Back
 JWARP  Vol.9 No.12 , November 2017
Effect of Transient Acid Spikes on Developmental Stages of Lepomis Fishes
Abstract: The effects of transient acid spikes on development of Lepomis sunfish were studied by combining field work with laboratory studies. Lepomis sunfish eggs were collected from rocks on nests in two freshwater ponds and tested for their resistance to laboratory induced transient acid spikes. Fertilized eggs on rocks within the same nest were used for each pH transient experiment. Egg masses on one rock from the nest were used as a control while egg masses on another rock were exposed to transient acid spikes. Various stages of development showed different responses to the acidic effects. The major stages studied were fertilized egg, hatched with attached yolk sac, and free swimming with gills. The acid sensitivity followed development stages with the most acid sensitive stage being free swimming with gills. This fieldwork-laboratory data chain supports earlier field studies, providing the final link in an evidentiary chain showing the effects of transient acid spikes on Lepomis hatching profiles in freshwater ponds.
Cite this paper: Hagar, W. , Xu, Q. and Ebersole, J. (2017) Effect of Transient Acid Spikes on Developmental Stages of Lepomis Fishes. Journal of Water Resource and Protection, 9, 1391-1402. doi: 10.4236/jwarp.2017.912089.
References

[1]   Frommel, A.Y., Maneja, R., Lowe, D., Pascoe, C.K., Geffen, A.J. Folkvord, A., Piatkowski, U. and Clemmesen, C. (2014) Organ damage in Atlantic Herring Larvae as a Result of Ocean Acidification. Ecological Applications, 24, 1131-1143.
https://doi.org/10.1890/13-0297.1

[2]   Lawrence, G.B. (2002) Persistent Episodic Acidification of Streams Linked to Acid Rain Effects on Soil. Atmospheric Environmentm, 36, 1589-1598.
https://doi.org/10.1016/S1352-2310(02)00081-X

[3]   Lacoul, P., Freedman, B. and Clair, T. (2011) Effects of Acidification on Aquatic Biota in Atlantic Canada. Environmental Reviews, 19, 429-460.
https://doi.org/10.1139/a11-016

[4]   Dunford R.W., Donoghue, D.N.M. and Burt, T.P. (2012) Forest Land Cover Continues to Exacerbate Freshwater Acidification Despite Decline in Sulphate Emissions. Environmental Pollution, 167, 58-69.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2012.03.022

[5]   Beamish R.J. and Harvey, H.H. (1972) Acidification of the La Cloche Mountain Lakes, Ontario and Resulting Fish Mortalities. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada, 29, 1131-1143.
https://doi.org/10.1139/f72-169

[6]   Baker, J.P., Warren-Hicks, W.J., Gallagher, J. and Christensen, S.W. (1993) Fish Population Losses from Adirondack Lakes: The Role of Surface Water Acidity and Acidification. Water Resources Research, 29, 861-874.
https://doi.org/10.1029/92WR02329

[7]   Heard, R.M., Sharpe, W.E., Carline, R.F. and Kimmel, W.G. (1997) Episodic Acidification and Changes in Fish Diversity in Pennsylvania Headwater Streams. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society, 126, 977-984.
https://doi.org/10.1577/1548-8659(1997)126<0977:EAACIF>2.3.CO;2

[8]   Hesthagen, T. and Jonsson, B. (2002) Life History Characteristics of Brown Trout in Lakes at Different Stages of Acidification. Journal of Fish Biology, 60, 415-426.
https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8649.2002.tb00290.x

[9]   Seiler, S.M. and Turner, A.M. (2004) Growth and Population Size of Crayfish in Headwater Streams: Individual- and Higher-Level Consequences of Acidification, Freshwater Biology, 49, 870-881.
https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2427.2004.01231.x

[10]   Hünken, A. and Mutz, M. (2007) On the Ecology of the Filter-Feeding Neureclipsis bimaculata (Trichoptera, Polycentropodidae) in an Acid and Iron Rich Post-Mining Stream. Hydrobiologia, 592, 135-150.
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10750-007-0735-1

[11]   Duis, K. and Oberemm, A. (2000) Survival and Sublethal Responses of Early Life Stages of Pike Exposed to Low pH in Artificial Post-Mining Lake Water. Journal of Fish Biology, 57, 597-613.
https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8649.2000.tb00263.x

[12]   Baldigo, B.P., Murdoch, P.S. and Burns, D.A. (2006) Stream Acidification and Mortality of Brook Trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) in Response to Timber Harvest in Catskill Mountain Watersheds, New York, USA. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 62, 1168-1183.
https://doi.org/10.1139/f05-022

[13]   Stephens, F.J. and Ingram, M. (2006) Two Cases of Fish Mortality in Low pH, Aluminium Rich Water. Journal of Fish Diseases, 29, 765-770.
https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2761.2006.00772.x

[14]   Schindler, K.W., Mills, K.H., Malley, D.F., Findlay, D.I., Shearer, J.A., Davies, I.J., Turner, M.A., Linsey, G.A. and Cruikshank, D.R. (1985) Long-Term Ecosystem Stress: The Effects of Years of Acidification on a Small Lake. Science, 228, 1395-1401.
https://doi.org/10.1126/science.228.4706.1395

[15]   Watras, C.J. and Frost, T.M. (1989) Little Rock Lake, Wisconsin: Perspective on an Experimental Ecosystem Approach to Acidification. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 18, 157-165.
https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01056200

[16]   Webster, K.B., Frost, T.M., Watras, C.J., Swenson, W.A., Gonzalez, M. and Garrison, P.J. (1992) Complex Biological Responses to the Experimental Acidification of Little Rock Lake, Wisconsin, USA. Environmental Pollution, 78, 73-78.
https://doi.org/10.1016/0269-7491(92)90012-Y

[17]   Mills, K.H., Chalanchuk, S.M. and Allan, D.J. (2000) Recovery of Fish Populations in Lake 223 from Experimental Acidification. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science, 57, 192-204.
https://doi.org/10.1139/f99-186

[18]   Lachance, S., Berube, P. and Lemieux, M. (2000) In Situ Survival and Growth of Three Brook Trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) Strains Subjected to Acid Conditions of Anthropogenic Origin at the Egg and Fingerling Stages. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science, 57, 1562-1573.
https://doi.org/10.1139/f00-089

[19]   Hudd, R. (2000) Springtime Episodic Acidification as a Regulatory Factor of Estuary Spawning Fish Recruitment. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Helsinki, Helsinki.

[20]   Warren, D.R., Sebestyen, S.D., Josephson, D.C., Lepak, J.M. and Kraft, C.E. (2005) Acidic Groundwater Discharge and In Situ Egg Survival in Redds of Lake-Spawning Brook Trout. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society, 134, 1193-1201.
https://doi.org/10.1577/T04-180.1

[21]   Jarrett, J.N., Cutler, M.B., Ebersole, J.P. and Hagar, W.G. (1993) Seasonal Variation in pH and Alkalinity and Recruitment of Sunfish Populations. Freshwater Biology, 30, 409-417.
https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2427.1993.tb00824.x

[22]   Stallsmith, B.W., Ebersole, J.P. and Hagar, W.G. (1996) Differences in Lepomis Sunfish Young-of-the-Year Growth Patterns over Three Years in Two Ponds of Different Buffering Capacity in Massachusetts, USA. Freshwater Biology, 36, 731-744.
https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2427.1996.00124.x

[23]   Stallsmith, B.W. (1995) The Effects of Acid Rain on Lepomis Reproduction in Two Ponds. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Massachusetts Boston, Boston.

[24]   Scott, W.B. and Crossman, E.J. (1973) Freshwater Fishes of Canada. Bulletin of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada, 184, 966 p.

[25]   Lee, D.S., Gilbert, C.R., Hocutt, C.H., Jenkins, R.E., McAllister, D.E. and Stauffer Jr., J.R. (1980) Atlas of North American Freshwater Fishes. North Carolina State Museum of Natural History.

[26]   Hubbs, C.L. and Hubbs, L.C. (1933) The Increased Growth, Predominant Maleness, and Apparent Infertility of Hybrid Sunfishes. Papers of the Michigan Academy of Science, 17, 613-641.

[27]   Childers, W.F. (1971) Hybridization of Fishes in North America (Family Centrarchidae). Representative FAO/UNDP (TA), 2926, 133-142.

[28]   Zigler, S.J. and Jennings, C.A. (1993) Growth and Mortality of Larval Sunfishes in Backwaters of the Upper Mississippi River. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society, 122, 1080-1087.
https://doi.org/10.1577/1548-8659(1993)122<1080:GAMOLS>2.3.CO;2

[29]   Mittelbach, G.G. (1984) Predation and Resource Partitioning in Two Sunfishes (Centrarchidae). Ecology, 65, 499-513.
https://doi.org/10.2307/1941412

[30]   Palmer, R.E., Klauda, R.J. and Lewis, T.E. (1988) Comparative Sensitivities of Bluegill, Channel Catfish and Fathead Minnow to pH and Aluminum. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 7, 505-516.
https://doi.org/10.1002/etc.5620070610

[31]   Hagar, W.G., Crosby, B. and Stallsmith, B. (2000) Comparing and Assessing Acid Rain Sensitive Ponds. Journal of Hazardous Material, 74, 125-131.
https://doi.org/10.1016/S0304-3894(99)00203-4

[32]   Baker, J.P. and Schofield, C.L. (1982) Aluminum Toxicity to Fish in Acidic Waters. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, 18, 289-309.
https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02419419

[33]   Malcolm, I.A., Bacon, P.J., Middlemas, S.J., Fryer, R.J., Shilland, E.M. and Collen, P. (2014) Relationship between Hydrochemistry and the Presence of Juvenile Brown Trout (Salmo trutta) in Headwater Streams Recovering from Acidification. Ecological Indicators, 37, 351-364.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2012.02.029

[34]   Delonay, A.J., Little, E.E., Woodward, D.F., Brumbaugh, W.G., Farag, A.M. and Rabeni, C.F. (1993) Sensitivity of Early-Life-Stage Golden Trout to Low pH and Elevated Aluminum. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 12, 1223-1232.
https://doi.org/10.1002/etc.5620120711

[35]   Ormerod, S.J., Boole, P., McCahon, C.P., Weatherley, N.S., Pascoe, D. and Edwards, R.W. (1987) Short-Term Experimental Acidification of a Welsh Stream: Comparing the Biological Effects of Hydrogen Ions and Aluminium. Freshwater Biology, 17, 341-325.
https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2427.1987.tb01054.x

[36]   Bil’ko, V.P. (1998) The Effect of pH on the Fish Eggs at Various Stages of Their Development. Hydrobiological Journal, 34, 40-45.
https://doi.org/10.1615/HydrobJ.v34.i1.60

[37]   Jellyman, P.G. and Harding, J.S. (2014) Variable Survival across Low pH Gradients in Freshwater Fish Species. Journal of Fish Biology, 85, 1746-1752.
https://doi.org/10.1111/jfb.12497

[38]   Geffen, A.J. (1990) Response of Rainbow Smelt, Osmerus mordax (Mitchill), Eggs to Low pH. Journal of Fish Biology, 37, 865-871.
https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8649.1990.tb03590.x

[39]   Sayer, M.D.J., Reader, J.P. and Dalziel, T.R.K. (1993) Freshwater Acidification: Effects on the Early Life Stages of Fish. Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries, 3, 95-132.
https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00045228

[40]   Reader, J.P., Dalziel, T.R.K., Morris, R., Sayer, M.D.J. and Dempsey, C.H. (1991) Episodic Exposure to Acid and Aluminum in Soft Water: Survival and Recovery of Brown Trout, Salmo trutta L. Journal of Fish Biology, 2, 181-196.
https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8649.1991.tb04355.x

[41]   Serrano, I., Buffam, I., Palm, D., Brännäs, E. and Laudon, H. (2008) Thresholds for Survival of Brown Trout during the Spring Flood Acid Pulse in Streams High in Dissolved Organic Carbon. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society, 137, 1363-1377.
https://doi.org/10.1577/T07-069.1

 
 
Top