JHRSS  Vol.5 No.4 , December 2017
Cross-Cultural Employee Motivation in International Companies
Abstract: Nowadays, more and more employees come from different countries and regions in international companies and how to effectively motivate these employees becomes a very important issue. This study combines a lot of existing research results with the actual business operation situations. For cross-cultural employees, elaborating on influencing factors and mechanism design of the motivation in detail from significance of work, hierarchy of needs, and dichotomy of internal and external factors as well as the reward and punishment mechanism. It finds that the most fitting motivation methods are different for employees under different cultural backgrounds and provides some references and suggestions for cross-cultural human resource management in international companies.
Cite this paper: Zhao, B. and Pan, Y. (2017) Cross-Cultural Employee Motivation in International Companies. Journal of Human Resource and Sustainability Studies, 5, 215-222. doi: 10.4236/jhrss.2017.54019.

[1]   Ahmad, K. (2013) Leadership and Work Motivation from the Cross Cultural Perspective. International Journal of Commerce & Management, 19, 72-84.

[2]   Ang, S.H. (2000) The Power of Money: A Cross-Cultural Analysis of Business-Re- lated Beliefs. Journal of World Business, 35, 43-60.

[3]   Park, J. and Nawakitphaitoon, K. (2017) The Cross-Cultural Study of LMX and Individual Employee Voice: The Moderating Role of Conflict Avoidance. Human Resource Management Journal, 4, 1-17.

[4]   Chen, G., Kirkman, B.L., Kim, K., Farh, C.I.C. and Tangirala, S. (2010) When Does Cross-Cultural Motivation Enhance Expatriate Effectiveness? A Multilevel Investigation of the Moderating Roles of Subsidiary Support and Cultural Distance. Academy of Management Journal, 53, 1110-1130.

[5]   Ishii, K., Mojaverian, T., Masuno, K. and Kim, H.S. (2017) Cultural Differences in Motivation for Seeking Social Support and the Emotional Consequences of Receiving Support: The Role of Influence and Adjustment Goals. Journal of Cross-Cul- tural Psychology, 48, 1442-1456.

[6]   Tung, R.L. (1981) Patterns of Motivation in Chinese Industrial Enterprises. Academy of Management Review, 6, 481-489.

[7]   Nardon, L. and Steers, R.M. (2014) Managing Cross-Cultural Encounters: Putting Things in Context. Organizational Dynamics, 43, 138-145.

[8]   Jamal, M. (2015) Job Stress and Employee Well-Being: A Cross-Cultural Empirical Study. Stress & Health, 15, 153-158.

[9]   Jönsson, S., Denti, L., Chen, K. and Muhonen, T. (2013) Social Climate as a Mediator between Leadership Behavior and Employee Well-Being in a Cross-Cultural Perspective. Journal of Management Development, 32, 1040-1055.

[10]   Liu, S., Schuler, R.S. and Zhang, P. (2013) External Learning Activities and Employee Creativity in Chinese R&D Teams. Cross Cultural Management—An International Journal, 20, 429-448.

[11]   Jiao, C., Richards, D.A. and Hackett, R.D. (2013) Organizational Citizenship Behavior and Role Breadth: A Meta-Analytic and Cross-Cultural Analysis. Human Resource Management, 52, 697-714.

[12]   Ahammad, M.F., Tarba, S.Y., Liu, Y. and Glaister, K.W. (2014) Knowledge Transfer and Cross-Border Acquisition Performance: The Impact of Cultural Distance and Employee Retention. International Business Review, 25, 66-75.

[13]   Farndale, E. and Murrer, I. (2015) Job Resources and Employee Engagement: A Cross-national Study. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 30, 610-626.

[14]   Berberoglu, F., Dalyan, C.C., Wong, A., et al. (2013) Organizational Practices across Cultures: An Exploration in Six Cultural Contexts. International Journal of Cross Cultural Management, 14, 105-125.

[15]   Garczynski, A.M., Waldrop, J.S., Rupprecht, E.A. and Grawitch, M.J. (2013) Differentiation between Work and Nonwork Self-Aspects as a Predictor of Presenteeism and Engagement: Cross-Cultural Differences. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 18, 417-429.