AA  Vol.7 No.4 , November 2017
Aspects of Sex Differences: Social Intelligence vs. Creative Intelligence
Abstract: In this article, we argue that there is an essential difference between social intelligence and creative intelligence, and that they have their foundation in human sexuality. For sex differences, we refer to the vast psychological, neurological, and cognitive science research where problem-solving, verbal skills, logical reasoning, and other topics are dealt with. Intelligence tests suggest that, on average, neither sex has more general intelligence than the other. Though people are equals in general intelligence, they are different in special forms of intelligence such as social intelligence and creative intelligence, the former dominant in women, the latter dominant in men. The dominance of creative intelligence in men needs to be explained. The focus of our research is on the strictly anthropological aspects, and consequently our explanation for this fact is based on the male-female polarity in the mating systems. Sexual dimorphism does not only regard bodily differences but implies different forms of sex life. Sex researchers distinguish between two levels of sexual intercourse: procreative sex and recreational sex, and to these we would add “creative sex.” On all three levels, there is a behavioral difference between men and women, including the subjective experience. These differences are as well attributed to culture as genetically founded in nature. Sexual reproduction is only possible if females cooperate. Their biological inheritance makes females play a decisive role in mate choice. Recreational sex for the purpose of pleasure rather than reproduction results from female extended sexual activity. Creative sex, on the contrary, is a specifically male performance of sexuality. We identify creative sex with eroticism. Eroticism evolved through the transformation of the sexual drive into a mental state of expectation and fantasizing. Hence, sex differences (that nowadays are covered up by cultural egalitarianism) continue to be the evolutionary origin of the difference between social and creative intelligence.
Cite this paper: Fellmann, F. and Redolfi, E. (2017) Aspects of Sex Differences: Social Intelligence vs. Creative Intelligence. Advances in Anthropology, 7, 298-317. doi: 10.4236/aa.2017.74017.

[1]   Baron-Cohen, S. (2012). The Essential Difference. New York, NY: Penguin.

[2]   Bartlett, F. C. (1995). Remembering. A Study in Experimental and Social Psychology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

[3]   Blaffer Hrdy, S. (2009). Mothers and Others. The Evolutionary Origins of Mutual Understanding. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

[4]   Buss, D. M. (2009). Evolutionary Psychology: The New Science of Mind. Boston: Pearson.

[5]   Casanova, G. (2013). Histoire de ma vie. Paris: Gallimard.

[6]   Damasio, A. R. (1999). The Feeling of What Happens. Body and Emotion in the Making of Consciousness. New York, NY: Harcourt.

[7]   Darwin, C. (2004). The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex. London: Penguin.

[8]   De Waal, F. B. M. (2011). What Is an Animal Emotion? Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1224, 191-206.

[9]   Dixson, A. F. (2009). Sexual Selection and the Origins of Human Mating Systems. Oxford/New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

[10]   Fellmann, F. (2017). Memory and the Timeless Time of Eros. Psychology, 8, 963-977.

[11]   Fellmann, F., & Walsh, R. (2013). Emotional Selection and Human Personality. Biological Theory, 7, nr. 2.

[12]   Fellmann, F., & Walsh, R. (2016). From Sexuality to Eroticism: The Making of the Human Mind. Advances in Anthropology, 6, 11-24.

[13]   Fischel, W. (1967). Vom Leben zum Erleben. München: Johann Ambrosius Barth.

[14]   Fisher, H. (2004). Why We Love? The Nature and Chemistry of Romantic Love. New York, NY: Griffin.

[15]   Frankfurt, H. G. (1995). The Importance of What We Care About. Philosophical Essays. Cambridge/New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

[16]   Frankfurt, H. G. (2004). The Reasons of Love. Oxford: Princeton.

[17]   Freud, S. (1948a). Gesammelte Werke XIV. London: Imago.

[18]   Freud, S. (1948b). Gesammelte Werke V. London: Imago.

[19]   Geary, D. C. (2010). Male, Female. The Evolution of Human Sex Differences. Washington DC: American Psychological Association.

[20]   Goleman, E. (1996). Emotional Intelligence. Why It Can Matter More than IQ. New York, NY: Bantam Books.

[21]   Gregory, P. (1996). Perfectly Correct. London: HarperCollins.

[22]   Groß, O. (1902). Die zerebrale Sekundärfunktion. Leipzig: F. C. W. Vogel.

[23]   Heymans, G. (1910). Die Psychologie der Frauen. Heidelberg: Carl Winter.

[24]   Humboldt von, W. (1960). Schriften zur Anthropologie und Geschichte. Darmstadt: Wiss. Buchgesellschaft.

[25]   Jong, E. (1973). Fear of Flying. New York, NY: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.

[26]   Joyce, J. (1961). Ulysses. New York, NY: Vintage Books.

[27]   Ledoux, J. (1996). The Emotional Brain: The Mysterious Underpinnings of Emotional Life. New York, NY: Simon and Schuster.

[28]   Leonhard, K. (1964). Instinkte und Urinstinkte in der menschlichen Sexualit?t. Stuttgart: Ferdinand Enke.

[29]   Lorenz, K. (1974). On Aggression. London: Mariner Books.

[30]   Mead, M. (2001). Male and Female, with an Introduction by Helen Fisher. London: Perennial.

[31]   Meyer, A. (2015). Adams Apfel und Evas Erbe. Wie die Gene unser Leben bestimmen und warum Frauen anders sind als Monner. München: C. Bertelsmann.

[32]   Miller, G. F. (2000). The Mating Mind. How Sexual Choice Shaped the Evolution of Human Nature. New York, NY: Random House.

[33]   Monteil, C. (2004). The Beauvoir Sisters: An Intimate Look at How Simone and Hélène Influenced Each Other and the World. Emeryville, CA: Seal Press.

[34]   Nettle, D. (2011). Evolutionary Perspectives on the Five-Factor Model of Personality. In D. M. Buss, & P. H. Hawley (Eds.), The Evolution of Personality and Individual Differences. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

[35]   Nin, A. (1977). Delta of Venus. New York, NY: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.

[36]   Pinker, St. (2002). The Blank Slate. The Modern Denial of Human Nature. London: Penguin.

[37]   Pinker, St. (2007). The Stuff of Thought. London: Penguin Books.

[38]   Pinker, Su. (2008). The Sexual Paradox. Men, Women, and the Real Gender Gap. New York, NY: Scribner.

[39]   Pinker, Su. (2014). The Village Effect: How Face-to-Face Contact Can Make Us Healthier, Happier, and Smarter. New York, NY: Random House Canada.

[40]   Putnam, R. D. (1995). Bowling Alone: America’s Declining Social Capital. Journal of Democracy, 6, 65-78.

[41]   Roche, Ch. (2009). Wetlands. New York, NY: Grove Press.

[42]   Scheler, M. (1957). Schriften aus dem Nachlass, Band I. Bern: Francke Verlag.

[43]   Schelsky, H. (1955). Soziologie der Sexualit?t. Reinbek bei Hamburg: Rowohlt.

[44]   Schopenhauer, A. (1966). The World as Will and Idea. New York, NY: Dover Pub- lications.

[45]   Shapiro, L. (2014). The Routledge Handbook of Embodied Cognition. London & New York, NY: Routledge.

[46]   Shiva, M., & Mies, M. (1993). Ecofeminism. London, New York, NY: Zed Books.

[47]   Simmel, G. (1911). Philosophische Kultur. Gesammelte Essais. Potsdam: Gustav Kiepenheuer.

[48]   Stueber, K. (2006). Rediscovering Empathy. Cambridge: MIT Press.

[49]   Symons, D. (1981). The Evolution of Human Sexuality. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

[50]   Thornhill, R., & Gangestad, S. W. (2008). The Evolutionary Biology of Human Female Sexuality. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

[51]   Tiemersma, D. (1989). Body Schema and Body Image. An Interdisciplinary and Philosophical Study. Amsterdam/Lisse: Swettz & Zeitlinger.

[52]   Tomasello, M. (1999). The Cultural Origin of Human Cognition. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

[53]   Tomasello, M. (2014). A Natural History of Human Thinking. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

[54]   Wolpert, L. (2014). Why Can’t a Man Be More Like a Woman? New York, NY: Skyhorse Publishing.

[55]   Woolf, V. (1929). A Room of One’s Own. London: Penguin.