JACEN  Vol.6 No.4 , November 2017
Phyto-Fungicides: Structure Activity Relationships of the Thymol Derivatives against Rhizoctonia solani
Abstract: Thymol, the key component of the thyme oil and its derivatives were evaluated for their structure activity relationship as fungicide against Rhizoctonia solani. Since plant-based chemicals are considered as “Generally Recognized as Safe” (GRAS) chemicals, there is great potential to use those and synthetic derivatives against R. solani and other fungal pathogens, in vitro, and in the greenhouse or field conditions. Among the six thymol derivatives evaluated, thymol acetate was considered as the most suitable commercially viable plant-based fungicide due to its superior efficacy as well as lowest residue.
Cite this paper: Chauhan, K. , Le, T. , Chintakunta, P. and Lakshman, D. (2017) Phyto-Fungicides: Structure Activity Relationships of the Thymol Derivatives against Rhizoctonia solani. Journal of Agricultural Chemistry and Environment, 6, 175-185. doi: 10.4236/jacen.2017.64012.

[1]   Gao, T., Zhou, H., Zhou, W., Hu, L., Chen, J. and Shi, Z. (2016) The Fungicidal Activity of Thymol against Fusarium graminearum via Inducing Lipid Peroxidation and Disrupting Ergosterol Biosynthesis. Molecules, 21, 770.

[2]   Gill, T.A., Li, J., Doppler, M. and Scofield, S.R. (2016) Thymol-Based Sub-Micron Emulsions Exhibit Antifungal Activity against Fusarium graminearum and Inhibit Fusarium Head Blight (FHB) in Wheat. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 121, 1103-1116.

[3]   Ahmad, A., Khan, A., Akhtar, F., Yousuf, S., Xess, I., Khan, L.A. and Manzoor, N. (2011) Fungicidal Activity of Thymol and Carvacrol by Disrupting Ergosterol Biosynthesis and Membrane Integrity against Candida. European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases, 30, 41-50.

[4]   Castro, R.D., Souza, T.M.P.A., Bezerra, L.M.D., Ferreira, G.L.S., Costa, E.M.M.B. and Cavalcanti, A.L. (2015) Antifungal Activity and Mode of Action of Thymol and Its Synergism with Nystatin against Candida Species Involved with Infections in the Oral Cavity: An in vitro Study. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 15, 417.

[5]   Hu, D. and Coats, J. (2008) Evaluation of the Environmental Fate of Thymol and Phenethyl Propionate in the Laboratory. Pest Management Science, 64, 775-779.

[6]   Lakshman, D.K., Alkharouf, N., Roberts, D.P., Mitra, A. and Natarajan, S.S. (2012) Gene Expression Profiling of the Plant Pathogenic Basidiomycetous Fungus Rhizoctonia solani AG 4 Reveals Putative Virulence Factors. Mycologia, 104, 1020-1035.

[7]   Papavizas, G.C. and Lewis, J.A. (1986) Isolating, Identifying, and Producing Inoculum of Rhizoctonia solani. In: Hickey, K.D., Ed., Methods for Evaluating Pesticides for Control of Plant Pathogens, The American Phytopathological Society Press, St. Paul, MN, 50-53.

[8]   Lakshman, D.K., Chauhan, K.R., Pandey, R. and Choudhury, B. (2017) Evaluation of Plant-Based Antifungal Chemicals and Control of Damping-Off Caused by Rhizoctonia solani. Biopesticides International, 13, 21-34.

[9]   Guadalupe, A.-L., Araceli, P.-V., Francisco, H.-L., Myrna, D.-C., Robert, B., Edelmira, L. and Rachel, M. (2010) Antinociceptive Effect of Extracts and Compounds from Hofmeisteria schaffneri. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 131, 425-432.

[10]   Hyoungsu, K., Ceshea, M.W., Yongho, P. and Jiyong, H (2007) Stereoselective Synthesis of Tetrahydrofuran Lignans via BF3·OEt2-Promoted Reductive Deoxygenation/Epimerization of Cyclic Hemiketal: Synthesis of (?)-Odoratisol C, (?)-Futokadsurin A, (?)-Veraguensin, (+)-Fragransin A2, (+)-Galbelgin, and (+)-Talaumidin. Organic Letters, 9, 3965-3968.

[11]   Sinclair, J.B. and Dhingra O.D. (1995) Basic Plant Pathology Methods. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fl, 448 p.

[12]   Vincent, J.M. (1947) Distortion of Fungal Hyphae in the Presence of Certain Inhibitors. Nature, 159, 850.

[13]   Garber, R.H. and Houston, B.R. (1959) An Inhibitor of Verticillium albo-atrum in Cotton Seed. Phytopathology, 49, 449-450.

[14]   Nana, W.L., Eke, P., Atogho, T.B., Toghueo, K.R.M., Chatue, C.G., Pokaa, N.A., Ekounda, T.V., Etoa, F.X. and Fekam, B.F. (2015) In-vitro Fungitoxic Effect of Cold and Hot Water Extracts of three Ocimum Species on Fungi Causing Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Root Rot in Cameroon. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences, 4, 596-606.

[15]   Huang, Q. and Lakshman, D.K. (2010) Effect of Clove Oil on Plant Pathogenic Bacteria and Bacterial Wilt of Tomato and Geranium. Journal of Plant Pathology, 92, 701-707.

[16]   USEPA/IRIS (2014) Integrated Risk Information System.