JACEN  Vol.6 No.4 , November 2017
Using Nonconventional Water in Irrigation of Olive Trees and Its Effect on Olive Oil Properties
Abstract: The response of olive orchard with same age and type to irrigation with treated municipal wastewater and freshwater was investigated in three years. Physical and chemical properties of the treated municipal wastewater reuse in agriculture (the effluent) produced by the Sheikh Ejleen wastewater treatment plant in Gaza Strip, freshwater, soil, and olive oil were determined and compared with Palestinian and international standards. The biological oxygen demand (BOD) of Sheikh Ejleen effluent is 60 mg·l-1, which indicates low quality effluent. The results indicate that most of olive oil quality parameters—including heavy metals and trace elements for both fruits irrigated with treated wastewater or irrigated with freshwater—fall within the acceptable standard limit values. Moreover, soil analysis shows that organic content and cation exchange capacity were improved in soil irrigated with treated wastewater in comparison with that irrigated with freshwater. The results also show that there is no trace elements or heavy metals accumulation in soil.
Cite this paper: Barghouthi, Z. , Alimari, A. , Qurie, M. , Amereih, S. , Al-Dadah, J. (2017) Using Nonconventional Water in Irrigation of Olive Trees and Its Effect on Olive Oil Properties. Journal of Agricultural Chemistry and Environment, 6, 222-231. doi: 10.4236/jacen.2017.64015.

[1]   Ministry of Agriculture (2010) Agricultural Sector Strategy 2011-2013 “A Share Vision”. Ministry of Agriculture, Ramallah.

[2]   Ministry of Agriculture (2013) National Agricultural Sector Strategy 2014-2016 “Resilience and Development”. Ministry of Agriculture, Ramallah.

[3]   International Trade Centre (ITC), Ministry of National Economy (MoNE), and Palestine Trade Center (PalTrade) (2010) National Export Strategy “Olive Oil Sector Export Strategy 2014-2018”. Ministry of National Economy, Ramallah.

[4]   Meneley, A. (2011) Blood, Sweat and Tears in a Bottle of Palestinian Extra—Virgin Olive Oil. Food Culture Society, 14, 275-291.

[5]   Joint Advocacy Initiative (JAI) (2016) The Olive Tree Campaign “Keep Hope Alive” Reports 2013-2014 & 2014-2015. East Jerusalem.

[6]   Isaac, J., Ghattas, R. and Hrimat, N. (2015) Palestinian Agricultural Production and Marketing between Reality and Challenges: Executive Summary for a Research Study “Food Production-Consumption Assessment to Improve Sustainable Agriculture and Food Security in the West Bank-Palestine”. The Applied Research Institute-Jerusalem (ARIJ), Bethlehem.

[7]   UNCTAD (2015) The Besieged Palestinian Agricultural Sector. United Nation, New York and Geneva.

[8]   Baalousha, H. (2006) Desalination Status in the Gaza Strip and Its Environmental Impact. Desalination, 196, 1-12.

[9]   Barghouthi, Z. and Gerstetter, C. (2012) Climate Change and Opportunities to Reduce Its Impacts on Agriculture and Water, and Conflict Risks in Palestine. In: Rahil, M. and Natsheh, B., Eds., Water Crises and Agricultural Development in Palestine, Palestine Technical University-Kadoorie, Tulkarm, 39-52.

[10]   El-Jazairi, L. (2010) The Road to Olive Farming: Challenges to Developing the Economy of Olive Oil in the West Bank. Oxfam GB, Oxford.

[11]   Bahri, A. (2008) Water Reuse in Middle Eastern and North African Countries. In: Jimenez, B. and Asano, D., Eds., Water Reuse: An International Survey of Current Practice, Issues and Needs, IWA Publishing, London, 27-47.

[12]   Barghouthi, Z. (2010) Water Scarcity and Opportunities for Saline Water Use in Palestine. In: Sustainable Management of Saline Waters and Salt-Affected Soils in Agriculture: Proceeding of the Second Bridging Workshop, Qadir, M., Wichelns, D., Oster, J., Jacobsen, S.-E., Basra, S.M.A. and Choukr-Allah, R., Eds., ICARDA & IWMI, Aleppo, 85-91.

[13]   Kfouri, C., Mantovani, P. and Jeuland, M. (2009) Water Reuse in MNA Region: Constrains, Experience, and Policy Recommendations. In: Jagannathan., N.V., et al., Eds., Water in the Arab World: Management Perspectives and Innovations, The World Bank, Middle East and North Africa Region, Washington DC, 447-477.

[14]   Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics (PCBS) (2016) Palestinian at the End of 2016. PCBS, Ramallah.

[15]   Consulting Engineering Center-Palestine (2016) Assessment of Wastewater Treatment Technologies in Palestine Report. Personal contact with Ministry of Agriculture, Ramallah.

[16]   APHA, American Public Health Association (1998) Standard Methods for the Examinations of Water and Wastewater. 20th Edition, Washington DC, 20005-2605.

[17]   Palestinian Water Authority (PWA) (2014) Gaza Water Resources Status Report, 2013/2014. PWA, Ramallah.

[18]   UNICEF and Palestinian Hydrology Group (PHG) (2010) Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Household Survey Gaza Report. PHG, Ramallah.