothermal temperature, reinjection temperature and geothermal flow rate are taken into consideration to analyze the performance of the power plant for different fluids. A performance analysis is conducted on ORC binary power plant using MATLAB programming to study the variation of output power and efficiency with the operation parameters. Also, the effect of these parameters on the area of ORC binary cycle power plant components; preheater, evaporator and condenser is presented. The geothermal resources temperatures are in the range of 90°C to130°C, the mass flow rate of the geothermal fluid ranges between 10 kg/s and 50 kg/s and reinjection temperature ranges from 30°C to 70°C. The results indicate that, the highest output power and plant efficiency are obtained with Pentane.
Cite this paper: Atia, D. , Farghally, H. , Ahmed, N. and El-Madany, H. (2017) Organic Rankine Cycle Based Geothermal Energy for Power Generation in Egypt. Energy and Power Engineering, 9, 814-828. doi: 10.4236/epe.2017.912051.

[1]   Wang, H.X., Guo, T. and Zhang, S.J. (2011) Performance Comparison and Parametric Optimization of Subcritical Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) and Transcritical Power Cycle System for Low-Temperature Geothermal Power Generation. Applied Energy, 88, 2740-2754.

[2]   Kopunicová, M. (2009) Feasibility Study of Binary Geothermal Power Plants in Eastern Slovakia: Analysis of ORC and Kalina Power Plants. A Master’s Thesis Done at RES the School for Renewable Energy Science. University of Iceland & the University of Akureyripp, 1-69.

[3]   Franco, A. (2011) Power Production from a Moderate Temperature Geothermal Resource with Regenerative Organic Rankine Cycles. Energy for Sustainable Development, 15, 411-419.


[5]   Climate Technology Centre & Network. Geothermal Systems and Technologies. 103-118.

[6]   Matsuda, K. (2013) Low Heat Power Generation System. Chemical Engineering Transactions, 35, 223-228.

[7]   Khennich, M. and Galanis, N. (2012) Optimal Design of ORC Systems with a Low-Temperature Heat Source. Entropy, 14, 370-389.

[8]   Lashin, A. (2015) Geothermal Resources of Egypt: Country Update. Proceedings World Geothermal Congress 2015, Melbourne, 1-13.

[9]   El-Fiky, A.A. (2009) Hydrogeochemistry and Geothermometry of Thermal Groundwater from the Gulf of Suez Region, Egypt. Earth Sciences, 20, 71-96.

[10]   Kaiser, M.F. and Ahmed, S. (2013) Optimal Thermal Water Locations along the Gulf of Suez Coastal Zones, Egypt. Renewable Energy, 55, 374-379.

[11]   Zaher, M.A., Saibi, H., El Nouby, M., Ghamry, E. and Ehara, S. (2011) A Preliminary Regional Geothermal Assessment of the Gulf of Suez, Egypt. Journal of African Earth Sciences, 60, 117-132.

[12]   Liu, X.M., Wang, X. and Zhang, C.H. (2014) Sensitivity Analysis of System Parameters on the Performance of the Organic Rankine Cycle System for Binary-Cycle Geothermal Power Plants. Applied Thermal Engineering, 71, 175-183.

[13]   Parada, A.F.M. (2013) Geothermal Binary Cycle Power Plant Principles, Operation And Maintenance. Geothermal Training Pro-gramme Reports Orkustofnun. Grensasvegur 9, Number 20, IS-108 Reykjavik, 443-476.

[14]   Budisulistyo, D. and Krumdieck, S. (2015) Thermodynamic and Economic Analysis for the Pre-Feasibility Study of a Binary Geothermal Power Plant. Energy Conversion and Management, 103, 639-649.

[15]   Franco, A. (2012) Maurizio Vaccaro, Design Strategy of Geothermal Plants for Water Dominant Medium-Low Temperature Reservoirs based on Sustainability Issues. Proceedings of Ecos 2012 - The 25th International Conference on Efficiency, Cost, Optimization, Simulation and Environmental Impact of Energy Systems, 26-29 June 2012, Perugia, 1-13.

[16]   Madhawa Hettiarachchia, H.D., Golubovica, M., Woreka, W.M. and Ikegamib, Y. (2007) Optimum Design Criteria for an Organic Rankine Cycle using Low- Temperature Geothermal Heat Sources. Energy, 32, 1698-1706.

[17]   Mikielewicz, D. and Mikielewicz, J. (2016) Criteria for Selection of Working Fluid in Low-Temperature Orc. Chemical and Process Engineering, 37, 429-440.

[18]   Bambang, T.P. and Suyanto, M.D.T. (2011) Model of Binary Cycle Power Plant using Brine as Thermal Energy Sources and Development Potential in Sibayak. International Journal of Electrical & Computer Sciences, 11, 39-47.

[19]   Coskun, A., Bolatturk, A. and Kanoglu, M. (2014) Thermodynamic and Economic Analysis and Optimization of Power Cycles for a Medium Temperature Geothermal Resource. Energy Conversion and Management, 78, 39-49.

[20]   Wakana, F. (2013) Preliminary Study of Binary Power Plant Feasibility Comparing ORC and Kalina for Low-Temperature Re-sources in Rusizi Valley, Burundi. Geothermal Training Programme Reports 2013 Orkustofnun, Grensasvegur 9, Number 36, Is-108 Reykjavik, Icelan, 901-932.

[21]   Franco, A. and Villani, M. (2009) Optimal Design of Binary Cycle Power Plants for Water-Dominated, Medium-Temperature Geothermal Fields. Geothermics, 38, 379-391.

[22]   Swanberg, C.A., Morgan, P. and Boulos, F.K. (1983) Geothermal Potential of Egypt. Tectonophysics, 96, 77-94.