AS  Vol.8 No.11 , November 2017
Effects of Fertilizer Placement and Nitrogen Forms on Soil Nitrogen Diffusion and Migration of Red-Yellow Soil in China
Abstract: A better understanding of nitrogen (N) diffusion and transformation in soils could reveal the capacity of the biological inorganic N and improve the efficiency of N fertilizers. A field micro-plot experiment was carried out to study the effects of fertilization methods (mixed uniformly with 12 cm top soil, placed in holes at a 12-cm depth, or placed in furrows at a 12-cm depth) and forms of N fertilizers (urea and ammonium phosphate) on the dynamics of soil N’s vertical diffusion and horizontal migration in red-yellow soil. The soil inorganic N ( NH4+-N and NH3--N) content following point deep placement was greater than that from mixed or furrow applications. Under point placement, the migration of soil inorganic N in urea and ammonium phosphate treatments occurred in the 6 - 15 cm layer at a horizontal distance of 0 - 9 cm. However, the nutrient preservation capability of the soil receiving ammonium phosphate was greater than that receiving urea under point deep placement. Thus, point deep placement had a tendency to increase the inorganic N in the soil and reduce inorganic N loss, which probably occurred due to the reduced soil volume with which the N fertilizer was mixed. According to crop growth and fertilizer requirements, the optimized fertilizer placement and N species resulted in a continuously high nutrient supply to crops for 90 d. However, the effects of point deep placement on increasing the N-use efficiency and reducing N loss have to be evaluated under natural field conditions.
Cite this paper: Jiang, C. , Wang, H. , Lu, D. , Zhou, J. , Li, D. and Zu, C. (2017) Effects of Fertilizer Placement and Nitrogen Forms on Soil Nitrogen Diffusion and Migration of Red-Yellow Soil in China. Agricultural Sciences, 8, 1227-1238. doi: 10.4236/as.2017.811088.

[1]   Wang, S.J., Luo, S.S., Yue, S.C., Shen, Y.F. and Li, S.Q. (2016) Fate of 15N Fertilizer under Different Nitrogen Split Applications to Plastic Mulched Maize in Semiarid Farmland. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems, 105, 129-140.

[2]   Zhu, Z. and Chen, D. (2002) Nitrogen Fertilizer Use in China-Contributions to Food Production, Impacts on the Environment and Best Management Strategies. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems, 63, 117-127.

[3]   Davidson, E.A. (2009) The Contribution of Manure and Fertilizer Nitrogen to Atmospheric Nitrous Oxide since 1860. Nature Geoscience, 2, 659-662.

[4]   Reay, D.S., Davidson, E.A., Smith, K.A., Smith, P., Melillo, J.M., et al. (2002) Global Agriculture and Nitrous Oxide Emissions. Nature Climate Change, 2, 410-416.

[5]   Kettering, J., Ruidisch, M., Gaviria, C., Ok, Y.S. and Kuzyakov, Y. (2013) Fate of Fertilizer 15N in Intensive Ridge Cultivation with Plastic Mulching under a Monsoon Climate. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems, 95, 57-72.

[6]   Ling, D., Li, T., Wang, H.Y., Liu, X.W., Chen, Z.M., et al. (2015) Effects of Fertilization Methods and Forms of Nitrogen Fertilizers on Nitrogen Diffusion and Migration in Paddy Soil. Soils, 47, 478-482.

[7]   Sommer, S.G., Génermont, S., Cellier, P., Hutchings, N., Olesen, J.E., et al. (2003) Processes Controlling Ammonia Emission from Livestock Slurry in the Field. European Journal of Agronomy, 19, 465-486.

[8]   Wang, S. and Hou, Y. (2004) Changes of Soil Properties in the Courses of Urea Patch Diffusion. Journal of Agro-Environmental Science, 23, 263-266.

[9]   Zhang, C., Che, Y.P. and Li, Z.P. (2010) Migration and Transformation of Fertilizer Nitrogen in a Simulated Black Soil Column. Chinese Journal of Eco-Agriculture, 18, 683-688.

[10]   Hu, X.H., Zhou, J.C., Wang, Q.H. and Wang, X.C. (2015) Effects of Temperature, Water Content, and Fertilization on Transformation and Transportation of Nitrogen in the Black Soil with Sugar Beet (Beta vulgaris L.). Journal of Soil and Water Conservation, 29, 82-88.

[11]   Rees, R.M., Roelcke, M., Li, S.X., Wang, X.Q., Li, S.Q., et al. (1997) The Effect of Fertilizer Placement on Nitrogen Uptake and Yield of Wheat and Maize in Chinese Loess Soils. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems, 47, 81-91.

[12]   Yang, Y.M., Sun, Y.M., Jia, L.L., Meng, C.X. and Jia, S.L. (2016) Effect of Base Nitrogen Application Depth on Summer Maize Yield, Nitrogen Utilization Efficiency and Nitrogen Residue. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Fertilizer, 22, 830-837.

[13]   Yu, X.F., Gao, J.L., Ye, J., Wang, Z.G., Sun, J.Y., et al. (2013) Effects of Deep Loosening with Nitrogen Deep Placement on Root Growth, Grain Yield and Nitrogen Use Efficiency of Super High-Yield Spring Maize. Journal of Maize Sciences, 21, 114-119.

[14]   Wang, X.H., Liu, J. and Wang, Y.Q. (2002) Soil Nitrogen Transport Characteristics under Different Fertilizer Application Practice. Chinese Journal of Soil Science, 33, 202-206.

[15]   Cheng, D.J., Zhao, X.Y. and Fei, L.J. (2009) Laboratory Simulation Experiment on Nitrogen Transformation and Distribution under Condition of Film Hole Irrigation with Urea Solution. Transactions of the CSAE, 25, 58-62.

[16]   Li, W.B., Li, Y.D. and Wang, H. (2001) Application and Recovery of 15N Fertilizer for Spring Maize in Black of Jilin. Acta Pedologica Sinica, 38, 476-482.

[17]   Wang, H.Y. and Zhou, J.M. (2013) Root-Zone Fertilization—A Key and Necessary Approach to Improve Fertilizer Use Efficiency and Reduce Non-Point Source Pollution from the Cropland. Soils, 45, 785-790.

[18]   Hu, C.H., Luo, G.B., Zeng, J.H. and Pan, X.Z. (2011) Influence of Different Types of Slow-Release Nitrogen Fertilizer on Rice Yield and Nitrogen Fertilizer Use Efficiency. Chinese Agricultural Science Bulletin, 27, 174-177. 22643976039EC9DE&jid=5E9CCDE71739C40FFE50EEC7670185A4 &aid=A09F1D21AAC66A2D7D8ABB62C21F2E27&yid=9377ED8094509821&vid= DB817633AA4F79B9&iid=23CCDDCD68FFCC2F&sid=0584DB487B4581F4&eid= 6425DAE0271BB751&referenced_num=2&reference_num=14

[19]   Liu, T.Q., Fan, D.J., Zhang, X.X., Chen, J., Li, C.F., et al. (2015) Deep Placement of Nitrogen Fertilizers Reduces Ammonia Volatilization and Increases Nitrogen Utilization Efficiency in No-Tillage Paddy Fields in Central China. Field Crops Research, 184, 80-90.

[20]   Prasertsak, P., Freney, J.R., Denmead, O.T., Saffigna, P.G., Prove, B.G., et al. (2002) Effect of Fertilizer Placement on Nitrogen Loss from Sugarcane in Tropical Queensland. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems, 62, 229-239.

[21]   Chen, Z.M., Wang, H.Y., Liu, X.W., Liu, Y.Z., Gao, S.S., et al. (2016) The Effect of N Fertilizer Placement on the Fate of urea-15N and Yield of Winter Wheat in Southeast China. PLoS ONE, 11, e0153701.

[22]   Jarvis, S.C., Stockdale, E.A., Shepherd, M.A. and Powlson, D.S. (1996) Nitrogen Mineralization in Temperate Agricultural Soils: Processes and Measurement. Advances in Agronomy, 57, 187-235.

[23]   López-Bellido, L., Munoz-Romero, V., Fernández-García, P. and López-Bellido, R.J. (2014) Ammonium Accumulation in Soil: The Long-Term Effects of Tillage, Rotation and N Rate in a Mediterranean Vertisol. Soil Use and Management, 30, 471-479.

[24]   Sun, X.T. (1987) The Trend of 15N-Labeled Urea Applied to Wetland Rice Soil and Its Effect. Soils, 19, 177-182.

[25]   Xiao, X., Yang, L.L., Deng, Y.P. and Wang, J.F. (2012) Effects of Irrigation and Nitrogen Fertilization on Ammonia Volatilization in Paddy Field. Journal of Agro-Environment Science, 31, 2066-2071.