Back
 GEP  Vol.5 No.11 , November 2017
Proliferation of Salvinia molesta at Lake Kyoga Landing Sites as a Result of Anthropogenic Influences
Abstract: Salvinia molesta (native of south-eastern Brazil) is a free floating aquatic fern that has spread to several countries around the globe including Uganda. Under optimum growing conditions, the plant is capable of spreading rapidly where it can have immense environmental, economic and human health impacts. Thick mats of the weed have been recorded in some parts of Lake Kyoga, Uganda where it hinders the abstraction of water, docking and boat take-off, bathing and swimming activities. Therefore this study aimed to determine the extent of S. molesta at selected landing sites in Lake Kyoga and the influence of anthropogenic activities on the weed coverage as well as the effect of physico-chemical parameters of the water on the development of the weed. Quadrats were used to ascertain the coverage of S. molesta while the physico-chemical parameters were determined by standard methods. The results showed significant positive correlation of S. molesta weed coverage with phosphates (PO4-P) and negative correlations with pH, dissolved oxygen (DO) and water flow rate. Though statistically insignificant waste sites recorded the highest overall S. molesta coverage (82.61 ± 21.12 m2) per 400 m2 quadrat followed by boat docks (82.24 ± 19.45 m2), gardens (50.93 ± 11.82 m2) and finally fishing areas (27.94 ± 5.93 m2) respectively. The overall weed coverage was highest around the shoreline locations of Acholi inn landing site (101.72 ± 22.89 m2 per 400 m2) followed by Masindi port (60.39 ± 15.64 m2), Waitumba (41.89 ± 10.55 m2) and the least in the offshore location at Kayei landing site (39.71 ± 10.17 m2). Salvinia molesta distribution in Lake Kyoga is linked to nutrient (PO4-P) supply, proximity to the shoreline and the associated anthropogenic activities. Hence waste sites, gardens and boat docks enhance S. molesta invasion in Lake Kyoga. Therefore, sources of nutrients (phosphates) into Lake Kyoga that favour the proliferation of S. molesta should be minimized through adequate waste treatment and prohibition of cultivation close to the lake. Salvinia molesta coverage along the routes of moving boats should also be contained so as to reduce the spread of the weed in the lake through boat movements. Furthermore, eradication efforts of S. molesta weed in Lake Kyoga should be heightened at the shoreline areas of the lake in the various landing sites within the lake basin.
Cite this paper: Andama, M. , Ongom, R. and Lukubye, B. (2017) Proliferation of Salvinia molesta at Lake Kyoga Landing Sites as a Result of Anthropogenic Influences. Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection, 5, 160-173. doi: 10.4236/gep.2017.511012.
References

[1]   Ogutu-Ohwayo, R., Hecky, R.E., Cohen, A.S. and Kaufman, L. (1997) Human Impacts on the African Great Lakes. Environmental Biology of Fishes, 50, 117-131.
https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1007320932349

[2]   Japan International Cooperation Agency, JICA (2011) The Development Study on Water Resources Development and Management for Lake Kyoga Basin in the Republic of Uganda. Final Report Summary.
http://open_jicareport.jica.go.jp/pdf/12025201_01.pdf

[3]   Kaggwa, R., Hogan, R. and Gowa, E. (2004) Policy Brief: Land Use Change, Land Degradation and Human Welfare: Lessons Learned from the Lake Kyoga Catchment Area. UNDP-UNEP Poverty-Environment Initiative, Nairobi.

[4]   Gyllenhammar, A. (n.d.) Using Modeling, Gis and Remote Sensing to Understand an African Lake.
http://wldb.ilec.or.jp/ILBMTrainingMaterials/resources/Kyoga.pdf

[5]   State of the River Nile Basin (2012) The Role of Inland Water Transport in Support of Further Regional Integration.
http://nileis.nilebasin.org/system/files/Nile%20SoB%20Report%20
Chapter%207%20-%20Transport.pdf


[6]   Fisheries Training Institute (2004) Selected Fish Landing Sites and Fishing Communities. Survey Undertaken by Fisheries Training Institute for the DFID Project: Impacts of Globalisation on Fish Utilisation and Marketing Systems in Uganda.
https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/media/57a08cd8e5274a31e00014b2/R8112k.pdf

[7]   Wanda, F.M., Balirwa, J.S., Ogwanga, J.A., Moro, R. and Amondito, B. (2015) A New Water Weed, Giant Salvinia (Salvinia molesta), Invades Lake Kyoga, Jinja, Uganda. National Fisheries Resources Research Institute.
http://aquaticcommons.org/20322/1/A%20new%20water%20weed
%2Cgiant%20salvinia.pdf


[8]   Room, P.M. and Thomas, P.A. (1986) Population Growth of the Floating Weed Salvinia molesta: Field Observation and a Global Model Based on Temperature and Nitrogen. Journal of Applied Ecology, 23, 1013-1028.
https://doi.org/10.2307/2403952

[9]   Nelson, L. (2014) Giant and Common Salvinia. In: Gettys, L.A., Haller, W.T. and Petty, D.G., Eds., Biology and Control of Aquatic Plants: A Best Management Practices Handbook, 3rd Edition, Aquatic Ecosystem Restoration Foundation, Marietta, GA, 157-164.
http://www.aquatics.org/bmp%203rd%20edition.pdf

[10]   Pieterse, A.H. (2000) Aquatic Weed Management. In: van Rijn, P.J., Ed., Weed Management in the Humid and Sub-humid Tropics, Royal Tropical Institute, Amsterdam, 169-176.

[11]   Sculthorpe, C.D. (1967) The Biology of Aquatic Vascular Plants. Edwards Arnold, London.

[12]   Jacono, C.C. (1999) Salvinia molesta (Salviniaceae), New to Texas and Louisiana. Sida, 18, 927-928.

[13]   McFarland, D.G., Nelson, L.S., Grodowitz, M.J., Smart, R.M., Mitchell, D.S. and Owens, C.S. (2004) Salvinia molesta (Giant Salvinia) in the United States: A Review of Species Ecology and Management. Aquatic Plant Control Research Programm.
http://acwc.sdp.sirsi.net/client/search/asset/1002855;jsessionid=916
3D57D15D87DCC8A51D2DE051B93EC.enterprise-15000


[14]   Arti, L. (2016) Salvinia molesta: An Assessment of the Effects and Methods of Eradication. Master’s Projects and Capstones, 572.
http://repository.usfca.edu/capstone/572

[15]   Wandera, S. (2015) Egypt in Research on Uganda’s Dangerous New Water Weed.
http://mobile.monitor.co.ug/News/Egypt-research-Uganda-s-dangerous-new-
water-weed/2466686-3006260-format-xhtml-bppacuz/index.html


[16]   Bonnet, A.L.M. (1955) Contribution to the Study of Hydropteridees: Research on Salvinia auriculata Aubl. Annals of Botanical and Natural Sciences. Plant Biology, 16, 529-601.

[17]   Pieterse, A.H., Kettunen, M., Diouf, S., Ndao, I., Sarr, K., Tarvainen, A., Kloff, S. and Hellsten, S. (2003) Effective Biological Control of Salvinia molesta in the Senegal River by Means of the Weevil Cyrtobagous salviniae. AMBIO: A Journal of the Human Environment, 32, 458-462.
https://doi.org/10.1579/0044-7447-32.7.458

[18]   Mitchell, D.S. and Tur, N.M. (1975) The Rate of Growth of Salvinia molesta (S. auriculata Auct.) in Laboratory and Natural Conditions. Journal of Applied Ecology, 12, 213-225.
https://doi.org/10.2307/2401730

[19]   Ashton, P.J. and Mitchell, D.S. (1989) Aquatic Plants: Pattern and Modes of Invasion, Attributes of Invading Species and Assessment of Control Programmes. In: Drake, J.A., Mooney, H.A., di Castri, F., Groves, R.H., Kroger, J., Rejmánek, R. and Williamson, M., Eds., Biological Invasions: A Global Perspective, John Wiley, Chichester, 111-154.

[20]   Oliver, J.D. (1993) A Review of the Biology of Giant Salvinia (Salvinia molesta Mitchell). Journal of Aquatic Plant Management, 31, 227-231.

[21]   Room, P.M. (1990) Ecology of a Simple Plant-Herbivore System. Biological Control of Salvinia. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 5, 74-79.
https://doi.org/10.1016/0169-5347(90)90234-5

[22]   Room, P.M. and Thomas, P.A. (1986) Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium in Salvinia molesta Mitchell in the Field: Effects of Weather, Insect Damage, Fertilizers and Age. Aquatic Botany, 24, 213-232.
https://doi.org/10.1016/0304-3770(86)90058-6

[23]   CABI (2017) Datasheet, Salvinia molesta (Kariba Weed).
http://www.cabi.org/isc/datasheet/48447

[24]   Madsen, J.D. and Wersal, R.M. (2008) Growth Regulation of Salvinia molesta by pH and Available Water Column Nutrients. Journal of Freshwater Ecology, 23, 305-313.
https://doi.org/10.1080/02705060.2008.9664203

[25]   Labrada, R. and Fornasari, L. (2002) Management of Problematic Aquatic Weeds in Africa: FAO Efforts and Achievements during the Period 1991-2001. FAO, Rome.

[26]   Forno, I.W. (1987) Biological Control of the Floating Fern Salvinia molesta in North Eastern Australia: Plant-Herbivore Interactions. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 77, 9-17.
https://doi.org/10.1017/S0007485300011482

[27]   van Oosterhout, E., Coventry, R., Julien, M. and Rainbird, R. (2006) Salvinia Control Manual. Management and Control Options for Salvinia (Salvinia molesta) in Australia. NSW Department of Primary Industries, Sydney.

[28]   Cilliers, C.J. (1991) Biological Control of Water Fern, Salvinia molesta (Salviniaceae), in South Africa. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 37, 219-224.
https://doi.org/10.1016/0167-8809(91)90150-V

[29]   Room, P.M., Harley, K.L.S., Forno, I.W. and Sands, D.P.A. (1981) Successful Biological Control of the Floating Weed Salvinia. Nature, 294, 78-80.
https://doi.org/10.1038/294078a0

[30]   Room, P.M., Sands, D.P.A., Forno, I.W., Taylor, M.F.J. and Julien, M.H. (1985) A Summary of Research into Biological Control of Salvinia in Australia. In: Delfosse, E.S., Ed., Proceedings of the Sixth International Symposium on the Biological Control of Weeds, Vancouver, 19-25 August 1984, 543-549.

[31]   Thomas, P.A. and Room, P.M. (1985) Towards Biological Control of Salvinia in Papua New Guinea. In: Deifosse, E.S., Ed., Proceedings of the Sixth International Symposium on the Biological Control of Weeds, Vancouver, 19-25 August 1984, 567-574.

[32]   Thomas, P.A. and Room, P.M. (1986) Taxonomy and Control of Saivinia molesta. Nature, 320, 581-584.
https://doi.org/10.1038/320581a0

[33]   National Environment Management Authority (NEMA) (2001) National State of the Environment Report for Uganda, 2000/2001. National Environment Management Authority (NEMA), Kampala.

[34]   National Environment Management Authority, NEMA (2008) Pilot Integrated Environment Assessment of the Lake Kyoga Catchment Area. National Environment Management Authority (NEMA), Kampala.

[35]   Burgis, M. and Symoens, J.J. (1987) Lake Kyoga and Associated Lakes. In: African Wetlands and Shallow Water Bodies.

[36]   Mungoma, S. (1988) Horizontal Differentiation in the Limnology of a Tropical River-Lake (Lake Kyoga, Uganda). Hydrobiologia, 162, 89-96.
https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00014336

[37]   Twongo, T. (1991) The Fisheries of the Kyoga Lakes and the Likely Impact on Them by Human Activities in the Catchment. Uganda Freshwater Fisheries Research Organization, Jinja.

[38]   Ongom, R., Andama, M. and Lukubye, B. (2017) Physico-Chemical Quality of Lake Kyoga at Selected Landing Sites and Anthropogenic Activities. Journal of Water Resource and Protection, 9, 1225-1243.
https://doi.org/10.4236/jwarp.2017.911080

[39]   Baxter, J. (n.d.) Vegetation Sampling Using the Quadrat Method.
https://www.researchgate.net/file.PostFileLoader.html?id=57c5b20adc332d2a054
244ad&assetKey=AS%3A400818403594240%401472573962223


[40]   Curtis, J.T. and Mcintosh, R.P. (1950) The Interrelations of Certain Analytic and Synthetic Phytosociological Characters. Ecology, 31, 434-455.
https://doi.org/10.2307/1931497

[41]   Cottam, G. and Curtis, J.T. (1956) The Use of Distance Measures in Phytosociological Sampling. Ecology, 37, 451-460.
https://doi.org/10.2307/1930167

[42]   Cohen, A.S., Kaufman, L. and Ogutu-Ohwayo, R. (1996) Anthropogenic Threats, Impacts and Conservation Strategies in the African Great Lakes—A Review. In: Johnson, T.C. and Odada, E., Eds., The Limnology, Climatology and Paleoclimatology of the East African Lakes, Gordon & Breach Scientific Publishers, Toronto.

[43]   Nriagu, J. (1992) Toxic Metal Pollution in Africa. The Science of the Total Environment, 121, 1-37.
https://doi.org/10.1016/0048-9697(92)90304-B

[44]   Cary, P.R. and Weerts, P.G.J. (1983) Growth of Salvinia molesta as Affected by Water Temperature and Nutrition: Effects of Nitrogen Level and Nitrogen Compounds. Aquatic Botany, 16, 163-172.
https://doi.org/10.1016/0304-3770(83)90091-8

[45]   Julien, M., McFadyen, R. and Cullen, J. (2012) Biological Control of Weeds in Australia. CSIRO Publishing, Clayton.

[46]   Mitchell, D.S. (1979) The Incidence and Management of Salvinia molesta in Papua, New Guinea. Department of Primary Industry, Papua New Guinea, 62.

[47]   Aloo, P., Ojwang, W., Omondi, R., Njiru, J.M. and Oyugi, D. (2013) A Review of the Impacts of Invasive Aquatic Weeds on the Biodiversity of Some Tropical Water Bodies with Special Reference to Lake Victoria (Kenya). Biodiversity Journal, 4, 471-482.

[48]   Hecky, R.E. and Bugenyi, F.W.B. (1992) Hydrology and Chemistry of the Great Lakes and Water Quality Issues: Problems and Solutions. Mitteilungen Internationale Vereinigung für Limnologie, 23, 45-54.

[49]   Divakaran, O., Arunachalam, M. and Balakrishnan Nair, N. (1980) Growth Rates of Salvhtia molesta with Special Reference to Salinity. Plant Science, 89, 161-168.

[50]   Lavelle, P. and Spain, A.V. (2001) Soil Ecology. Kluwer Academic Publishers, New York.
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-017-5279-4

[51]   Davis, R. and Hirji, R. (2003) Water Resources and Environment, Technical Note C.2. Environmental Flows: Case Studies. Management of Aquatic Plants. Technical Note G4, The World Bank Publication, Washington DC.

[52]   National Fisheries Resources Research Institute, NaFIRRI (2007) A Study on Stock Enhancement/Restocking of the Kyoga Basin Lakes. A Review of Kyoga Basin Lakes. National Fisheries Resources Research Institute (NaFIRRI), Jinja.

[53]   Global Invasive Species Database (2010) Salvinia molesta (Aquatic Plant, Herb).
http://issg.org/database/species/ecology.asp?si=569&fr=1&sts=&lang=EN

[54]   Parsons, W.T. and Cuthbertson, E.G. (1992) Noxious Weeds of Australia. Inkata Press, Melbourne, 692 p.

[55]   Gewertz, D.B. (1983) Sepik River Societies. Yale University Press, New Haven, 196-217.

[56]   Chikwenhere, G.P. and Keswani, C.L. (1997) Economics of Biological Control of Kariba Weed (Salvinia molesta Mitchell) at Tengwe in North-Western Zimbabwe—A Case Study. International Journal of Pest Management, 43, 109-112.
https://doi.org/10.1080/096708797228780

[57]   State of the River Nile Basin (2012) The Role of Inland Water Transport in Support of Further Regional Integration.
http://nileis.nilebasin.org/system/files/Nile%20SoB%20Report%20
Chapter%207%20-%20Transport.pdf


[58]   Petr, T. (2000) Interactions between Fish and Aquatic Macrophytes in Inland Waters. A Review. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper No. 396, FAO, Rome.

[59]   Kongere, P.C. (1979) The Salvinia Infestation on Lake Naivasha in Kenya. Swedish Fund-in-Trust, Project TF-RAF 112(SWE), Suppl. 1, FAO, Rome, 143-153.

 
 
Top